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CHINA 






CATALOGUE 



OF THE 

COLLECTION 

OF 

CHINESE 
EXHIBITS 

AT THE, 

LOUISIANA 

PURCHASE 

EXPOSITION 



ST. LOUIS, 1904 











CATALOGUE 



-OF THE- 



COLLECTION 



-OF- 



Chinese Exhibits 



-AT THE- 



LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION 



ST. LOUIS, 190-4 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF 
THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. OF CUSTOMS. 



• HALLCROSS PRINT, ST. LOUIS. 



' \T\ I C G 



COPYRIGHTED, 1904, 

Y THE IMPERIAL CHINESE COMMISSION 

LOU.S.ANA PURCHASE EXPOS,T.ON. 



E? 5?. 1906 
D.ofD. 



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:ned. 



\ 

, 1901. 

32..... 

n 

896 . . . 
, 1899. 

1862.... 

1862... 

7 

1 

54 

r, 1896. 
r,1896. 

I 

2 

1860... 
l859 . . . 

7 

7 

6 

7 

9 

889.... 
1897... 
I 

I. 

i7 

!7 





C3 3 



CHINESE EMPIRE 



. 



PORTS AND STATIONS IN CHINA 

OPEN TO FOREIGN TRADE. 



Name of Port. 



Province in 

which the port is 

situated. 



Treaty by which opened. 



Date on which 

the Custom House 

was opened. 



Newchwang. . . 
Port Arthur. .. 

Talienwan " 

Tientsin Chihli... 

Chinwangtao " 

Chefoo. Shantung 

Weihaiwci " 

Kiaochow " 

Chungking Szechuen 

Wanhsien " 

Ichang Hupeh . . 

Shasi " 

Yochow. " 

Hankow " 



Shengkin^ 
Liaotung P'insula 



British Treaty of 1858.... 
Leased to Russia in 1898. 



May, 1864 



Changsha Hunan 

Kiukiang Kiangsi 

Ngankin Anhui 

Wuhu " 

Nanking Kianesu. . . . 

Chinkiang •' 

Shanghai '• 

Woosung " 

Soochow " 

Hangchow Chekiang. . . 

Ningpo " 

Wenchow " 

Santu ' Fukien. 

Foochow " 

Amoy " 

Swatow Kwangtung 

Canton " 

Samshui " 

Wuchow " 

Hueichow " 

Kongmoon " 

Kwangchowwan . . " 

Kiungchow -" 

Pakhoi 

Nanning Kwangsi .... 

Lungchow " 

Mengtsz Yunnan . . . 

Szemao " " 

Tengyueh " 

Yatung Thibet 

Kowloon Kwangtung 

Lappa " 



British and French Treaties of I860 

Voluntarily opened by China 

British and French Treaties of 1858 

Leased to Great Britain in 1898 

Leased to Germany in 1898 

British Chefoo Convention of 1876 

British Commercial Treaty of 1902 

British Chefoo Convention of 1876 

Japanese Treaty of 1895 

Voluntarily opened by China 

British Treaty of 1858 and Provisional Regula- 
tions of 1861 '. 

British Commercial Treaty of 1902 

Provisional Regulations of 1861. 

British Commercial Treaty of 1902 

British Chefoo Convention of 1876 

French Treaty of 1858 

British Treaty of 1858 

British Treaty of 1812 

Voluntarily opened by China 

Japanese Treaty of 1895. 



Mav, 1861 

December, 1901. 
March, 1862..... 



July, 1899... 
March, 1891; 



April, 1877 

October, 1896 . . . 
November, 1899. 

January, 1862. .. 

January. 1862. . . 



April, 1877.. 
May, 1899 . . 
April. 1863 . 
1854. 



British Treaty of 1842 

British Cheefoo Convention of 1876. 

Voluntarily opened by China. 

British Treaty of 1842. 



British, French and American Treaties of 1858. 

British Treaty of 1842 

Burmah Convention of 1897 



September, 1896. 
September, 1896. 

May, 1861 

April, 1877 

May, 1899 

July, 1861 

April, 1862 

January, 1860... 
October, 1859 . . . 

June, 1897 

June, 1897 



British Commercial Treaty of 1902. 



Lease to France in 1898 

British aud French Treaties of 1858. 
British Chefoo Convention of 1876. . 



April, 1876. 
April, 1877. 



French Treaty of 1885 & Additional Con. of 1887. 

Supplementary Con. bet. France and China 1895. 

Burmah Convention of 1897 

Sikkim-Thibet Convention of 1890 

British Opium Agreement of 1886 

Portuguese Convention of 1886 



June, 1889... 
August, 1889. 
January, 1897 
May, 1902 . . . 
May, 1894. . . . 
April, 1887... 
April, 1887... 



I 





IMPERIAL CHINESE COMMISSION. 



Imperial High Commissioner — 

His Royal Highness. PRINCE PU LUN 



President, ex-officio — 

SIR ROBERT HART, BART. G.C.M.G, 

Inspector General of Customs, Peking. 



Imperial Vice-Commissioners — 

MR. WONG KAI KAIL 
MR. FRANCIS A. CARL 



Secretary to the Commission, 
D. Percerois. 



Assistant, 

T. A. Berjhet 



OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION 



•OF- 



EXHIBITS. 



EDUCATION. 

Group 1 — Elementary Education. 

Group 2 — Secondary Education. 

Group 3 — Higher Education. 

Group 4 — Special Education in Fine Arts. 

Group 5 — Special" Education in Agriculture. 

Group G — Special Education in Commerce and Industry. 

Group 7 — Education of Defectives. 

Group 8 — Special Forms of Education — Text Books — School Fur- 
niture .and School Appliances. 



ART. 



Group 9 — Paintings and Drawing's. 

Group 10 — Engravings and Lithographs. 

Group 11 — Sculpture. 

Group 12 — Architecture. 

Group 13 — Loan Collection. 

Group 14 — Original Objects of Art Workmanship. 



LIBERAL ARTS. 

Group 15 — Typography — Various Printing Processes. 

Group 16 — Photography. 

Group 17 — Books and Publications — Book Binding. 

Group 18 — Maps and Apparatus for Geography, Cosmography, 

Topography. 
Group 19 — Instruments of Precision*, Philosophical Apparatus. 

Etc. — Coins and Medals. 
Group 20 — Medicine and Surgery. 
.Group 21 — Musical Instruments. 



CLASSIFICATION. 



Group 22 — Theatrical Appliances and Equipment. 

Group 23 — Chemical and Pharmaceutical Arts. 

Group 24- — Manufacture of Paper. 

Group 25 — Civil and Military Engineering. 

Group 26 — Models, Plans and Designs for Public Works. 

Group 27 — Architectural Engineering. 



MANUFACTURES. 

Group 28 — Stationery. 

Group 29 — Cutlery. 

Group 30— Silversmith's and Goldsmith's Ware. 

Group 31 — Jewelry. 

Group 32 — Clock and Watch Making. 

Group 33 — Productions in Marble, Bronze, Cast and Wrought Iron. 

Group 34 — Brushes, Fine Leather Articles, Fancy Articles and 

Basket Work. 
Group 35- — Articles for Traveling and for Camping ; India Rubber 

and Gutta Percha Industries. 
Group 36 — Toys. 
Group 37 — Decoration and Fixed Furniture of Buildings and 

Dwellings. 
Group 38 — Office and Household Furniture. 
Group 39 — Stained Glass. 

Group 40 — Mortuary Monuments and Undertakers' Furnishings. 
Group 41 — Hardware. 
Group 42 — Paper Hanging. 

Group 43 — Carpets, Tapestries and Fabrics for Upholstery. 
Group 44 — Upholsterers' Decorations. 
Group 45 — Ceramics. 

Group 46 — Plumbing and Sanitary Materials. 
Group 47 — Glass and Crystal." 

Group 48 — Apparatus and Processes for Heating and Ventilation. 
Group 49 — Apparatus and Methods, not Electrical, for Lighting. 
Group 50 — Textiles. 
Group 51 — Equipment and Processes used in the manufacture of 

Textile Fabrics. 
Group 52 — Equipment and Processes used in Bleaching, Dyeing r 

Printing and Finishing Textiles in their various 

stages. 
Group 53 — Equipment and Processes used in Sewing and Making 

Wearing Apparel. 
Group 54 — Threads and Fabrics of Cotton. 

Group 55 — Threads and Fabrics of Flax, Hemp, Etc. ; Cordage. 
Group 56 — Yarns and Fabrics of Wool. 
Group 57 — Silk and Fabrics of Silk. 
Group 58 — Laces, Embroidery and Trimmings. 



CLASSIFICATION. XI 



Group 59 — Industries producing" Wearing- Apparel for Men. 

.Women and Children. 
Group 60 — Leather, Boots and Shoes, Furs and Skins, Fur Clothing. 
Group 61 — Various Industries connected with Clothing. 



MACHINERY. 



Group 62 — Steam Engines. 
Group 63 — Various Motors. 
Group 64 — General Machinery. 
Group 65 — Machine Tools. 
Group *^J — Arsenal Tools. 



ELECRTICITY. 

Group 67 — Machines for generating and using Electricity 

Group 68 — Electro-Chemistry. 

Group 69 — Electric Lighting. 

Group TO — Telegraphy and Telephony. 

Group 71 — Various Applications of Electricity. 



TRANSPORTATION. 

Group 72 — Carriages and Wheelwrights' Work — Automobiles and 

Cycles. 
Group 73 — Saddlery and Harness. 
Group 74 — Railways : Yards. Stations, Freight Houses, Terminal 

Facilities of all kinds. 
Group 75 — Material and Equipment used in the Mercantile Marine. 
Group 76 — Material and Equipment of Naval Services; Naval 

Warfare. 
Group 77 — Aerial Navigation. 



AGRICULTURE. 

Group 78 — Farm Equipment — Methods of Improving Lands. 

Group 79 — Agricultural Implements and Farm Machinery. 

Group 80 — Fertilizers. 

Group 81 — Tobacco. 

Group 82 — Appliances and Methods used in Agricultural Indus- 
tries. 

Group 83 — Theory of Agriculture — Agricultural Statistics. 



XII 



CLASSIFICATION: 



Group 84- 

Gronp Sb- 

Group S6- 

Group 87- 

Group 88- 

Group 89- 

Group 90- 

Group 91- 

Group 92- 

Group 93- 

Group 94- 

Group 95- 

Group 96- 

Group 97- 

Group 98- 

Group 99- 

Group 100- 

Group 101- 

Group 102- 

Group 103- 

Group 104- 



-Vegetable Food Products — Agricultural Seeds. 

-Animal Food Products. 

-Equipment and Methods Employed in the Preparation 

of Foods. 
-Farinaceous Products and their Derivatives. 
-Bread and Pastry. 

-Preserved Meat, Fish, Vegetables and Fruit. 
-Sugar and Confectionery — Condiments and Relishes. 
-Waters.' 

-Wines and Brandies. 
-Syrups and Liqueurs — Distilled Spirits — Commercial 

Alcohol. 
-Fermented Beverages. 
-Inedible Agricultural Products. 

-Useful Insects and their Products — Plant Diseases. 
-Horses and Mules. 
-Cattle. 
-Sheep. 
-Goats, Etc. 
-Swine. 
-Dogs. 

-Cats, Ferrets, etc. 
-Poultry and Birds. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Pomology, 



Group 105 — Appliances and Methods of 

Floriculture and Arboriculture. 
Group 10G — Appliances and Methods of Viticulture. 
Group 107— Pomology. 

Group 108 — Trees, Shrubs, Ornamental Plants and Flowers 
Group 109 — Plants of the Conservatory. 
Group 110 — Seeds and Plants for Gardens and Nurseries. 
Group 111 — Arboriculture and Fruit Culture. 



Viticulture, 



FORESTRY. 



Group 112 — Appliances and Processes used in Forestry. 

Group 113 — Products of the Cultivation of Forests and of Forest 

Industries. 
Group 111 — Appliances for Gathering Wild Crops and Products 

obtained. 



CLASSIFICATION. XIII 



IV1INES AND METALLURGY. 

Group 115— Working Q f Mines, Ore Beds and Stone Quarries. 

Group 116— Minerals and Stones, and their utilization. 

Group 117— Mine Models, Maps, Photographs. 

Group 118 — Metallurgy. 

Group 119 — Literature of Mining, Metallurgy, etc. 



FISH AND GAME. 

Group 120— Hunting Equipment. 

Group 121 — Products of Hunting. 

Group 122 — Fishing Equipment and Products. 

Group 123 — Products of Fisheries. 

Group 124 — Fish Culture. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Group 125 — Literature. 
Group 126 — Somatology. 
Group 127 — Ethnology. 
Group 128 — Ethnography. 



SOCIAL ECONOMY. 

Group 129— Study and Investigation of Social and Economic Con- 
ditions. 
Group 130 — Economic Resources and Organization. 
Group 131— State Regulation of Industry and Labor. 
Group 132 — Organization of Industrial Workers. 
Group 133 — Methods of Industrial Remuneration. 
Group 134 — Co-operative Institutions. 
Group 135— Provident Institutions. 
Group 136 — Housing of the Working Classes. 
Group 137 — The Liquor Question. 
Group 138 — General Betterment Movements. 
Group 139 — Charities and Correction. 
Group 140 — Public Health. 
Group 141 — Municipal Improvement. 



PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

Group 142— Training of the Child and Adult— Theory and Practice. 
Group 143— Games and Sports for Children and Adults. 
Games for various Athletic organizations. 
Group 144 — Equipment for Games and Sports. 



CATALOGUE 



-OF THE- 



NEWCHWANG COLLECTION 



GROUP 16. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

172 Photograph of Lao-Yeh-Ko, Temple of the Tutelary deity 

of Newchwang. (Yingkow.) 

185 Scenery — showing main street of Newchwang. 

191 Album— " ' " " '■" 

192 Panoramic view of Newchwang Anchorage. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

1 Map of Central and South Manchuria. 

2 Chart of Liao River. 

3 Plan of Newchwang (Yingkow.) 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

6 Tou } or Chinese Peck. (10 Sheng.) Standard measure 

for grain, etc. 

7 Half Ton, (5 Sheng.) Standard measure for grain, etc. 

8 Sheng, or Chinese. Pint (1-10 Ton.) Standard measure 

for grain, etc. 

9 Half Sheng. Standard measure for grain, etc. 

9a Collection of coins struck by the Imperial mint at Kirin, 

Kirin Province, Manchuria. 

The Kirin Mint originally formed part of the arsenal, and consists 
of 20 distinct sets of machinery for the manufacture of coins. These 



Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



are capable of producing 6 to 7 thousands taels weight of silver coins per 
day in summer, when 11 hours represent a working day. In winter 
when a working day is shorter, only about, half the quantity is manu- 
factured. The same machinery is capable of producing 35,000 copper 
coins in a full working day. The greater part of the machinery is 
driven by steam, but hand power is also used. There are about 160 
workmen employed, most of whom are Cantonese. Their w&ges 
range up to $70 Mex. per month. The coins are similar in size and 
appearance to those produced at the Moukden Mint, the difference 
is mainly the inscription. The denominations are also the same, 
viz., silver dollars, half dollars, twenty, ten and five cent pieces, 
and the one cent copper cash. The silver is procured from the pro- 
vincial treasury, and is also bought from the public, but in smaller 
quantities. There are three grades of silver used, the alloy being 
copper. The dollars contain 10% of copper, the half dollar 
14%, twenty, ten and five cents 18%. The copper is imported in 
ingots from Shanghai and undergoes treatment at the mint. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

9b Collection of coins struck by the Imperial mint at Mouk- 

den, Fengtien Province, Manchuria. 

The Imperial Mint at Moukden, which was originally intended 
for an arsenal, consists of extensive foreign and semi-foreign struct- 
ures, in addition to the usual Chinese official dwellings and out- 
houses. It is situated in enclosed grounds outside the east city gate. 
The main entrances are typical Chinese architecture, but the work- 
shops and machine rooms are solid brick and stone buildings. The 
oid minting machinery, of German origin, is being re- 
placed by seven modern plants, manufactured in Scot- 
land.. One of these is already set up, and turns out 14,000 
coins of any desired denomination in a day of 12 working hours. 
The dies, and all repairs are made on the premises, for which purpose 
modern machinery is provided. The motive power is supplied by a 
powerful steam engine, and skilled labor is represented by 50 men, most 
of whom are Southerners. The director of the mint is an expectant 
Tao-tai, he is under the control of the Tartar-General of 
the Province. The coinage consists of silver dollars, half dollars, 
twenty, ten and five cent pieces, besides one cent copper coins. On 
the adverse side of all coins is represented the Chinese dragon; on 
the reverse is the designation of the coin, its origin and value, in Chinese 
and Manchu characters ; and, in the case of the dollar and one cent 
pieces,, the word Fengtien appears romanized additionally. An at- 
temp was made to introduce the silver tael coin, but met with dis- 
favor, and was withdrawn before circulation. The silver employed 
in the manufacture of coins is bought locally, and is melted down 
on the mint premises. The copper used is imported in ingots and 
treated on the premises similar to the silver. Good skilled work- 
men's wages range from Mex. $50 to Mex. $80 per month. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 3 

GROUP 23. 

CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

10 Soda. 

11 Potash. An efflorescence from the soil obtained by wash- 

ing and melting- into bricks. 

12 Salt. Evaporated from sea water. 

13 Salt Brick. " 

20 Indigo, liquid. A blue vegetable dye obtained from sev- 

eral indigoferous plants, as Polygonum tinet- 
arum, Indigofera tinctoria, and others unknown 
to foreigners or not identifiable. 

14 Liquorice Root. The dried root of Glycyrrhisa glabra 

and G. echinata, very sweet. In Chinese pharmacy 
next in importance only to Ginseng. To it are at- 
tributed rejuvenating and highly nutritive qualities. 

15 Ginseng, wild, red. Root of the Panax Ginseng. The 

Chinese consider it a most powerful and even life- 
prolonging medicine, hence its high price. 

1G . Ginseng, wild, white. 

IT Ginseng, cultivated. 

IS Ginseng, leaf. 

19 Ginseng Plant. 

21 Opium, raw. Exuded juice of the Papavcr somniforum. 

used medicinally, and smoked as a narcotic. 
'22 Plantago major scm. Diuretic, pectoral, demulcent, 

tonic, and anti-rheumatic. 

23 Hctcrotropa asaroidcs. Emetic, diaphoretic and diuretic 

24 Carum carui. Seeds of a biennial umbelliferous plant, of 

a pleasant aromatic taste. In abdominal disorders. 

20 Pterocarpus flavus. Tonic, diuretic and as a dye. 

26 Gentian sp. As an aperient, antidote to poison in cases of 

snake bite, jaundice, etc. 
2? Epledra flava. Diophrodetic. 

2s Eqnisetum arvense. For polishing purposes and intern- 

ally for weak or sore eyes. 
20 Clematis tubulosa. m Vermifuge. 

30 Ping pei. Taken for colds, coughs, asthma, etc. Demul- 

cent. 

31 Thalictrum rubellum. Antidotal, tonic and derivative. 

32 Primus, sp. As a laxative. 

33 Convulvulus sp. A species of ginseng (bastard ginseng) 



are much the same as ginseng, for which it is 
often fraudulently substituted. 

34 Ptarmica Siberica. Tonic. 

35 Atraetylodes rubra. Warm aromatic taste. Supposed to 

be strengthening and conducive to longevity. 



Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



Exhibit 
Number. 

36 Dictamnus f rax in el I a. A bark. To purify the blood. 

37 Adenophora trachelisides. To bring out eruptions of 

smallpox. Also for coloring candles. 

38 Kadsura Sinensis. Tonic and aphrodisiac. 

39 Caragana Hava. A root used as a tonic. 

40 " Ccrasus cammnnis. Dropsy, rheumatism, etc. 

41 Polyponls sp. A fungus growing on the elm tree. 

42 Poly gala tennifolix. A valuable medicine in Chinese 

pharmacy. In cynanche, coughs, etc. Imparts 
strength to the body and vigor to the mind. 

43 Medicated wine. The spirit distilled from the tall mil- 

let (Sorghum vulg.) to which varied tinctures and 
extracts of medicinal herbs are added. Medicin- 
ally, tonic. 



GROUP 24. 
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

44 Hemp fibre paper. Made of the fibre of different hemp- 

like plants, such as Bohmeria, Carchoirns pirifor- 
mis, Urtica nivea, etc. Instead of glass for window 
panes, it is neatly pasted on the window frames, 
then oiled, making it semi-transparent. As Man- 
churian houses always face the south, ample 
light enters the room through these paper 
windows. 

45 Hemp fibre paper, oiled. Used as a water and damp proof 

packing for valuable goods. It is exceedingly 
strong and tough. 

46 Corean paper. Used the same as No. 44, to which it is 

far superior. 

GROUP 27. 

ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING. 

4Y Typical Manchurian house. Scale 1:13. The front in- 

variably faces South, In summer the windows are 
covered with gauze ; in winter with paper and 
oiled. (Nos. 44, 46.) 

GROUP 28. 

STATIONERY. 

150 Plavingr cards. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 5 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

48 Leather saddle flaps. 

49 " Official's cap feather case. 

50 " Card case. 

51 Official's bead case. . , 

52 " Official's bead and hat case. 

53 . " Hat tassel case. 

54 Traveling smoker's requisites. 

55 " Traveling- dressing case. 

5(5 Cart side covers. To prevent the fur or silk lining 

on the inside of the carts being soiled by the shoes. 
The natives sit cross-legged in these carts 

182-183 Leather table covers. 

184 Flint and steel pouch. The steel is part of the 

pouch the latter contains the tinder (made of ma- 
cerated and pounded tobacco stalks) and flint. This 
pouch is attached to the tobacco pouch by 
string. 

GROUP 41. 
HARDWARE. 

90 Blacksmith's bellows. Scale, 1 :2. 

91 Street turner's lathe. An itinerant turner's whole equip- 

ment.. The turner, sitting on the plank, operates 
the lathe with his right hand ; holds the tool with 
his left and keeps the 'object to be turned be- 
tween centers with his foot by means of a 
string embracing the lathe feeds. 



GROUP 42. 
PAPER HANGING. 

57 Wall paper, various colors. 

GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

58 Goat's hair felt carpet, white. 

59 Cow's hair felt carpet, brown. 

60 Camel's hair rugs, 5' ll"x4' 1". 

61 Camel's hair rugs, 5' 2"x2' 7". 



Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



GROUP 50. 

TEXTILES. 

Exhibit 

Number. . . -- ' A 

179 Cotton spinning wheel, Scale, 1-4. 

GROUP 51. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 

187 Hand loom. Scale, 1-4. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

62 Cotton Cloth. 

GROUP 55. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER 

THAN COTTON. 

180 Hemp cable. 

63 Hemp rope 

64 Jute rope. (Sida ■ sp.) 

189 Spinning Jenny. Scale, 1 :4. 

190 Rope making machinery. Scale, 1 :4. 

GROUP 57. 
SILKS AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

65 Silk, raw, wild. Winter 1st quality. This silk is spun by the 

worm of Bombvx Pemyi, which feeds on the leaves 
of a species of oak, the Quercus Mongohca. 
Cocoons are gathered twice a year. The silk of 
worms emerged in spring, is superior to those 
which are fed on the mature leaves late in sum- 
mer. 

QQ Silk, raw, wild, winter second quality. 

6 7 " " " spring, third quality. 

^g « " " . " fourth quality. 

69 Silk, Raw, refuse. Made with tire outer covering of the 
cocoons and refuse in Reeling. f/ f - 

Silk Pongee, natural color 10 yds. 



70 



n 



71 Silk Pongee; dyed 10 yds. IfTxlSU 

72 Silk Pongee, dyed 10 yds. 34 rf8« 

c:n, D rt «« 00 a^a 10 vds 26 xiy y 2 



73 



Silk Pongee, dyed 10 Y ds 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



Exhibit 

Number. 

74 Silk Pongee, dved 10 yds. 00"xl9^" 

76 Silk Pongee, dyed 20 yds. 32"xl9 * 

TT Silk Pongee, dved 19 vds. 6"xl8 " 

78 Silk Pongee, dyed 20 yds. 32"xl9 " 

This silk is woven with the thread from the Bombyx Pemyi cocoon. 

GROUP. 58 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

79 Silk Embroidered pillow ends. 

80 Silk Embroidered ear covers.- 

GROUP 60. 
LEATHER, BOOT AND SHOES. 

81 Leather shoes for men. 
82a Leather shoes for boys. 
82b Moccasins. 

83 Cow hair felt shoes for men. 

84 Goat hair felt shoes for men. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

85 Coiffure of Manchu women. 

86 Camel hair socks. 

87 Woolen socks. 

88 Woolen socks. Worn in winter by Chinese, not Manchu. 

89 Riding whip. 

GROUP 72. 
CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHTS' WORK. 



92 Passenger cart. Usually as represented, but those of of- 

ficials and the opulent are lined with furs and silks. 
Cost, Mex., $120. 

93 Goods Cart. Very strong and are drawn by from 3 to 7 

mules. These carts carry up to two tons in weight 
and travel in large caravans for mutual protec- 
tion, hundreds of miles during the winter when 
the ground is frozen. Cost, Mex., $90. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

9J: Model of Coasting Junk. Carrying capacity 213y 2 tons,, 

manned by twenty men ; trades in Gulf of Pechili 
and coastwise. Cost, Mex., $22,000. 



Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



Exhibit 
Number. 

95 Model of Cargo Junk. Carrying capacity 14^ tons. 

Manned by eight men. For lightening pur- 
poses on Liao River, carrying goods to and from 
vessels in Newchwang. Cost, Mex., $2,250. 

96 Model of River Boat. Carrying capacity 5-^ tons. 

Manned by five men. These boats are the real car- 
riers of the staple produce of Manchuria, viz. : 
Beans to Newchwang. They come from Tiehling, 
the great entrepot, where the beans are accumu- 
lated and stacked during the winter awaiting 
the opening of the ice-bound Liao. Cost, Mex., 
$252. 

97 Model of Sampan. Carrying capacity 1^4 tons - 

Manned by one or two men. Plying on the river 
carrying passengers to and from vessels in the 
harbor. Also employed in fishing, etc. Cost, Mex., 
$120. 



GROUP 79. 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND FARM MACHINERY. 



99 


Hand plow. 


100 


Spade. 


101 


Shovel, wooden. 


102 


Hay fork. Made of a tree branch. 


103 


Grubbing hoe, iron. 


104 


Weeding hoe, iron. 


105 


Stalk rake, iron. 


106 


Sickle. 


176 


Hay fork. 


177 


Grubbing fork. 


178 


Rake, wooden. 


107 


Feed (chaff) cutter. 




GROUP 81. 




TOBACCO. 



108 Tobacco leaf, 1st quality. Xicotiana fruticosa varieties of 

full flavor and strength. In color it varies from a 
pale yellow to a deep chocolate. Tied into bun- 
dles, "etc., dried in open air. In Manchuria it is 
smoked without any preparation. 

109 Tobacco leaf, 1st quality. 

110 " " 2nd " 

111 " " 3rd " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



GROUP 82. 

APPLIANCES AND METHODS USED IN AGRICULTURAL 
INDUSTRIES. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
112 Model of Oil Mill complete. For making bean oil and bean 

cake. 

The beans are placed in a hopper attached to a frame work drawn 
by two mules. In this frame is also mounted a circular stone about 
(> feet diameter and 3 feet broad. It weighs about 6 J tons on its 
periphery. From the hopper the beans are scattered in a circular stone 
path, about 10 feet in diameter, immediately in front of the upper roll- 
ing stone. This stone passing over the beans crushes them flat into 
flakes. These flakes are then scraped to the e,dge of the stone path 
by a scraper placed behind the rolling stone, with which 
it moves and resting- diagonally on the stone path. A 
portion of the crushed bean is then taken and weighed 
(about 71 lbs.). This is then placed on a cloth over a 
grate in a steaming pan and covered up. When hot it is taken in 
the cloth to the press where a workman has placed a laterally flexible 
thin wooden cylinder — like a seive frame — inside of two superposed 
iron rings, having previously put three bundles of straw radially spread- 
ing over the edges of the rings, i. e., the straw is between the iron rings 
and the wooden cylinder. The steamed beans are now poured into this 
cylinder, the workmen stamping or treading it hard into shape. Then 
he takes the cylinder off and skillfully covers the cake to the ends 
of the straw, which were spreading over the rims of the rings, places 
four iron bars crosswise over the straw. These bars hold it 
in place, and preparation is made for another cake on top of the first 
one as just described until there are five. As each successive 
cake is formed and the bars crossed on them, the bars under it which 
served to keep the straw in place for the cake under it are withdrawn. 
It w r ill be understood that there are now five cakes, each completely 
developed in straw on top of each other. They are now as one body 
moved into place under the press by means of wooden bars. Flat, 
strong pieces of wood are now placed on this, and over this between 
the legs of the press, reaching from one leg to the other, are heavy 
wooden bars; now a wooden wedge is inserted on each side. They 
are driven in slowly at first with alternate blows by men with 
the heavy iron hammers hanging from a frame. The oil is oozing 
out, fast now from the straw, and runs into a receptacle below. 
AYedging is now discontinued until oil ceases about to flow : another 
cross bar is added, and again wedging begins, and so on until al- 
most all the oil is extracted; i. c., 7% to 10% of the original weight 
of the beans. All the oil is not extracted as the residuing cake 
would not be marketable in Southern China, etc. The pressing 
finished, the cakes now hard and solid, are taken from the press, 
their edges trimmed with a spokeshave-like knife, and are now 
ready for the market. It weighs about 6-t lbs. 



10 Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



These last eight years, steam power oil mills have been erected 
tfy enterprising native merchants. The proceedure is exactly the 
same with two exceptions. (1) The beans are crushed between 
two horizontal iron rollers, running at equal speed. (2) An ordin- 
ary screw press is substituted for the wedge press here described. 

Exhibit 

Number. 
174 Oil Basket. Made of wicker work, the inside is 

covered with paper and painted with a. starch- 
like paste, used for storing and carrying oil. 



GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS^AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

113 Wheat. 

114 Barley. 

115 Millet, tall. Sorghum Vulgarc. 

116 Millet, tall, husked. Sorghum Vulgare. 

117 Millet. Setaria Italica. 

118 Millet, tall, husked. Setaria Italica. 

119 Millet. Panicum miliaceum. 

120 Millet, white. Panicum miliacum. 

121 Rice. 

122 Maize. 

123 Beans, yellow. 

124 Beans, green, large. 

125 Beans, green, small. 
126. Beans, white. 

127 Beans, red. 

128 Beans, spotted. 

129 Beans, black. 

130 Pearl Barley. 

131 Water Melon Seed. The melon is cultivated for its seed 

only and not eaten. 

132 Mushrooms, yellow. A plant of the natural order of 

Fungus. Found wild and dried. Preferred to the 
more delicate mushroom. 

133 Fungus. A parasitic fungus growing on trees. 

134 Bean Oil. 

173 Bean Cake. Residue of the beans after the oil has 

been pressed out. The big hollow on one side 
is caused by the tied ends of straw bundles en- 
veloping the cake while under the press. , On 
close examination even the impression of the 
individual straws may be detected. A staple 
export of Newchwang. • Used as food for cat- 
tle and' as manure, especially on sugar planta- 
tions. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 11 



Exhibit 
Number. 

135 Castor Oil. For lubricating purposes mainly, though 

in some parts of Manchuria, it is also used in 
the preparation of food. 

136 Sesamum Seed. 

137 Sesamum Seed Oil. 



GROUP 86. 

EQUIPMENT AND METHOD EMPLOYED IN THE PREPARATION 

OF FOODS. 

141 Model of Flour Mill. Drawn by 2 mules. 

142 " " Flour Bolting Box. The ground wheat flour 

is put into the square seive which hangs by four 
cords inside the box. The doors are then closed 
and the miller steps alternately on the double ped- 
estal outside the box, this being connected with the 
seive on the inside by means of a double bar. Be- 
tween these bars is a post buried w r ith the lower end 
in the ground. There are also two cross pieces 
in this double connecting bar, which impinge 
with great force on the sides of the stationary 
upright bar, this causing the flour in the seive 
to be thrown to the right hand and left sliding 
on the seive bottom, thus accomplishing sift- 
ing without the loss of a particle of flour. 

175 Samshoo Basket. Made of wickerwork, lined with 

paper which is painted with a starchy paste. 

181 Samshoo Bottle. Made of wickerwork, lined with paper 

which is painted with a starchy paste. 



GROUP 87. 
FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. 



138 Wheat Flour. 

139 Flour of tl 

140 Vermicelli. 



139 Flour of the Tall Millet. Sorghum Vulgar e. 



GROUP 89. 

PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

144 Frogs, dried. A delicacy especially the fat and the 

ova. 



12 Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 



GROUP 93. 

DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL ALCOHOL. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
144 Samshoo. A spirit distilled from the tall millet. The 

chief seat of distillery is in Liaoyang City. 

Consumed hot at meals. 



GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

145 Hemp. Bochmcria nivca. 

14G Jute. Sida tilocfolia. 

GROUP 96. 
USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

147 Oak Silk Cocoons. Bombyx Pcrnyi Cocoons with live 

Chrysalis. 

148 Oak Leaves. Leaves of a species of stunted oak. 

The Qucrcus Magnolia on which is fed the Bom- 
byx Pcrnyi worm. 

149 Oak Silk Cocoons pierced. Cocoons of the B. Pcrnyi 

from which the moths have emerged. 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

151 Hsin-Yen Stone. Quarried in the Hsin-Yen district. To 

make imitation jade stone ware, such as the fol- 
lowing : 

152 Soap boxes. 

153 Vase for holding Chinese pens. 
154-155 Water pots to hold water for rubbing ink. 

156-157 Boxes to hold stamp pad and seals on which owner's 
signature is engraved. 

158 Snuff bottle. 

159 Bangles (Armlets). 

160-162 Ornaments worn on the chest as charms. 

163 Opium pipe bowl. 

164 Opium pipe bowl holder. 

165 Opium pipe bowl mouthpiece. 

166 Tobacco pipe bowl mouthpiece. 

167 Thumb ring. 

168 Samshu Cup. 
16!) Tea Cup. 

170-171 Tobacco pipe mouthpieces. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 13 



GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

Stilt-walking. 

Stilt-walking is a sport much practiced throughout China 
mostly amongst the poorer classes. It consists of walking on two 
stilts, one attached to each leg, — The foot rests on a piece of wood 
protruding from the stilt, and the leg, i. e., the ankle to just below 
the knee, to give free action, is made fast to the stilt with cord. 
The natives start practicing very young with short stilts, and by 
degrees work up to longer ones ; the longest average from 7 to 
<S feet. 

The three photographs exhibited represent a group of stilt-walkers, 
taken in different positions, dressed in theatrical clothes, ready to form 
a procession accompanied by their friends. 

During the holidays, chiefly during the New Year holidays, which 
last longer, to try as much as possible to occupy the m'inds of the lower 
classes, certain local gentry invite their employes, as well as their 
friends, to form a stilt- walking party. This being agreed to, a leader 
is appointed, and a temple hired as headquarters, also placards are posted 
up notifying the public as to the party's intentions. 

Days before the procession takes place, men belonging to the 
party are to be seen gathered in the temple discussing over the 
subjects to be pursued, and the parts to be taken by each individual ; 
this, however, is only a matter of talk, as stage acting is not abso- 
lutely necessary ; all they are expected to do is to amuse the public 
by feats on stilts. Cards are then sent out to all officials and shop- 
keepers, with the party's compliments, soliciting the honor of 
their presence to join in the merriment. The cards are always ac- 
cepted, and presents are prepared for the procession such as candles, 
firecrackers, etc. ; an entertainment is also got ready for the actors 
with refreshments, refreshments generally give place to money. 

People give as they choose, officials, if pleased with the 
performance, give silver medals — the medals are thin pieces of 
silver and have the character, "Shang" (a reward), engraved in the 
middle, each costing from one-half dollar to one dollar, according 
to the size. They are given, either individually to a favorite per- 
former or to as many as form the procession. 

On the day of the procession all shops dress their front doors 
with red and green silks or cloths ; and all sorts of lanterns are 
hung up. which are kept alight all night, giving a very gay ap- 
pearance to the streets. Upon the arrival of the procession before 
each shop, fireworks and crackers are fired off, presents are also 
given which are received by the stilt-w r alkers by means of baskets 
attached to the poles. 

Those partaking in the procesion are gorgeously attired in all 
the colors of the rainbow r ; embroidered silk, umbrellas inscribed 
with verses in gold or silver, lanterns in the shape of various kinds 



14 Catalogue of the Newchwang Collection. 

of fish, birds, and animals, fruits, and flower pots, etc., each carried 
by a man walking one behind the other ; the stilt- walkers following 
behind with music. 

The procession passing along the streets performs at intervals 
before the shops, and, upon arrival at any official buildings, proceeds 
into the inner courts, so that the performance may be witnessed 
by the ladies who are confined there by Chinese custom and eti- 
quette. 

So the procession moves along until the whole of the appointed 
route has been traversed. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

TIENTSIN COLLECTION 



GROUP 9. 
PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 
Water Colors on Scrolls: 



Exhibit 




Number. 




1 


Winter scenery. 


2 


Summer scenery. 


o 
O 


Imperial wedding. 


4 


Imperial funeral. 


5 


Wedding procession. 


6 


Funeral procession. 


7 


Idols. 


8 


Water color on silk — "mother teaching children." 




GROUP 1G. 




PHOTOGRAPHY. 



137-139 3 Albums— Views of Peking. 

" Tientsin. 

" Tongku (Tientsin.) 
140 Panoramic View of Tientsin. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

9 Map of Peking and environs. 

10 Map of Tientsin — native city and foreign settlements. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

10a - Grain measure (small) standard measure for a Chinese 

pint of grain, etc. 
10b Grain measure (large), standard measure for a Chinese 

peck of grain. 



1<3 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



GROUP 21. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

11 Two-stringed Violin called "Erh-hsien." The most popu- 

lar instrument met with in China; is in principle 
exactly the same as the "Hu-ch'in." It varies in 
form and sometimes it is a hollow bamboo tube 
and sometimes half a cocoanut shell. Whatever 
form it may be it never has more than two strings. 
Foreigners have formed a decidedly poor opinion 
of this rather unattractive instrument but if we 
reflect that it is often played without taste or feel- 
ing, if we consider its cheapness and the simplicity 
of its form, and if we learn for ourselves that it 
is really capable of producing agreeable sound, 
there will then be no reason to find fault with the 
inventor or the invention. 

12 The "Yang-ch'in," or "foreign harpsichord" — has the 

form of a rectangular, trapezoidal, or oval box hav- 
ing a range of fine metallic wires disposed in sets of 
two, three or four to each note, decreasing in 
length from the base upwards and fastened at both 
sides by nails. On the sounding-board there are two 
bridges, perforated with seven or eight hojes each, 
over and under which the strings are stretched ; 
and the strings which pass over the first bridge 
have to pass through the opposite holes of the 
second bridge and vice-versa. This arrangement 
consequently affords four series of notes, one on 
each side of each bridge, but only three series are 
in general use. The series of notes given by the 
strings on the right side of the right bridge is 
not used. The "Yang-ch'in" is played with two 
light hammer-shape slips of bamboo and it is 
capable of producing extremely pleasing sounds 
when well played. 

13 Seven-stringed Lute, called "Ch'in," — is one of the most 

ancient instruments and certainly the most prac- 
tical of all. The inventor called it "Ch'in" referr- 
ing to restriction, prohibition, because its influ- 
ence checks the evil passions, rectifies the heart, 
and guides the actions of the body. The dimen- 
sion's, the number of strings, the form, and what- 
ever is connected with this instrument had their 
principles in nature. The "Ch'in" of the present 
day retains its primary form, but the number of 
strings increased from five to seven. This instru- 
ment is used for what is called elegant music and 
is supposed to be used specially by the educated 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



Exhibit 

Number. 

classes ; and yet it is somewhat neglected by the 
present generation, being scarcely met with except 
at Imperial ceremonies. This may be accounted 
for by the fact that the complicated directions are 
difficult to learn and to remember, and that end- 
less studies are necessary to master this instru- 
ment. 

14 Four-stringed Violin, called "Hu-ch'in," — has a hollow 

cylindrical body, the upper end of which is cov- 
ered with snakeskin, while the lower is left open. 
The body is sometimes a round tube of bamboo, 
of wood or of copper. The bow passes between 
the strings so that it requires close attention to 
play without touching the wrong string. This in- 
strument is rarely seen in the south, but in Peking- 
it is most popular. It is not difficult to learn and 
it does not extend over one octave ; moreover it 
is cheap. 

15 Balloon Guitar, called "Pi-p'a." It has four silk strings 

which are said to represent the four seasons. This 
and some other allegories enforce the belief that 
this instrument has a more or less ancient origin, 
but the date of its introduction is not known with 
certainty. As it is chiefly used on joyful occasions 
in connection with the flute, the strings are of 
course timed after the pitch of the flute, but in 
private the performer tunes it to the pitch which 
pleases him best. 

16 Three-stringed Guitar, called "San-hsien," — has a shallow 

cylindrical body, the top and bottom of which are 
covered with snakeskin. It has a long neck (with- 
out frets) and three strings. Is sometimes played 
with the finger, but oftener with a plectrum. 

17 Moon-Guitar, called "Yueh-ch'in," is so called because 

the shape resembles a full moon. The neck, which is 
short, is furnished with frets for the convenience 
of the player. The four strings, which, in some 
places, are made of copper instead of silk, are tuned 
in pairs at the distance of a fifth. This instrument 
is used with the P'i-p'a and "San-hsien." 

18 Octagonal Guitar, called "Shuang-clrin," — with a long- 

neck furnished with frets ; made of hardwood ; has 
four strings; is tuned like the "Moon-Guitar," and 
is played with a plectrum. 

19 Mouth-Organ, called "Sheng," — is an instrument intend- 

ed to symbolize the Phoenix. The body or wind- 
chest is made of gourd, or simply wood, and in 
its upper part tubes of five different lengths are 



18 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



Exhibit 

Number. 

inserted; they are so arranged as to resemble the 
tail of a bird, the middle tubes being the longest. 
The length of the tubes does not, however, make 
the sounds graver, for several of them have an 
aperture at a distance from the top which renders 
their length ineffective. The tubes in the lower 
portion are furnished with reeds exactly like those 
of our accordions ; a little above the reeds the tubes 
are pierced so as to prevent their sounding, except 
by stopping the holes. The invention of this in- 
strument is shrouded with the obscurity of the 
mythical ages. Tradition attributes its invention 
to a mythical female sovereign. Commentators on 
ancient musical instruments invariably mention 
the great age of the "Sheng" and speak of it as 
a proof of the inventive genius musical talent of 
the ancient Chinese. From the classics we learn 
that the "Sheng" held a leading position among 
the instruments which were in favor at the Im- 
perial court. It is never used in popular orches- 
tras ; at nuptials and funeral processions it is 
sometimes seen. 

20 Tambourine, called "Pa-chio-Ku," octagonal in shape, 

used by ballad-singers to accompany their songs. 

21 Lute, called "Se," is made on the principle of the "Ch'in." 

and like that instrument has been made the sub- 
ject of numerous allegorical comparisons. Origi- 
nally is said to have had 50 strings and to have 
Varied sometimes to 27 or 25 and 19 or 23 ; but 
the "Se" now in use has 25 strings. Each string- 
is elevated on a movable bridge. These bridges 
represent the five colors ; the first five are blue, 
the next red, the five in the middle are yellow, and 
then come five white and lastly five black. This 
instrument is used chiefly at Imperial and religious 
ceremonies. At the Temple of Confucius four 
"Se" are required: two on the east and two on 
the west of the hall. The notation is in principle 
the same as that of the "Ch'in," but the charac- 
ters are doubled, because it plays two notes at one 
time. 

22 Lute, called "Hsien-tzu," the same as the "Se," differ- 

ing only in dimensions. 

23 Lute, called "Hu P'o," the same as the "Se," differing 

only in dimensions. 
2-1 Violin, called "La ch'in." 

25 Violin, called "Ta Hu chien," four strings. 

26 Violin, called "Tan Huang Hu ch'in," one string. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. li> 



Exhibit 
Number. 



Violin, called Ui-cli'in,'' two strings. 



28 Guitar, called "Yin Mu Hu ch'in." 

29 Guitar, called "Nan Hsien tzu." 

GROUP 23. 
CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 

30 Asse's glue. It is properly the extract prepared by boil- 

ing down the waters of a celebrated well, which 
has gelatenous properties, reddish and translu- 
cent with all the properties of common glue. It 
has tonic, astringent and sedative properties. 

31 Toad spittle cakes. A medicament made from toads. 

Used in cases of catarrh. 

32 Exuviae of cicadas. Not poisonous. Used for dysen- 

tery or in acute cases of diarrhoea. Given to 
children in convulsions. 

33 Acorus calamus. The sweet flag. A widely spread water 

plant (orontiaceal). Its leaves are hung on 
door lintels during the Dragon Festival to keep 
oft evil influences. 

34 . Blood stone. In large heavy globular concretions. It 

is prescribed as a tonic, blood alterative and 
astringent medicine, used also for nervous affec- 
tions. 

35 Seeds of Plantago major. Formerly eaten as a pot herb. 

The small reddish black mucilaginous seeds are 
much used as a diuretic, pectoral, demulcent, 
tonic and anti-rheumatic dose. 

36 Platycodon Grandiflorum. It occurs in short dark, brown 

pieces, much shrivelled and w r rinkled. It has 
little odor or flavor, but is used as a tonic, astrin- 
gent and sedative remedy. It is a kind of bell- 
wort with red stems. 

37 Tribulus Terrestris. These fruits having four spines, 

are said to be tonic. They are given to partur- 
ient or anaemic women. 

38 Euryale Ferox. Has large pear shaped, indehiscent fruit, 

many celled and full of oval seeds. They are 
of a reddish color, mottled and veined with a whit- 
ish marbling ; all parts of the plant are officinal as 
tonic and astrigent remedies. 

39 Anemorrhena Asphodeloides. The drug occurs in irreg- 

ular flattened, twisted, shrivelled pieces from 
two to three inches in length and generally covered 
with reddish or yellowish leaves, which become 
scaly at the distal extremity. It has a slightly bit- 
ter taste and an agreeable .odor. Cooling, lenitive 
and diuretic properties belong to this rhizome. 



20 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

Exhibit 
Number.. % 

40 Paeonia Albiflora. Found in straight pieces, smaller 

than ordinary peony roots, used as an astringent. 

41 ' Justicia gendarnssa. Bitter and not poisonous. The yel- 

lowish white color is the best variety ; used in colds 
and rheumatism. 

42 Salvia plebeia. This and other species of sage are fre- 

quently used by the Chinese for catarrh, dysentery, 
and in the hatching of the exanthemata. 

43 Insects. Acrid and poisonous. Used in curing boils, 

and scrofular diseases, acts as an antidotes to 
other poisons of a dark green color. 

44 Pig's Tubers. Tuberiform bodies of an irregular size ; 

the cuticle of a dark brown color, rough and worm 
eaten ; the interior is of a yellowish brown hue ; 
an excresence found on the trunk of the Liquid- 
ambar tree, a genus of the order of altingiaceae. 
Recommended as a cure for urinary disorders, 
fluxes, etc. 

45 Impatiens balsamina. 

4G Scorpions. They vary from one to two inches in length. 

The tail of six joints ends in a sharp bent sting 
which inflicts a painful wound. It is an ingredient 
in the celebrated mixture called "Feng liao hsing 
tzu" which is used as a diaphoretic medicine in 
all serious diseases. 

47 Moss. 

48 Root of Pencedanum terebinthaceum (hibanotis). In 

long brownish irregular branching pieces, having 
some of the branching stem attaching to the root 
stock. It has a sweetish aromatic taste. Given 
as a derivative remedy in catarrh, rheumatism and 
leprosy. 

49 Diospyros lotus. A phamnaceous fruit. Tonic, expec- 

torant tussic and nutrient properties are ascribed 
to this important food fruit. 

50 Juglans regia. The fruit is regarded as not very whole- 

some, but having wonderful effects upon the 
blood, lungs and kidneys. The bark, the root 
bark and the hard shells are used as astringents. 

51 Asarum Sieboldi. The root of the drug is exceedingly 

fine acrid and not poisonous. Used in headache 
and rheumatism, also in diseases of the eye, and 
as a stimulant to the gall. 

5"? "Hsi Pi chi." 

53 Feniculum vulgare. The common fennel fruit. Are 

greyish brown, slightly curved, beaked with five 
prominent ridges and the characteristic aroma of 
the common fennel. It is used in dyspepsia, colic 
and other abdominal disorders. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 21 



Exhibit 
Number. 

54 Root. 

55 Rehmannia glutinosa. It presents, when prepared, the 

appearance of a dark, wrinkled, spindle-shaped 
mass about from two to five inches long, black in 
color, moist on section and having a sweetish 
taste. The root is largely prescribed as a cooling 
and purifying drug, acting directly upon the blood 
as an alterative and tonic. 

56 The root of a plant unknown. Prescribed in 

cuticular diseases. 

57 Kernels of the Prunes Armeniaca. The sweet variety 

of the genus amygdalus. Said to be sedative anti- 
spasmodic and conducive to longevity. 

58 Xanthoxylum Bungei. The fruit of this native pepper 

wort consists of the small red, tuberculated carpels 
enclosing the round, black shining seed. The drug- 
has an aromatic odor and a peculiar pungent flavor. 
Used as a stimulant, sudorific and astringent. 

59 Birch bark (sp. Betula). 

60 Sophora japonica. The greenish-yellow unopened flow- 

er buds are used in dyeing cloth of a yellow color, 
or in rendering blue cloth green. They are used 
as astringent and styptic remedies. 

61 Scutellaria viscidula. This labiate plant is the common 

Chinese skull cap. The light, sponge yellowish 
roots are slightly bitter and mucilaginous. They 
are credited with cooling, anti-febrile and expect- 
orant qualities. The seeds are also officinal. 

62 Phellodendron Amurense (Pterocarpus flaous.) In 

square or rectangular pieces from three to five in- 
ches long, rough on the outer surface and smooth, 
or striated longitudinally on the inner surface. 
The interior is of a deep yellow color, and the taste 
is very bitter. It is prescribed as a tonic, diuretic 
and anti-rheumatic. 

63 Carthamus tinctoria. In the shape of chrysanthemum 

flower used for abdominal complaints. Acts as a 
deobstruent, applied in menstruation. 

64 Insects. Of a reddish color, acrid and poisonous. Used 

in scrofular diseases, antidote to other poisons. 

65 Zizyphus vulgaris. 

66 Seeds of Coix lacryma (Job's Tears). It is a gramineous 

plant delighting in wet swamps. The seeds are 
hard and bead like. It is used in phthisis and other 
lung diseases. Pectoral cooling demulcent, and 
nutrient properties are generally attributed to it. 



Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

67 Wickstroemia (passerina). The plant has an acrid and 

poisonous juice. The tubers have a reddish epi- 
dermis, partly removed, and internally are white, 
starchy and much worm eaten as a rule. They are 
applied to deaf ears and aching parts to relieve 
pain. 
6S "Kan Ta Yun." 

69 Liquorice. In long pieces, dry, wrinkled and red in the 

surface, and yellow, fibrous and tough in the in- 
terior. The taste is disagreeably sweet and slight- 
ly muscilaginous. It is used to allay thirst, fev- 
erishness and pain. Tonic, alterative and expec- 
torant properties are ascribed to it. 

70 Pachyrhizus angulatus. It is sweet and of an acrid flow- 

er, -not poisonous. It is used in febrile diseases, 
producing sweat. Acts as an antidote to different 
poisons. 

71 Lycium Chinense. Species of barberry, sweetish and 

rough to the taste, and is reputed to be tonic, cool- 
ing, demulcent and clearing the eye-sight. The 
young shoots and leaves are made use of as a vege- 
table, or for infusion as a tea. 

72 Bulb — Resemble small tulip bulbs — powdered is ap- 

plied to all kinds of sores and ulcers. - 

73 A kind of black grass. 

74 Primus japonica. 

75 Lotus stamens. The shoots of the water lily, (nelumbium 

speciosum) of value in cases of spermatocehxa. 
From the dried stems arrow root is prepared. 

76 Chamois horns. The horns of a small species of ante- 

lope found on the plains of Mongolia. Used as a 
cooling medicine. Supposed to cure inflammation 
of the lungs and liver. 
71 Old deer horns (Harts horn). A tincture is made from 

the horns. The inferior horns and the rejected 
pieces are boiled to make a jelly. Stimulant, diap- 
horetic, tonic, alterative and astringent properties 
are assigned to this substance. 

78 Sal-ammoniac. Whilst the salt is said to be deleterious 

it is also said to be used in curing meat, or as a 
condiment. It acts as a sedative, resolvent, pec- 
toral and mild escharotic. 

79 Fossilised teeth of the Stegodon sinensis. They are sup- 

posed to act on the liver, and to be of great ser- 
vice as cordial or sedative remedies. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 23 

Exhibit 
Number. 

80 Belemnite. The siphungte is often very distinct. They 

have proved under the microscope to be fossil 
ivory. They are powdered, levigated and used in 
chorea, ague, fevers and fluxes. 

81 Gentiana Scabra (Dragon's gall plant). The long red- 

dish brown, numerous rootlets are attached to a 
short twisted rhizome. The taste is agreeably bit- 
ter. It is believed to be useful in nocturnal sweats, 
haematuria and in ophthalmia. 

82 Ephedra vulgaris. The best drug, consisting of the yel- 

low jointed stems of the plant comes from K'ai 
Feng Fu. The plant is said to be diocious and 
to have yellow flowers. Diaphoretic, pectoral and 
tussic properties are ascribed to the branches. 
Their taste indicates some astringency. 

83 - Lycoperdon Giganticum. They are full of the reddish 

brown powdery spoers, which are employed as a 
dusting-powder. They are given in affections of 
the gullet, lungs and in hemorrhages. 

84 "Ming Mu San." 

85 Equisetum hiemale. For medicinal purposes the leaf- 

less striated fistular stems are deprived of their 
cuticular sheaths and reduce them to a rough pow- 
der ; used as an astringent. Also used to treat 
inflamed eyes and epiphora. 

86 Various species of Clematis. The wood is. yellow and 

the vascular tissue is arranged in plates, passing 
from the center to the circumference. The wood 
is bitter to the taste and is pronounced to be a stim- 
ulating laxative and vulnerary drug, quickening 
all the senses and faculties. The root is used in 
goitre and the fruit is reported to be tonic, stom- 
achic and diuretic. 

87 Prisoema japonicum. The hard yellowish brown or 

whitish tubers are flattened, rounded and general- 
ly divided into small branching tubers, grouped 
round the central portion, which is umbilicated 
and marked with pits and tubercles. Alterative, 
expectorant and vulnerary properties are at- 
tributed to this poisonous drug. 

88 Pupalia geniculata (achyrantes bidentata). A cultivated 

species of amarantaceal. The exterior of the root 
is of a dirty yellowish and the interior of a whitish 
color. It is irregular and open in structure and 
is possessed of little flavor; much esteemed as a 
remedy in rheumatic complaints and in syphilitic 
pains, ague and fever. 



24 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

89 Sinapis ceruna. The crop is sown in the autumn, and the 

herbage is picked in the winter or spring for use 
as a pot-herb. Stimulant, diaphoretic and laxative 
properties are referred to the herbage and the 
seeds. 

90 Vitis serianaefolia. Bitter taste. It is used for curing 

boils, and inflammations of the eyes and intes- 
tines. 

91 "Pai-p'i-chi." 

92 Thuja orientalis. The small fruits occur as ovate-pointed 

reddish yellow, strong smelling, oil kernels. . They 
are used as stimulant and tonic elements in pre- 
scriptions. 

93 Banchee seeds (Psoralca corylifolia). The flat oval or 

slightly reniform black, one seeded legumes are 
about two or three lines long, and often retain the 
persistent five-lobed calyx. They have an aro- 
matic smell, and a bitter aromatic. They are used 
in spermatorrhaea and chronic visceral diseases. 

94 Seeds of a plant, unknown. Small seeds;. used in treat- 

ing affection of the eyes, and as a cure for asthma. 

95 Crataegus pimahfida. The largish red pomes of this 

Rosaceous mountain shrub resembles the hairs of 
the whitehorn. They are fleshly and sour. An- 
tiscorbutic, laxative and stomachic and alterative 
properties are ascribed to the fruits. Used in 
diarrhoea and in lumbago. 

96 "Shan chai hu." 

97 Broken Dioscorea root. Long fleshy tubers bristle with 

radicular fibres. They are of a brown color and 
their white fleshy substance has an agreeable flavor 
when boiled with meat. It is prescribed in cases 
of diarrhoea. 

98 Thalictrum rebellum (astilhe chinense). A ramuscula- 

ceous plant. The root stocks are met with in dark 
brown irregular pieces bristled with rootlets ; the 
taste is slightly bitter, accredited with antidotal 
tonic and derivative properties. 

99 "Shih-hua." 

100 Polygonum Multiflorum. Bitter and rough to the taste 

without any poisonous properties. It is used as a 
cure for goitres. It acts as a tonic and is produc- 
tive of blood ; used for stomachic diseases. 

101 Balanophora. Appearance of bamboo shoots, covered 

with scales. Sweet to the taste. Not poisonous. 
Used as a tonic and is productive of blood. 

102 "Sui-chi." 

104 Seeds of Scaphium Scaphigerum. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. -5 

Exhibit 
Number. 

105 Roots of Rheum officinale. The roots are cut into long- 

tongue like pieces or sometimes into short pieces or 
section of the root. Good rhubarb is of a reddish 
yellow color, variegated or mottled and firm in 
texture. The root should have a bitter and sharp- 
ish, rather than smooth flavor. Used as a laxative, 
alterative, astringent and diuretic remedy . 

106 Arctium Lappa. 

107 "Ta-p'i-chi." 

108 "Ta-shan-yao." 

109 Rehmannia Chinensis. When boiled it has the appear- 

ance of dark, soft, wrinkled spindle shaped masses 
about from two to five inches long, black in color, 
moist on section, and having a -sweetish taste. 
Used as a cooling and purifying drug. It is pre- 
scribed in many chronic visceral diseases. 

110 Bears' gall. Sold in the form of a soft black, sticky bolus 

having a bitter aromatic flavor; cooling, altera- 
tive, astringent and neurotic properties are sup- 
posed to reside in this substance. 

111 Salvia Multiorhiza. In short shrivelled pieces of a bright 

brick red color, sometimes branching or twisted. 
The interior is soft and the taste of the whole is 
sweetish. It is credited with alterative, tonic, as- 
tringent and vulnerary properties. 

112 Ligusticum acutilobum. In the form of brown fleshy 

root stocks, branching and dividing into a mass of 
large, close, pliant rootlets. The interior is soft, 
sometime meal} 7- . The taste is sweetish, warm 
and aromatic. Used in hemorrhages, fiux and 
ague. 

113 Root of Campanumaea pilosula. The roots are alter- 

nately white or yellow. The best kind of root is 
soft and sweet. Used for pulmonary diseases. 

114 Lycium Chinense. The Indian barberry. It is met with 

in light yellowish brown, quilled pieces, having 
very little taste or smeel. Antifebrile, anti- 
rheumatic, tonic, astringent and vulnerary prop- 
erties are attributed to this root, 
116 Viola patrinii. A species of Fumaria used as an ap- 

plication to swelling and abscess. 

116 Poteriim officinale. Used principally in bowel complaints. 

Has astringent properties. 

117 Seeds of Draba Nemorosa. A very small red seed, with 

strong pungent smell. Decocted. Acts as a mild 
purgative. 



26 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

118 Aristolochia Kaempferi. The fruits are of a dark brown 

color, generally broken, showing the division by 
six papery valves into as many cells packed full 
with small, flat, roughly, triangular-winged seeds. 
The drug is used in all pulmonary affections. It 
has very little taste or smell. 

119 Atraclylis ovaba (atractylodes rubra). The roots are met 

with in finger-shaped, roughly mouiliform pieces,, 
occasionally branching. The cuticle is rough, 
brown or blackish,, and sometimes bristled with 
rootlets. The cut surface is of a dirty white color, 
with a yellowish cortical layer. The structure is 
very open and some of the interstices are filled with 
an orange-colored resinous substance. It is sup- 
posed to tend to longevity and is used for diseases 
of the eye. 

120 Kernels of Zizyphus vulgaris. The fruit of a species of 

Rhamus. Used as a soporific principally. 

121 Angelica inaequalis. In long twisted pieces, deeply 

marked with ribs or stride. The exterior surface 
is of a dark or yellowish brown color and the in- 
terior open in textures and of a dirty white color. 
Is administered as a rousing stimulative and de- 
rivative remedy. Used in catarrh, apoplexy and 
leprosy. 

122 Cuscuta Chinensis (Dodder). Roundish bodies of the 

■size of black mustard seed, and of a brown color, 
with little or no taste or smell. Tonic, diaphoretic 
and demulcent properties are believed to reside in 
these inert seeds. They are given in incontinence 
of urine, leucorrhea, etc. 

123 Flores Farfari (colts foot). A composite plant with pur- 

plish bracts, and yellow florets. Given as an ex- 
pectorant in apoplexy, phthisis, coughs and asthma, 
and as a demulcent in fevers. Eyes are bathed 
with the flowers steeped in hot water. 

124 Elentherocrocus senticosus. Has an acrid flavor, not 

poisonous. Used in stomachic diseases and also 
for paralysis, consumption and rheumatism. 

125 A medicine cake. Has a sharp taste. It helps digestion 

and cures rheumatism and skin diseases. 

126 Magpie's Dung. The nest of the magpie is burnt, and 

the ashes given in nervous diseases, fluxes, etc. It 
is said to be cordial, sedative and astringent. The 
dung is in the shape of small, oblong, round or 
conical pellets of a black color, very light, easily 
broken and having a burnt or sweetish flavor. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 27 



Exhibit 

Number. 

127 Seeds of Sterculia plantanifolia. The seeds are oily. They 

enter into the composition of the mooncalves eaten 
by the Chinese at the autumnal festival. Used as 
soothing lotion for carbnncular and other sores. 

128 Fruit of Schizandra Chinensis. The small red berries are 

wrinkled, reniform in shape and contain two red- 
dish-yellow crescentic seeds. Tonic, aphrodisiac, 
pectoral and lenitive properties are ascribed to this 
plant. 

129 Carthamns tinctorius, sedative and astringent. 

130 Bupleurnm. The tender shoots of this apparently for- 

eign plant are edible. It has little taste or smell, 
and is said to be derivative and deobstuent. It 
is prescribed in thoracic and abdominal inflam- 
mation and in acute diarrhoea. 

131 Artemisia. This fragrant bitter herb is made into a 

broth and given in catarrhs, fevers, ague, rheuma- 
tism and jaundice. 

132 Lonicera japonica. The flowers, stalks and leaves of 

this shrub are used as a discutient application to 
abscesses and sores. They are taken internally as 
a tincture in rheumatism, dropsy, etc. 

133 Polygonatum officinale. 

134 Chrysanthemum Sinense. The dried fragrant flowers 

are said to be tonic, sedative and cosmetic. Prin- 
cipally used as a wash for sore eyes. A tincture 
is said to be useful in debility. 

135 Polygala sebirica. The root occurs in contorted quilled 

pieces, marked transversely, and of a brownish- 
yellow color. The taste is sweetish and somewhat 
acrid. The drug is used in cough, carbuncle and 
mammary abscess and the leaves are given in sper- 
matorrhaea. 

136 Fruit of Coriandrum Satioum. 

GROUP 29. 
CUTLERY. 

141 Set of knife, chopstick, cup, plate and toothpick, (travel- 

ing requisite.) 

GROUP 31. 
GOLD AND SILVER JEWELRY. 

142 2 Silver puzzle rings. 

143 2 Silver thimble rings. 

144 5 Silver enamelled rings. 

145 5 Silver gold-plated rings. 



28 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

146 2 Silver nail protectors. 

147 2 Silver gold-plated and enameled nail protectors. 

148 12 Silver gold-plated and enameled hair pins. 

149 6 Silver gold-plated and enameled hair pins with ear 

cleaner combined. 

150 7 Silver gold-plated and enameled hair ornaments. 

151 6 Silver gold-plated hair ornaments. 

152 8 Silver gold-plated and kingfisher feather hair orna- 

ments. 

153 1 Silver chatelaine. 

154 1 Silver gold-plated Tiara. Pearl dragon, etc., and orna- 

mented with kingfisher feathers. 

155 1 Silver gold-plated earring. Pearl dragon, etc., and or- 

namented with kingfisher feathers. 

156 1 Silver gold-plated earring. Ornamented with king- 

fisher feathers and gem. 

157 1 Silver gold-plated hair pin. Ornamented with king- 

fisher feathers and gem. 

158 1 Silver gold-plated flower. Ornamented with king- 

fisher feathers and gem. 

159 Official button, first rank ; plain, red coral. 

160 Official button, second rank; red coral with two char- 

acters "Shou" longevity engraved on it. 

161 Official button, third rank ; transparent blue sapphire. 

162 fourth rank; opaque blue, lapis lazuli. 

163 fifth rank; transparent white crystal. 

164 sixth rank; opaque white. 

165 seventh rank ; plain gilt. 



GROUP 36. 
TOYS. 

168 Collection of 24 clay insects. 

169 Collection of 6 whistling bamboo tops. 

170 Collection of 23 pigeon whistles. One of these whistles 

is bound, so as to stand erect, round the tail of 
one pigeon in every flock in order to keep the 
flock together. As he circles round, the wind 
whistling through the organ-like tubes gives forth 
a weird, plaintive sound, which after a while be- 
comes anything but unpleasing to the ear. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 29 

GROUP 40. 
MORTUARY MONUMENTS AND UNDERTAKERS' FURNISHINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
171 Model of a catafalque; 32 bearers. 

Funeral Ceremony : 

Upon a person's death, the body, encof fined, is kept in the house 
some days — among the poorer classes either seven, nine, or eleven 
days (always an uneven number) ; and among the rich some multi- 
ple (also uneven) of seven days, either three, five, or seven. The 
length of time depends chiefly upon which of the available dates is a 
propitious one, and this is fixed by the "yin yang," who is consulted. 
This person has, to a certain extent, an official position, in that he 
is licensed by the government, and has to issue a certificate 
that death has resulted from natural causes. This certifi- 
cate has to be exhibited when the funeral cortege arrives at 
the city gate on its way to the tomb ; and, should it for any reason 
be refused, the procession is stopped, and the coffin handed over to 
the proper authorities, that the suspicious circumstances connected 
with the death may be investigated. During the period that the 
body remains in the house, a flag is flown from a large staff fixed 
into a square frame or socket at the door, and in the compound a 
very large and lofty pavilion of white matting is erected and fitted 
up as an oratory. In this pavilion the coffin is laid, and in it masses 
for the repose of the soul are said, the number of which depends 
upon circumstances. Buddhist and Lama priests are usually em- 
ployed, but nuns and Taoist priests are also employed at times, 
separate days being, of course, allotted to each sect. The cost of 
a single mass, each mass occupying an entire day, amounts to near- 
ly gold, $15, so that, though expense is little considered upon such 
occasions, and a family will often cripple itself for years to ensure 
a handsome funeral for a parent, the poorer classes can never af- 
ford to have many masses said. Among the well-to-do, also, the 
number does not entirely depend upon the resources of the family. 
Such masses are believed to secure to the spirit of the departed a 
certain exemption from suffering in the other world ; hence rela- 
tions and friends frequently subscribe to provide a certain number 
of masses as a token of affection or esteem for the deceased, and 
attend at them personally a greater or less number of times accord- 
ing to the degree of their intimacy with the family. During this 
period a tent is erected at the doorway by the authorities, in which 
pumps are kept and soldiers remain on duty day and night to pro- 
vide against fire, which may easily occur in the pavilion with the 
large number of candles always kept burning upon the altar and 
around the coffin. A fire on such occasions is a very serious mat- 
ter; for were the coffin to get burnt, not only would it be the great- 
est calamity that could befall the family, but the magistrate of the 
arrondissement would also incur severe punishment. When a fire 



30 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

does occur, it sometimes happens that the nearest relatives and 
friends who have volunteered to save the coffin, lose their lives in 
their efforts to remove the unwieldy mass. 

The day of interment having arrived, the funeral procession is 
formed. In it the central figure is, of course, the hearse or cata- 
falque in which the coffin is carried. The number of bearers 
varies — according to the position and wealth of the deceased, from 
sixteen to sixty-four. The coffin is placed in the central canopy, 
which is hung with curtains of black-red satin, embroidered with 
large dragons (rampant) in gold, and water and clouds of different 
shades of blue. The roof is similarly covered, while from its pro- 
jecting edges all around hangs a narrow curtain consisting of 
tier upon tier of small panels, an inch square, containing dragons. 
In the case of Chinese the catafalque used is of white satin, 
embroidered with large dragons, supported upon a wooden frame, 
which is all gilt, the curtains, etc., being hung inside the framework 
so as to leave the gilt support open to view. 

The funeral cortege is headed by the flagstaff and flag 
that had previously stood at the doorway, and which is sup- 
posed to direct the disembodied spirit to the tomb, laboriously car- 
ried along by bearers. Xext come the tablets (carried in pairs) of 
red lacquer with gold characters, indicating the offices held by the 
deceased, if a man, or if a woman by her husband, which are at 
times exceedingly numerous, amounting in the case of a high offi- 
cer to between 150 and 200. Then come flags or pennants, indi- 
cating the banner to which the deceased belonged, red, blue, yel- 
low, or white, plain or bordered, as the case may be, followed by 
gift representations upon poles of melons, hatchets, hands, reversed 
stirrups and pole-axes, which, under the Ming dynasty, were the 
insignia, and were always borne in the train of the highest offi- 
cers. A cart or chair, whichever according to his rank the de- 
ceased Avas entitled to use, follows : an}' wan ming san, or "um- 
brellas of myriad names," presented as a token of affec- 
tion and esteem by the people of the districts or provinces over 
which he has held sway, the family may possess; a large number of 
umbrellas, of the same shape as the last, of satin, blue in the case 
of Manchus, and white in that of Chinese, richly embroidered with 
flowers ; and, if the deceased be of the highest rank, camels, sport- 
ing dogs, and fowling-pieces, indicating that he had the right to 
take part in the chase. In the procession, too, are bands of musi- 
cians who give forth somewhat plaintive but not unpleasing airs. 
If the deceased be Chinese by birth, paintings are also borne along,, 
depicting the most notable event in the life of each of the twenty- 
four examples of filial piety, namely: The Emperor Shun, the Em- 
peror Wen-tt of the Han Dynasty, Tseng Shen, one of the chief 
among the disciples of Confucius; Min Sun, another of his dis- 
ciples ; Chunchung Yu, commonly called Tz'lu, perhaps the most 
celebrated of all his disciples ; Lao-Lai-tz' and Yen Tz, who are 
said to have lived under the Chow Dynasty; Tung Yung, who lived 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 31 

about A. D. 200: Chiang Keh, A. D. 490; Huang Huang, Wang 
Hsiang, A. D. 205; W11 Meng, A. D. 310; Kuo Clru. second 
century, A. D. ; Yang Huang, who lived under the Han Dynasty; 
Ts'ai Shun and Lu Hsu, of first century, A. D. ; Wang Ngai, who 
is said to have lived under the Wei Dynasty ; Meng Tsung, third 
century, A. D. ; Yu-Clr-ien-lou, about A. D. 500; F'ang Ts-ui-Shih, 
the single female among the twenty-four; Chiang Shih, said to have 
lived under the Han Dynasty; Ting Lam of the same period; Chu 
Shou-ch'ang, temp, the Sung Dynasty; and Huang T'ing-chien, a 
celebrated poet of the Sung Dynasty, A. D. 1045-1105. And if he 
belong to another province, in which case his body would be simp- 
ly placed temporarily in a temple or cemetery — not interred — to be 
conveyed subsequently to his native province for final burial — 
fowls, sheep, and pig's, plucked or skinned, are also carried as a 
sort of viaticum for his future journey home. 

Such a procession is frequently two miles in length, and 
if the deceased has lived near any of the city gates (the 
center gate in the southern wall of the Tartar city excepted 
through which the dead may not pass), a detour is made in the line 
of route to avoid the head of the procession reaching the gate of 
issue before the mourners at its tail have quitted the house. Along 
the line of route are erected pavilions of white matting, in which 
are stationed companies of priests to chant masses for the repose of 
the soul of the deceased, and also a number of paper houses about 
ten feet high and as many square, termed treasuries in 
which are placed large quantities of imitation ingots made of gilt 
or silvered paper to represent gold and silver. The treasuries and 
their contents are set fire to, and the deceased is supposed to be 
thus provided with funds for use in the other world. 

In front of the catafalque the chief mourner, dressed in the 
mourning color, white, walks until the city gate is reached ; that 
passed, he may proceed thence to the family cemetery, which is 
frequently at a considerable distance from the town, in a chair or 
cart, according to circumstances. Behind the catafalque follow 
the female mourners in chairs or carts, according to their rank, 
which are covered with white cloth, and then come the male friends 
of the family on foot until the city gate has been passed whence 
they, like the chief mourner, proceed to the cemetery in chairs or 
carts. On arrival at the cemetery, the body is lowered into the 
grave, which is at once filled up, incense is burnt, prostrations to 
the spirit of the departed made, and the ceremony is completed. 
On the third day after the burial the grave is again visited and in- 
cense and prayers again offered. Subsequently, the relatives visit 
the grave each year at the season of Ch'ing ming, early in April, 
to see that it is kept in proper order, and to offer prayers, and to 
burn there imitation money and the other things the departed is 
supposed to be in need of. 

The coffins used in Peking are of one shape, the body being 
slightly rounded at the sides and foot, and formed in a curve slop- 



3:2 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

ing upwards and outwards at the head ; it stands upon a thick plank 
projecting beyond the sides of the body, and has a curved roof also 
projecting beyond the sides which fits into grooves in the coffin- 
body. The roofs is usually nailed at the sides in three places, the 
two nails being on the right side when the deceased is a male, and 
on the left when a female. In material and ornamentation they 
vary, however, considerably; the most expensive woods being either 
left plain or simply polished, while the less valuable are painted 
or ornamented with lacquer. The commonest cost nearly $10, 
the most expensive as many hundreds or even more, it being no 
easy matter to obtain fine woods of the required thickness, which 
is about four inches at the thickest part, while the curved shape 
necessitates the employment of planks considerably thicker still. 



GROUP 41. 
HARDWARE. 
Carpenters' Tools Consisting of: 



Exhibit 




Number. 




172-173 


3 Planes. 


174-175 


2 Moulding L 


176-178 


3 Saws. 


180-185 


6 Chisels. 


180-187 


2 Adzes. 


188 


Rasp. 


189-190 


2 Boring tools 


191 


Marker. 


192 


Angle rule. 


193 


Triangle. 


194 


Rule. 


195 


Marker. 



Lathes. 



GROUP 49. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS, NOT ELECTRICAL, FOR LIGHTING. 

196 6 Lanterns, painted silk panels, blackwood frames. 

197 6 Lanterns, painted glass panels, blackwood frames. 

198 6 Lanterns, water colors on silk, balloon shape, folding. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

199 1 Piece cotton cloth, 17 yds. by 17 in. 

200 1 Piece cotton cloth, 11)4 yds. by 15 in. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 33 

GROUP 56. 

YARNS AND FABRICS OF ANIMAL FIBRES. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

201 1 Piece wool and cotton mixture, 7 yds. by 16 in. 

202 1 Piece wool and cotton mixture, 8^2 yds. by 15 in. 

203 1 Piece wool and cotton mixture, 11 yds. by 15 in. 

204 1 Piece wool and cotton mixture, 12^2 yds. by 17 in. 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

1 Set of 4 silk embroidered panels in blackwood frames. 

205 Silk embroidered figure, "Shou." 

206 Silk embroidered figure, "Ma Ku." 

207 Silk embroidered figure. Felicitation to Shou by the 

eight "Genii." 

208 Silk embroidered figure. Felicitation to '"Wang Mu" by 

the eight "Genii." 

209 Silk embroidered figures. The eight "Genii." 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

210 Straw hat; used by farmers in the summer. 

GROUP 62. 
GENERAL MACHINERY. 

211 Windmill pump; used for filling the salt pans. 

GROUP 72. 
CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHTS' WORK. 
Models of: 

212 Peking cart as used by high officials. 

213 Peking cart as used by gentry. 

214 Peking cart used for the conveyance of goods. 

Peking Cart. 

The cart is only met with in the north of China, chairs being 
used for short and boats for long journeys in the south, where the 
water communication is very perfect. They are of three sizes, the 
body being 3 ft. 6 in., 3 ft. 8 in., and 4 ft. Chinese measurement ac- 
cording to their use. The cart exhibited is that of the largest size 
for the use of officials. In it, as in all the most expensive, the shafts 
are of pear-tree wood, the axle is of wood from Manchuria, and the 
wheels of wood from Shansi. The wheels are wonderfully strong, 



Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



and they require to be, owing to the severe jolts occasioned by the 
inequalities of the roads especially upon the high roads, which are 
usually paved, but the stones in which are in places worn to a 
depth of nearly a foot. In spite of such severe strains, however, 
which no foreign conveyance could stand for more than a few 
months, a well-made cart will last a lifetime. In lieu of springs an 
old shoe (an old shoe being more elastic than a new one) is placed 
between the axle and the body of the cart ; while, contrary to all 
foreign ideas on such a subject, a sine qua non of a good cart is that 
the axle should give forth a loud sound when the cart is in motion. 
Mules are almost solely used in these carts, and as much attention 
is paid by the wealthy to the breed and marking of these animals 
as is ever paid in the west to carriage horses, some hundreds of 
dollars being paid at times for a fine specimen. They are, how- 
ever, not easy of control, and for this reason, the bit is placed not in 
the mouth, but over the upper gum. 

Large size carts have two windows at each side and one in the 
hanging- portiere ; chairs have one in the portiere, and one only at 
each side. In summer the glass windows are removed, and in their 
place are fitted frames covered with open gauze work. The cover- 
ing is of green cloth for the highest officers, and blue for all others, 
with in each case a broad band of red oiled cloth round the 
bottom of the box or body. The cart used by princes differs some- 
what from that used by officials, in that the axle and wheels are 
placed farther back in order to render the motion easier and to 
admit of side doors being made in front of the wheels. In summer, 
chairs and carts alike have curtains and linings of silk or cloth, 
and in winter are lined with skins, the material that may be used as 
covering for the seat being strictly defined by regulation according 
to the officer's rank. In winter an officer of the first grade uses 
wolf-skin ; of the second, badger ; of the third, sable ; of the fourth, wild 
goat ; of the fifth, sheep ; of the sixth, black sheep ; of the seventh, deer ; 
of the eighth, dog ; and if of lower rank, land otter. In summer the cov- 
ering for the three highest grades is of silf ; red for the -first, reel border- 
ed with black for the second ; and black for the third ; by lower grades 
cotton cloth only is used, black by the fourth, blue by the fifth, plum by 
the sixth, gray for the seventh, and cloth in its natural color un- 
bleached and undyed by those below. 

In the harness the substantial shaft-bands are hooked on by 
metal loops to large hooks shaped like the ends of the "Ju-i" or 
sceptre projecting from the sides of the saddle, which is all of metal 
work. The saddle and the metal work throughout is damascened 
with silver and black lacquer, or with silver and gold and black 
lacquer. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

215 Mule litter. 

The mule litter resembles a large and substantially built chair 
with side doors, set upon thick, heavy poles. Being the ordinary 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 35 

means of transport for long journeys, it is usually covered, as is 
that exhibited, with coarse cotton cloth, but when an official of 
either the first or second rank is traveling, the litter is also at times 
covered with green cloth, and lined in winter with furs and felt. 
It is carried by two mules, one in front the other at the back. A 
saddle of wood, having a loose cotton wool lining some four inches 
thick, is placed upon the animal's back, but is not fastened with 
girds ; above this fits a wooden triangular framework, upon which 
are two solid hooks on each side. At either end of the poles is a 
brass handle ; through it a broad band of untanned leather, buckled 
with an iron buckle,, is passed, and the loop on the top of the buckle 
is then hung on the saddle-frame hook. No bit or curb is used in 
the bridle, and the reins are made fast to the saddle, a long leading 
rein being carried outside the litter to the afterpart, alongside which 
the driver walks. As a rule this mode of conveyance is not rapid, 
but in Mongolia, the ambar, or governors, when traveling some- 
times keep the mules going at full gallop, and can thus cover very 
long distances in a day. 

Exhibit 
Number. . ... 

216 Wheelbarrow for merchandise. 

217 Wheelbarrow for carrying water. 

218 Wheelbarrow used by peddlers. 

This ingenious contrivance is of immense utility in the north of 
China for the carriage of bulky loads over the narrow tracks. While 
the cart is better adapted for the transport of persons, this simple- 
looking thing is preferred for the carrying of packages, because it 
is able to carry a larger cargo, at a cheaper rate and with less dan- 
ger of breakage than the cart. In the plains, when the wind is 
favorable, a sail is hoisted above the mountain of articles packed 
on the barrow, and the fatigue of the puller is thus greatly al- 
leviated. 

GROUP 73. 

SADDLERY AND HARNESS. 

219 Set of harness complete for Peking cart. 

220 Set of riding saddle complete. 

The set or riding saddle is that used by gentlemen of 
good position. The frame of the saddle is of wood, ornamented and 
edged with metal work, the seat being padded. The headpiece, crupper, 
and breast-band, are ornamented with metal work of the same pattern 
as the saddle, and a red horse-hair tassel is hung from the breast- 
band and from the band under the chin. A single bridle of cotton web- 
bing is used. To a separate ring on the near side, however, is at- 
tached a sort of bearing-rein which is fastened under the saddle. There 
are two saddle cloths, the lower one of wadded cotton cloth, the upper 
either leather, ornamented with designs in color, or of carpeting made 
of wool or silk. The stirrups are of solid iron, very large and heavy, 



36 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

and ornamented with damascene work corresponding to the design 
used upon the saddle. Into the base of the saddle is let a piece of cork 
to neutralize the icy cold of the iron in winter. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of: 

Exhibit 
Number. 

221 Cargo boat. Used on the Grand canal for carrying 

rice or any tribute grain. The average length of 
craft represented is 60 feet, with a 12-foot beam. 
Draught, when loaded, 2 feet 8 inches. 

222 House boat. Generally 90 feet long, beam 16 feet. Draw- 

ing 4 feet of water when loaded. 

223 Official river boat. Usually 75 feet in length with a 14- 

foot beam. 

224 Sampan. The usual type of flat-bottomed river boat. 

Generally 15 feet in length, 4 ft. 5 in.-beam. 
Draws 2 inches. 

225 Cargo boat. Used also for carrying tribute rice. Length 

100 feet, beam 18 feet. Draught when loaded 11 
feet. 

226 Ice boat. Used on the rivers or canals when frozen, as 

a sledge. Usually 7 feet long by 1 foot 8 inches 
broad. Propelled by a pole with a sharp spike. 
Used to great advantage on the rough ice in the 
rivers. 

227 (Double) Canal boat. The largest is about 80 feet in 

length, consisting of two boats with their sterns 
lashed together. Their beam is about 7 feet. When 
light they draw 6 inches and loaded 1 foot 8 inches. 

228 Sea-going junk. Usually 150 feet in length, with 20- 

foot beam. Draught when loaded 19 feet. 

GROUP 79. 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND FARM MACHINERY. 

229 Plough. 

230 Pitchfork. 

231 ' Spade. 

232 Rake. 

233 Hoe. 

234 Machine for sowing seeds. 

235 Instrument used for extracting the roots of Kaoliang, 

(millet.) 

236 Reaping hook. • 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 37 

GROUP 81. 

TOBACCO. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

237 Tobacco, leaf ; has less flavor and strength than the tobacco 

commonly in use in Europe. In color it varies 
from a pale yellow to a deep chocolate. It is prin- 
cipally used for smoking; none is chewed and but 
little taken in the form of snuff. 

238 Tobacco, prepared. 





GROUP 84. 


VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS—, 


246 


Indian corn. 


247 


Millet. 


248 


Rice. 


249 


Glutinous rice. 


250 

251 


Kao Hang (millet.) 
Glutinous millet, 


252 


Wheat. 


253 
239 


Barley. 
White beans. 


240 
241 
242 
243 
244 


Kidney beans. 
Green peas. 
Yellow peas. 
Small peas. 
Black beans. 


245 


Garden peas. 




GROUP 93 



SYRUPS AND LIQUORS— DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL 

ALCOHOL. 

254-263 Ten varieties of Samshu (wine). 

264-273 Ten varieties of Medicated Samshu. 

Distilled rice and millet for the most part. The 
grain is first boiled and after cooling, yeast cakes 
are added and the whole pressed into baskets placed 
over tubs and left for eight days ; the liquor which 
flows off is distilled and then mixed with molasses 
and toddy, and all left to ferment for a week in 
large vats ; after the fermentation is over, the spirit 
is again distilled according to the strength re- 
quired. 

GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

274 Jute, for making ropes and cord. 



38 


Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 




GROUP no. 


SEEDS 


AND PLANTS FOR GARDENS AND NURSERIES. 


Exhibit 




Number. 




275 


White turnip seeds. 


276 


Green turnip seeds. 


277 


Red turnip seeds. 


278 


Leek seeds. 


279 


Onion seeds. 


280 


Radish seeds. 


281 


Cabbage seeds. 


282 


Celery seeds. 


283 


Salad seeds. 


284 


Spinach seeds. 


285 


Ai K'ang seeds. 


286 


Sunflower seeds. 


287 


Hibiscus seeds. 


288 


Hibiscus seeds. 


289 


Hung Ku Miang seeds. 


290 


Jasmine seeds. 


291 


Melon seeds. 




GROUP 120. 




HUNTING EQUIPMENT. 


292 


Gingal. A kind of swivel from 6 to 14 feet long, rest- 




ing on a tripod or borne on the shoulders of two 




men, one of the most effective weapons in Chi- 




nese warfare. 


293 


12 Whistling arrows. 


294: 


60 Arrows. Various patterns. 


295 


2 Bows. Used by cavalry. 


296 


2 Bows. Used for foot archery. 


297 


2 Bows. Used for ball shooting. 


298 


2 Shields. 


299 


16 Swords. 


300 


2 Quivers, with bow cases. 


301 


1 Target for archery. 


302 


3 Cross bows, with arrows, self-loading. 


303 


3 SleeA'e spring arrow shooters. 




BOWS AND ARROWS. 


The collection of bows and arrows merits some attention. Of the 


arrows there are thirty-six pairs, each different from the other. In 


some the heads are of wood or bone, with apertures, so arranged that 


as the arrows cleave the air, the wind passing- through these apertures 


produces a sharp or deep sound, according to the size of the hole. 


These are 


known as "whistling arrows." Others have metal heads of 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 39 



different designs, either solid or perforated in patterns, and ornamented ; 
while others again combine the whistling apparatus with these worked 
heads. 

The feathering is deserving of notice for its spiral form suggest- 
ing the steamer's screw and the rifling of guns. 

The point of interest about the bow is their mode of manufacture. 
Except the tips, no wood is employed. The frame, or rather the part 
of the bow nearest the body, consists of a strip of buffalo horn, upon 
which the bow is built up by laying layer upon layer of coarse, raw, 
silk saturated in fish glue. The surface is ornamented with paintings 
in colors relieved by patterns in tree-bark of pure white, the hand- 
piece in the center or the bow being covered with cork. Bows are 
classified as of so many "strengths," the unit being the power required 
to pull about thirteen pounds. The bows ordinarily used are of four 
or six strengths, the strings for which are made of very coarse silk 
threads, closely bound round with the same from end to end, except 
in two places for materials of about an inch to enable the string to be 
folded up. When pulling power of the bow passes ten strengths, the 
string is made of deer's hide. Owing to the thickness of the string, 
which is about a quarter of an inch, such bows are used merely for 
testing strength in the military examinations, not for shooting. The 
competitors in the highest military examinations must pull a bow of 
this kind of twenty or twenty-two strengths ; that is to say, they must 
pull the string clear of the bridges upon each tip. To do so requires 
no small muscular power, as well as knack, for such bows in the hands 
of the experienced are exceedingly dangerous, owing to their liability 
to turn, when they may strike the cheek or dislocate the arm. To string 
an ordinary bow, bent backwards as it is, is no easy matter for the 
uninitiated, but in the case of the very powerful bows, few even of 
those who use them can string them without the aid of some frame 
to supply aii extra purchase. 

Two sets of quiver .and bow-case are exhibited, made of leather 
with brass fastenings and ornamentations. 

GROUP 125. 

ANTHROPOLOGY; LITERATURE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

304 The c 'San Kuo Chili." This is an historical novel in 120 

chapters, written by Lo Kuan Chung, of the Yuan 
or Mongol dynasty. The plot is founded on 
events succeeding the decadence of the house of 
Han and embraces the period from 168 to 265 A. 
D. 

305 Album containing 32 water colors on silk, illustrating 

memorable scenes from above historical novel. 

306 The "Liao Chai. This celebrated work was composed 

by P'u Sung Ling. It gives an apercu of the 
manners and customs of the Chinese, and in this 



40 


Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 


Exhibit 


' 


Number. 






way is a valuable addition to our knowledge of the 




folklore of the Chinese. Mr. Mayers once 




stated, that fr the porter at his gate, the boatman 




at his mid-day rest, the chair coolie at his stand, 




no less than the man of letters among his books, 




may be seen poring with delight over the ele- 




gantly narrated marvels of the 'Liao Chai.' " 


307 


Album containing water colors on silk, illustrating scenes 




of the "Liao Chai." 


308-321 


14 Albums of water colors, illustrating: Dress of offi- 




cials — various- ranks, patron gods of various 




guilds, carts and chairs, shop signs-boards, 




street peddlers, women's head-dress, forms of 




punishments. 




GROUP 127. 




ETHNOLOGY. 


Clay Figures Illustrating: 


322 


Marriage procession (103 figures). 


323 


Street merchants (7 figures). . 


324 


Beggars (2 figures). 


325 


Dinner and card parties (3 figures). 


32G 


Barber. 


327 


Crockery mender. 


328 


Athletes (2 figures). 


329 


Mongols and Lamas. 


330 


Buddhist and Taoist priests and a nun. 


331 


Smokers (2 figures). 


332 


2 Figures. Civil and military mandarins — w T inter and 




summer uniforms. 


333 


2 Figures. Soldiers : Cavalry and infantry. 


334 


20 Figures. Theatrical goups with stage. Figures of 




theatrical characters illustrating the gorgeous 




dresses of Chinese actors. 


335 


A school. 


336 


Athletes. 


337 


Sundry groups of women, children, men, etc. 


338 


A water coolie. 


339 


A blind man. 


340 


A beggar. 


Life- 


size Figures Illustrating Costumes of: 


341 


Lama priest in ceremonial costume. 


342 


Lama priest in ordinary attire., 


343 


Chinese lady, summer dress. 


344 


Mongol gentleman. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 41 

Exhibit 
Number. 

345 Manchu lady, summer dress. 

346 Manchu maiden, ordinary dress. 

347 Chinese maiden, ordinary dress. 

348 Chinese lady, winter dress. 

349 Chinese young man, ordinary dress. 

350 Official in court costume. 

351 Manchu bride. 

352 Manchu lady, winter dress. 

353 Mongol lady. 

Dress in General. 

The Empire of China has for many centuries been so extensive 
that all variations of temperature from tropic heat to semi-artic 
cold are experienced within its limits, but in almost all parts the 
heat during summer, or at least during a portion of it, is very great. 
The houses, moreover, being of only one story, enjoy but little free 
circulation of air, while the absence of drainage and the general use 
of unburnt brick flooring, render the ground under foot both cold 
and damp. To secure in summer as much ventilation as possible, 
one side at least of the rooms in large houses consists of an open 
wooden framework, upon which is pasted thin paper— glass not 
having until quite recently been used to any considerable extent, 
and even now not being generaly employed unless for shop fronts. 
Owing, however, to the lowness of the rooms, even this arrange- 
ment does not prevent them being oppressive in summer; while 
it renders them in winter almost as cold as the atmosphere outside 
— artificial heating, owing to dearth of wood and the dearness of 
coal, being sparingly resorted to except in the extreme north, 
where heated beds (k'ang) and open stoves, consuming balls of 
coal dust mixed with clay, are in use. These circumstances caused 
attention at an early date to be largely directed to the adoption of 
the style of clothing best suited to secure coolness in summer and 
warmth in winter; and ages ago a style, based upon the same 
general principles as that now in use, though differing from it 
largely in detail, was elaborated. Shoes with thick soles of closely 
pressed paper, made from the bamboo, of old cotton cloth or of 
felt, and practically impermeable to either damp or cold, were 
adopted; and long flowing robes, which kept the lower extremities 
warm in winter, while in summer they permitted the employment 
of loose underclothing without marring the general symmetry of 
the dress. The quantity of clothing and the thickness of the ma- 
terial were also adapted to variations in temperature. No less than 
five distinct and well-defined classes of clothes are in use by those 
who can afford a large wardrobe. In the extreme heat of summer 
thin silk gauze, unlined, is used by the wealthy, and open cloth 
made of hemp or China-grass fibre by the less well-to-do. Next 
comes a close texture, also unlined, of silk or satin in the one case, 
and of cotton cloth, of either native or foreign manufacture 



42 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

(though the latter, owing to its greater softness, is usually pre- 
ferred by those who can afford it for underclothing), in the other. 
In somewhat colder weather clothes of the same material exter- 
nally, but with a lining, are worn ; and earlier in the spring or later 
in the autumn, their place is taken by those having a central wad- 
ding of cotton wool. In the depth of winter, while the undercloth- 
ing, except that next the skin, is usually wadded, the external 
garments are all lined with fur. 

One great advantage of the Chinese system of dressing consists 
in the fact that Manchu ladies can lay aside one or more of their 
robes, and men or Chinese women their pelisse, without marring 
the symmetry of their dress, as would be the case were the outside 
garment of either men or women's costume in the west removed. 
In Europe or America, too, alternations of temperature can only 
be combated by changes in underclothing. If. the change is made 
too early the result is probable sickness, and if too late, it is certain 
discomfort. With the Chinese mode of dress such alterations can 
be met at once and without risk. This latter mode, especially as 
regards the shoes, has, it is true, the drawback of interfering seri- 
ously with speedy locomotion ; but that this is not considered a 
matter of much moment is scarcely cause for surprise when it is 
remembered that rapid movement of any kind is considered unbe- 
coming, and that all who can possibly afford to do so will ride in 
a cart or a chair in preference to going on foot. But this defect 
apart, there can be little doubt that as regards gracefulness in 
shape, and in color, and general utility, the Chinese dress, at least 
in the case of men, is vastly superior to our own. In summer, 
when a European is sweltering in his national garb, the Chinese, in 
a long flowing robe of pale green or pure white silk, scarcely feels 
the heat. In the northern winter, when a European would be suf- 
fering intensely from the cold, the Chinese, thanks to his costume, 
enjoys perfect comfort and warmth, the fur lining of the winter 
dress more than compensating for the absence of stoves and grates. 

Furs indeed are in China worn to an extent that is unknown in 
the west, and the winter dress of a person of wealth is from them 
alone of great richness and beauty. In the north, where the climate 
is, considering the latitude, exceedingly severe, almost every one 
among the lowest classes has a sheepskin coat, while those higher 
in the social scale have their robes lined with more expensive furs. 
Those which combine lightness with density of pelage, such as the 
white fox and the throat-piece of other foxes, are the most esteemed 
for linings to long robes, while certain sumptuary regulations lend 
a fictitious value to some other furs. The most expensive of all 
skins are those of the sea-otter and of the black fox, yet, perhaps, 
with the object of impressing upon the men the fact that wealth 
is less esteemed than learning in a country where study is, unless 
under exceptional circumstances, the only road to high office — such 
furs may be worn by anyone. The less costly sable can, however 
(with one exception), only be worn in its natural color by those 
who have risen to the fourth civil or third military grade, or if 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 43 

worn in any shape, even though only as a border to a winter cap. 
by officials of lower rank, it must be dyed. The one exception 
is made in favor of the members of the Hanlin or Imperial Acade- 
my. They are the elite of the scholarship of the empire, and as such, 
so long as they have not accepted an official appointment which 
would sever their connection with this honored institution, they 
enjoy in this, as in many other instances, a distinction to which 
their nominal official rank does not entitle them. A member of the 
Hanlin, though only of the eighth grade, is permitted to wear sable, 
in its natural color — a graceful tribute to learning and to the 
scholar. One kind of sable, however, can only be worn by the 
Emperor himself and by those upon whom he condescends to con- 
fer a coat, as a personal gift. In these coats the skins are so ar- 
ranged that portions of the light-colored breast of the animal, at 
equal distances one from the other, form perpendicular lines of five 
patches each on either side of the neck down over the breast and 
back; the lines — containing the same number of patches, five — 
then turn ofl horizontally to the base of the sleeve. A similar line 
of patches runs round the lower portion of the robe. Such jackets 
are conferred exclusively, or almost exclusively, upon princes of 
the royal blood.- Again, the ordinary sable jackets worn by princes 
differ somewhat from those worn by officials who are not members 
of the highest grades of the imperial nobility. The former are 
made of three, the latter of two tiers only of skins between the 
lower joining of the sleeve with the coat and the hem of the skirt. 

It has been frequently averred that Chinese dress does not 
change. Such a statement departs very wide, however, of the truth, 
and can only be the outcome either of hasty generalisation on the 
part of a passing traveler or of a natural lack of discriminating 
power on that of writers of longer residence. As a fact, fashion 
holds sway in China little, if at all, less despotic than it does in the 
west, and though the uninitiated or unobservant foreigner may fail 
to detect the minutiae of change, a glance is sufficient to enable 
a native to note whether the dress of a person he meets conforms 
to the fashion of the day. and, if not, to fix its age. In ordinary 
dress the shade of the material of which the robe is made, the 
width of the sleeves, the ornamentation upon the shoes and the 
make of the cap are one and all constantly changing, and the power 
of fashion is felt alike in the most expensive portions and in the 
smallest details of full official costume. In the elaborately em 
broidered robe the imitation water round the skirt runs now nearly per- 
pendicularly instead of horizontally as a few years since, and consists of 
five instead of seven shades under each color ; the colors of the decoration 
in the embroidery worn on the breast and back, and which, together 
with the button surmounting the official hat, denotes the wearer's 
rank, as well as the amount and character of the incidental orna- 
mentation in it, undergo frequent change, and the button itself 
now worn is considerably smaller than was customary a short 
time ago. In women's dress the same thing occurs. The magnifi- 
cently embroidered robes worn under the earlier Emperors of the 



44 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

present dynasty, after falling quite out of fashion, and being re- 
placed by dresses comparatively plain and devoid of ornamenta- 
tion, have lately regained their old position in the favor of the 
higher classes, who alone can afford such rich and costly dresses. 
Similarly, ladies' head-dresses — which, when the jewels are real, 
cost very large sums — have undergone great changes of late years, 
the large masses of ornament of kingfisher's feathers previously ad- 
mired having given place to smaller and more elaborate designs 
enriched with a larger number of jewels, and especially of pearls. 

Dress — Ordinary, Official and Private. — The dress worn by the 
peasantry and lower classes consists of trousers, over-trousers, 
shirt and short jacket, all of blue cloth. Cloth of native manufac- 
ture is generally used, as being far more durable than foreign cot- 
ton fabrics, and as being of some value for making shoe-soles when 
so worn out as to be no longer available for use as clothing, which 
foreign cloth is not. Another reason for not using foreign cot- 
tons is, that the housewife can employ the winter months when 
little or no labor in the fields is possible, in weaving cloth for the 
family use. 

The use of silks and satins for clothing was originally confined 
to the official class, and to those, not holding official appointments, 
who had taken literary degrees. In course of time, however, this 
distinction between the classes became gradually relaxed, and may 
now be said to have entirely disappeared since the system was in- 
augurated of conferring brevet rank, and with it the right to wear 
the corresponding insignia, upon those who contributed liberally 
towards the State's necessities. Now, most merchants of any 
means have thus obtained brevet rank; and it is not uncommon to 
find amongst them men entiled to wear the button and embroidery on 
the back and breast of an Expectant Intendant of Circuit, an officer of 
the fourth civil grade. 

The dress of men consists of two or more long robes, the inner 
one being always of thin silk, the outer robe or robes varying, ac- 
cording to season, as regards both material and the character of the 
lining. In winter the outer robe is lined with fur, and above is 
worn a short jacket usually of figured satin lined with fur. The various 
parts of the dress are of different colors, and the effect of the blending of 
these shades, or their contrast one with the other, as the case may be, is 
very pleasing. The color of the material and the shape of the dress are 
frequently changing, as has been already remarked, according to the 
fashion of the day ; and such changes are rendered more frequent by a 
run from time to time on the part of "fast" young men upon certain 
colors or styles of ornamentation, which are then at once tabooed 
by the staid and respectable members of society. There is little- 
difference between the style of dress worn by merchants, etc., and 
the private costume of officials, beyond greater richness of material 
in the case of the latter, except that these wear cuffs to their robes 
of horse-shoe shape, and use boots instead of shoes. In winter also 
they wear caps bordered with fur, which non-officials cannot. 



to the Louisiana Purchase -Exposition, 1904. 45 

The dress of Mancliu women is in all its main points very simi- 
lar to that of men — the same underclothing, and similar long loose 
flowing robes. Of these latter there are two, which differ slightly 
one from the other, the inner robe having an unbroken skirt, and open- 
ing merely at the throat with a breast lappet fastening down the left side ; 
the outer robe is similarly made, but has an opening on either side, ex- 
tending from the waist down to the hem. These robes being of figured 
gauze, silk, or satin, with a deep border of embroidery — 'some four inches 
wide — running along the skirt and central and side openings, pre- 
sent a very handsome appearance, which is increased by the deep 
cuffs, usually of some light colored silk, in contrast with the dark 
texture of the robe, embroidered in light colors with flowers or but- 
terflies. Their feet are of the natural size, the shoes worn by those 
who have to go about on foot being much like men's ordinary 
shoes, of silk and satin embroidered, with flat soles. In the case 
of ladies, however, who when they go out do so in a chair or a 
cart, the shoes stand upon a sole of four or six inches in height, 
or even more. These soles, which consist of a wooden frame upon 
which white cotton cloth is stretched, are quite thin from the toe 
and heel to about the center of the foot, when they curve abruptly 
downwards, forming a base of two or three inches square. In use 
they are exceedingly inconvenient, but like the long nails with 
their metal sheathes of gold or silver affected by Chinese ladies, 
they show the well-to-do position of the wearer. The Mauchus 
are naturally a taller and finer race than the Chinese, and the arti- 
ficial increase to the height afforded by these shoes gives them at 
times almost startling proportions. 

There is little difference between the private dress of ordinary 
Manchu women and that of those belonging to the official class. 
The latter, however, always have the two robes above de- 
scribed, while the former frequently, in lieu of the outer 
robe, wear a sleeveless bodice, either long, and reaching to 
the skirt of the robe, or short, to the waist only with an embroidered 
border round the edges. 

Instead of the long robes of the Manchus, Chinese ladies wear 
a tunic or pelisse reaching nearly to the knees, with broad sleeves, 
and a skirt divided into four parts closely plaited in such a manner 
that the plaits have the same appearance when viewed from either 
side. Over the division between each two parts, hangs a broad 
piece of embroidered silk or satin, of the same color as the rest of 
the skirt, with a black satin border, at the corners of which are, 
of late years, butterflies cut out in outline, discovering some bright 
color beneath. The skirts are usually very pretty, having ordi- 
narily quite a large quantity of ornamentation in a variety of bright 
colors. Round the hem of the pelisse, and from the throat down 
over the left breast, following the line where the pelisse is but- 
toned, runs a broad border of black satin, ornamented, like the 
skirt, with butterflies in outline. There is no distinction in the 
case of Chinese ladies between the ordinary private dress and that 
of the official classes. 



46 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

Though small feet are the almost universal rule among Chinese 
women, the boat population in certain parts (especially on the 
Canton river), and at times the wives and daughters of small 
farmers, do not bind their feet. But it is in Peking alone, owing 
to the influence there of the predominant Manchu class, that 
Chinese ladies allow their feet to retain their natural proportions. 
The dress of such ladies is a curious mixture of the special garbs of the 
two nationalities. They retain the coiffure and shoes of the Manchus, 
together with their long under robe ; but they affect the short pelisse of 
the Chinese in place of the Manchu outer-robe, though they do not 
wear their skirt. 

Children, when quite young, wear short jackets and trousers 
of blue cotton cloth among the lower classes, and of silk 01 satin, 
sometimes very tastefully embroidered, among the well-to-do. 
After the age of twelve, or thereabouts, their costume differs but 
little from that of grown-up persons. 

As regards coiffure: Babies usually have only a small bunch 
of hair at the nape of the neck. Later, attention has to be paid to the 
strengthening of the hair, as in after years it is always worn long u\ 
both men and women. With this object the head is frequently shaved, 
sometimes all over like that of a Buddhist priest, at other times now 
on one side, now on the other. Children will be often seen having on 
either side of the head a diminutive queue or a small knot or bow with 
the hair cut short as in the West or with simply a fringe round the back 
part of the crown of the head. When the hair has become sufficiently 
strong it is plaited into a queue into the lower part of which 
is plaited silk cord terminating in a tassel, the queue being 
bound with red silk cord at the back of the neck. Thenceforward, 
males continue to wear their hair in this manner throughout life 
— the red silk cord being, however, dispensed with later 
on at an age that depends more upon individuals than upon 
any fixed rule. Girls continue to wear the queue until about six- 
teen years of age, when it is laid aside in favor of the coiffure cus- 
tomary in the part of the country to which they belong. Prior 
to marriage they wear the hair over the forehead round, while 
matrons wear it square. 

Official Costume. 

Official uniform follows the same general lines as ordinary dress, 
and is divided, acording to season, into the same five categories 
as regards material and make. The materials are, however, of 
more expensive quality and of richer ornamentation, the most 
favorite of the later being medallions of dragons woven into the 
material. They have, however, what the robes of non-officials 
have not, a cuff shaped like a horse's hoof, which on ordinary occasions 
is turned back, but which is allowed to hang clown as a mark of respect 
in the presence of His Majesty or of a superior officer. Above the robe 
is worn a long pelisse of black or purple-black silk or satin, bearing 
upon the breast and back the embroidered "pu-tzu" indicative of the 
wearer's rank. The "pu-tzu" may be either embroidered into the pelisse 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



47 



or, as is generally the case, embroidered separately and sewn on to it. 
An officer in uniform wears boots (not shoes) of black satin reaching 
nearly to the knee, with thick white soles of cloth, and an official hat 
surmounted in the center bv a button, which varies in material 
and in color according to the individual's rank, and from which 
hangs all round a profusion of red silk thread, reaching to the 
edge of the hat. In summer these hats, which at that season 
are in the shape of a low cone, having a broad base, are of fine 
white straw, or of white silk gauze, stretched upon an open bamboo 
framework. In autumn they are of silk, satin, or a kind of velvet, 
and differ in shape from those worn in summer, in that they fit 
the shape of the head, and have a rim which is turned up at an 
angle of about 45 degrees to a height of some two inches. In win- 
ter the same hats are worn as in autumn, but the outer side of the 
rim is covered with fur, the kind of fur to be worn according to cir- 
cumstances being strictly laid down by regulation. The embroid- 
ered badges indicative of rank are divided into two categories, one 
being appropriated to the civil, the other to the military division 
of the public service. In the former birds are represented standing 
upon a rock in the midst of waves and looking towards the sun, 
in the latter animals in a similar position. As has been already 
state, the colors used in the embroidery, as well as the quantity 
and character of incidental ornamentation, have differed consid- 
erably from time to time. The distinctive insignia of the nine 
recognized grades* of official rank, as defined by law, are as 
follows : — 







Embroidery 


or "p'utzu"' 




Button Girdle Clasp 








Civil 


Military 


1st Grade 


Plain, red coral, 


Gold and jade, orna- 
mented with rubies. 


Stork. 


Ch'ilin.f 


2nd <■ 


Red coral, with two 


Engraved gold, orna- 


Gold pheas- 


Lion. 




characters ; s ho u , 


mented with rubies. 


ant. 






longevity, engraved 










upon it. 








3rd » 


Transparent blue, sap- 
phire. 


Worked gold (square) 


Wild goose. 


Leopard. 


4th " 


Opaque blue, lapis 
lazuli. 


Worked gold (round) 


Crane . 


Tiger. 


5th " 


Transparent white, 


Plain gold, set in 


Silver pheas- 


Bear. 




crystal. 


silver. 


ant. 




Gth " 


Opaque white. 


Mother of pearl, set 
in silver. 


Egret. 


Tiger cat. 


7th « 


Plain gilt. 


Silver. 


Partridge. 


Tiger cat. 


8th " 


Worked gilt. 


Transparent horn, set 
in silver. 


Quail. 




9th " 


Worked silver. 


Opaque horn, set in 
silver. 


Blue jay. 





* Each is divided into two classes, upper and lower. 

vThe ch'ilin is usually translated "unicorn;" as depicted, it is a fabnlovs 
animal, resembling a lion in appearance, but having- two horns. 



48 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 

In addition to the prescribed insignia of the rank an official 
holds, the right to wear a feather upon his hat is at times conferred 
upon him as a special mark of commendation for some official 
action taken by him. These ornaments are bf two kinds; one, the 
lowest, made of the blue-black feathers of the crow, the other pea- 
cock's feathers. Of the latter, however, there are three grades, showing 
1 eye, 2 eyes and 3 eyes — a considerable number of feathers being ar- 
ranged into a bunch, one exactly above the other ; in the case of the sin- 
gle-eyed decoration, or in the other cases, into two or three bunches, one 
slightly behind the other, so as to show either two or three eyes. These 
ornaments, when of the best quality, are very expensive, a good 
triple-eyed peacock's feather costing as much as $300. The right 
to wear a triple-eyed feather is conferred only upon princes of the 
blood, that to wear a double-eyed is feather upon the heads of state 
departments, governors-general of the provinces and similar high 
officers, while the single-eyed feather is worn by officers of lower 
rank. Such feathers are worn in a drooping position at the back 
of the hat, being fastened into a jade-stone holder, which is attached 
immediately below the button. 

An officer who has committed some offense during his tenure 
of office, or whose conduct is open to serious censure, may be de- 
graded and dismissed from office temporarily, or stripped of his 
rank altogether, but allowed to retain his post. In such cases the 
degraded officer can, according to circumstances, either wear no 
button and p'utz' at all, or merely the lower insignia of the rank 
to which he has been degraded. To avoid such conspicuous evi- 
dence of dishonor, it is customary for officials, especially those in 
high position, to obtain through the proper board, the right to wear in- 
signia of rank independent of those to which the post they occupy en- 
titles them. This brevet rank is generally but little, if at all, lower than 
that they occupy in the public service, and should they incur Imperial 
displeasure and with it degradation, though they lose their substantive, 
they retain their brevet rank. 

The dress of wives of officials is of the same shape as that 
worn in lower circles of society; but, as in the case of their hus- 
bands, the material is richer and more expensive. They have 
brevet rank of the same grade as that possessed by their husbands, 
and, if they are Chinese, they wear upon the dark-colored pelisse 
the square "p'u-tzu" or embroidery corresponding to that rank. In 
their p'u tz', however, the sun toward which the bird, if the wear- 
er's husband belong to the civil department, or the animal, if he 
belong to the military department, is looking, is not upon the 
right side as in that worn by men, but upon the left, it being proper 
by the doctrine of the dual powers "Yin" and "Yang" that the rising sun 
should be indicated in the case of men, and the setting sun in that 
of women. For a similar reason the court beads, which form a 
portion of all uniform, are reversed in the two cases, the pendants 
being worn on the left side by males, and on the right by females. 
The head-dress and coiffure depend upon the province to which 
the lady belongs. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 49 



Manchu ladies wear an under robe, richly embroidered, and an 
outer robe of gauze, silk or satin, according to season, of black or 
purple-black shade. They seldom wear the "p'u-tzu unless well ad- 
vanced in years, when the elaborate embroidery of younger ladies 
would be deemed out of place. When, however, they do wear the 
"p'u-tzu" it is not square, as in all other cases, but round, medallions 
being the ornamentation peculiar to Manchu ladies of rank. In 
other respects, both color and ornamentation, the "p'u-tzu" are the 
same as those worn by officials and their wives, if Chinese. The 
usual ornamentation of the Manchu lady's dress consists of eight 
medallions of rich embroidery, representing either a stork with out- 
spread curving wings or clusters of flowers. Exceedingly high-soled 
shoes are worn, and the coiffure is that peculiar to the Manchus. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

Peking Industrial Institute Exhibit 



ART. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 



Art Work in Earthenware, Pottery or Porcelain. 
Ancient Pottery Ware. 

3 Pottery vases, silver gilded. Han Dynasty, 206 B. C. 
2 Pottery vases, carved through, with raised designs in three dif- 
ferent colors. Ming Dynasty, 1573-1620 A. D. 

1 Pottery jar, with raised designs of lotus in three different colors. 

Ming Dynasty, 1573-1620 A. D. 

2 Potterv vases, with raised designs in three colors. Ming Dynasty, 

1573-1620 A. P. 

1 Oviform bottle, 7 inches high, of a very pale celadon wash. 

The beautiful delicate shape of this bottle much resembles that of 
the amphoras, which almost entirely exist in the peach-blossom 
and Clair de Lime porcelains, and. as they rank as the two highest 
grades of coloring amongst the self-colors, great attention was paid 
to elegance of design as well as coloring, and the same applies here. 
The decoration on this bottle consists of the eight trigrams known 
as the Pa Kwa in greyish blue. Below the Pa Kwa are four repre- 
sentations of the mystical device, the Yang and the Yin, the male 
and female elements of nature, in two shades of blue. Around the 
foot of this vase are waves in darkish red, with accasional flecks 
in green which look like verdigris, as in some of the peach-blooms. 
Thev are marked in blue on the base with the six characters of 
Yung-cheng period (1723-1736). 

1 White porcelain vase, with designs of birds flying among flowers, 

etc., in five different colors. Yung Chen, 1723 A. D. 

2 Wood-color porcelain basins. Yung Chen, 1723 A. D, 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 51 

1 White porcelain vase, with designs of birds flying among peony 
flowers, in five different colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

1 Yellow revolving porcelain vase, with designs of three sheep un- 
der trees, in five different colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

1 Yellow porcelain vase, with designs and inscriptions in five differ- 

ent colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

2 Green porcelain vase-covers, with designs of hundred kinds of 

flowers in five different colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Yellow porcelain vase with designs of European flowers in five 

colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Purple revolving porcelain vase, with designs in five different 

colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Blue and gold porcelain vase, with medallions. Chien Lung, 1736- 

1795 A. D. 

1 Pea-green porcelain vase, with raised designs of dragons and 

clouds. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

2 Pea-green porcelain fruit-plates, with designs of peaches. Two 

feet and four inches in diameter. Sung dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

2 Six-cornered Hladon pen-washers. Sung dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Porcelain sacrificial goblet, with six mouths. Yuan dynastv, 

1500 A. D.- 
1 Porcelain incense-burner, with designs in five different colors. 

Ming dynasty, 1573-1620 A. D. 

3 Porcelain vases with figures in five colors. Ming dynasty, 1573 

A. D. 
1 Large Sang-de-boeuf porcelain vase, 17^ inches high. Kanghsi., 
1661-1722 A. D. 

1 Small Sang-de-boeuf porcelain vase, 4 inches high, first-class color. 

Kanghsi, 1661-1722 A. D. 

2 Apple-green porcelain vases. Kanghsi, 1661-1722 A. D. 

2 Peach-blossom vases, five inches high, decorated with beautiful 

green. Kanghsi, 1661-1722 A. D. 
2 Peach-blossom vases, five inches high, first class color. Kanghsi, 

1661-1722 A. D. 

1 Peach-blossom porcelain box, decorated with green. Kanghsi, 1661- 

1722 A. D. 
6 One set of peach-blossom porcelain boxes, decorated with green, 
Kanghsi, 1661-1722 A. D. 

2 One pair of flower pots, with designs of one lady and three maid- 

servants, riding. in a carriage drawn by a deer, in five different 

colors. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Large porcelain flower pot, with designs of landscape, etc., in five 

different colors. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Large club-shaped porcelain vase, with figures in five different 

colors. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Rectangular black porcelain vase, with designs in three different 

colors. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Large porcelain vase with designs of lotus in white and blue. 

Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 



52 Catalogue of the Industrial Institute — Peking — 



1 Large porcelain vase, with designs of animals in white and 

blue. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Porcelain jar, with cover and designs of landscape in white and 

blue. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 
1 Porcelain giner jar (with figures in first class white and blue. 

Kaghsi, 1661 A. D. 
4 Hawthorn ginger jars, in white and blue. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 

1 Powdered blue porcelain jar, with designs of flowers, etc., in 

white and blue. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 

2 One pair of large fruit-plates, with designs of a girl riding in a 

cart drawn by a deer, in five different colors. Kanghsi, 1661 

A. D. 
2 One pair of red porcelain bowls, with designs of sixteen boys 

playing with different toys, in five colors. Kanghsi, 1661 A. 

D. ' 
11 One set of porcelain bricks, used for decorating bedstead or 

tables. Kanghsi, 1661 A. D. 

1 Large porcelain fruit plate, with designs of a peach tree bearing 

eight peaches, climbing from the outside to the inside of the 
plate, in five different 'colors. Yung Chen, 1723-1736 A. D. 

2 Porcelain bowls, with designs of peaches and peach-flowers, in 

five different colors. Yung Cheng, 1723 A. D. 
1 Small purple porcelain dish, with designs in five different colors. 

Yung Cheng, 1723 A. D. 
1 Large white porcelain vase, two feet high, with designs of the 

"Fisherman's happiness," in five colors. Yung Cheng, 1723 A. 

D. 
1 Large crackle egg shell porcelain vase, with designs of animals 

and trees in white and blue. Yung Cheng, 1723 A. D. 
1 Large melon-green crackle porcelain vase. Yung Cheng, 1723 

A. D. 
1 Large pea-green porcelain fish-jar, with designs of dragons and 

clouds in relief. Cbien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Large pea-green porcelain fish-jar, with wood stand and raised 

figures of dragons and clouds. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Large white porcelain vase, with two ears in relief and designs of 

one hundred deer resting or feeding under cedars, in five dif- 
ferent colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Sky-blue porcelain flower-pot. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Large sky-blue porcelain vase, with raised designs of six heads 

and dragons. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Large enamel screen on stand, with European designs. Chien 

Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

1 Enameled screen, with European designs. Chien Lung, 1736- 

1795 A. D. 

2 Large gold-plated porcelain incense burners, with European de- 

signs in five different colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
2 Red porcelain vases, with European designs in five different 
colors. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 53 

Art Work in Metal. — Ancient Bronzes. 

1 Bronze sacrificial tankard, with raised designs, dragons in clouds 
with inscription in ancient characters. Shang Dynasty, 1600 B. C. 

1 Three-legged bronze incense-burner, with ears and cover and de- 
signs in relief. Han Dynasty, 900 A. D. 

1 Bronze sacrificial jar with cover and ancient designs. Han 
Dynasty, 900 A. D. 

1 Small bronze incense-burner, with three legs and cover and an- 
cient designs. Han Dynasty, 900 A. D. 

1 Large bronze vase, with designs in relief and decorated with gold 
and silver spots. Sung Dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Bronze duck-vase, with raised designs. Sung Dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Bronze pigeon-vase, with raised designs and decorated with gold 
and silver spots. Sung Dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Bronze vase, with carved designs and decorated with gold and 
silver spots. Sung Dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Two-eared vase, decorated with gold and silver spots. Sung 
Dynasty, 1200 A. D. 

1 Bell," Chou Dvnastv, 400 B. C. 
6 Pots, 

8 Vases, 

2 Bowls, " 

3 Incense burners, " 
1 Basin, 

1 Angel and deer, 

2 Storks candlesticks. 

1 Tray. 

21 Ash trays. 

2 Cups. 

3 Plates. 

1 Horn. 

2 Vases on elephants. 
1 Vase on duck. 

46 Buddhas. 
1 Figure — monk. 
1 Figure — child. 
6 Ancient mirrors. 

3 Ancient coins. 
1 Dog. 

1 Spoon. 

1 Pen stand. 

1 Paper weight. 

Ancient Cloisonnes. 

1 Large cloisonne incense-burner, with three legs and one ear. 

Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Set of 5 sacrificial ornaments. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 



54 - Catalogue of the Industrial Institute — Peking — 

1 Large revolving cloisonne vase. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
1 Large cloisonne plate, with dragon designs. Ming dynasty, 1573- 
1620 A. D. 

jade-stone and Crystal Ornaments. 

1 Jade-stone cup, with cover and fine carving, 
bottle, 
box. 
cup. 

vase, with two ears, each having a ring, 
scepter, fifteen inches long, 
with fine carving, 
bowl, 
pen stand. 



vase, with carving in relief. 



1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 Purple crystal bottle. 

1 Purple crystal vase. 

1 Set consisting of one crystal stork, one purple crystal elephant 

mounted with a vase, and a carved vase. 
1 Purple crystal bottle, with carving in relief. 
1 Crystal vase, nine inches high, with fine carving. 

Art Work in Wood. 

1 Carved ebony-wood throne. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 
4 Carved ebonv-wood chairs. 

1 Carved red lacquer table, 6 ft. long. Chien Lung, 1736-1795 A. D. 

2 " " " caskets, " " " 

1 " " " casket, " " "• " 

Modern Cloisonnes. 

2 Large Incense Burners. 
10 Stork Candlesticks. 

2 Large Vases, dragon design. 

2 Large Vases, flower design. 

4 Tall Vases, flower design. 

2 Large Revolving Vases. 

2 Incense Burners. 

4 Fishing Bowls. 

4 Tea jars. 

4 Large Plates, dragon design. 

8 Vases, dragon ornamented. 

4 Incense Burners. 
16 Plates, Fu-shou. 

4 Plates, dragon design. 
12 Plates, chrysanthemum design. 
28 Bowls, dragon design. 

8 Pitchers, gold ground. • i 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 55 

19 Kai-wan Vases. 

17 Yu Hit Chu Vases. 

20 Chang-ko Vases. 

21 Card Receivers. 

16 San Yu Vases. 

3 Small Revolving Vases. 

4 Tsan Tao Vases. 

2 Tsan Tao Vases (with cars.) 
8 Hai-tong Vases. 

7 Pong Chu Vases. 

6 Milk jugs (with saucers.) 
12 Sho-Mian Vases. 

11 Small Incense Burners. 
4 Round Boxes. 

4 Trays. 

1-1 Plates, chrysanthemum design. 

5 Vases, bamboo design. 

10 Vases, dragon ornamented. 
15 Small Yu Hu Chu Vases. 

3 Small Kai-wan Vases. 

4 Lu Ting Vases. 

5 Trays. 

2 Small Incense Burners. 
47 Small Cups. 
4 Photograph Frames. 

17 Buckles (oval.) 

7 Buckles (rectangle.) 
43 Napkin Rings. 

7 Napkin Rings, gold ground. 
25 Napkin Rings (superior.) 
4 Vases, square-shaped. 

12 Crosses. 

74 Umbrella Handles. 

28 Smoking Water Pipes. ' 

1 Fu-shou vase. 

4 Vases, hexagonal shaped. 

2 Small Vases, square-shaped. 
2 Small square boxes. 

2 Incense Burners. 

2 Round Table surface. 

2 Boxes, rectangle. 

1 Ying Shing vase. 

3 Round boxes. 

11 Ash trays, round. 

2 Trays, Hai-tong design. 

2 Yin Kwa Vases, gold ground. 

1 Plate, lily design. 

2 Plates, chrysanthemum design. 

4 Plates, flower design. 



56 Catalogue of the Industrial Institute — Peking — 

4 Large phoenix vases. 
4 Hanging pictures. 
8 Kwan-yin Vases. 

3 Plates. 

4 Plates, flower design. 

168 Vases, various designs and colors. 
4 Tea jars. 
2 Pavilions. 
4 Trays. 
2 Screens. 
36 Cigarette cases. 
4 Candlesticks — phoenix design. 

Note on Cloisonne. 

The manufacture of cloisonne at Peking has revived during 
the past thirty years, and the Peking Industrial Institute is pay- 
ing special attention to this art, which it hopes to bring up to the 
standard of the old enamels of the Ming dynasty and the period 
of the Emperor Ch'ien Lung. 

A few notes on the method of manufacture, as observed in 
the workshops of the institute may add to the interest of the ex- 
hibit. 

The base, whether vase, bowl or dish, is of copper and is ob- 
tained ready-made from coppersmiths. The design is then etched 
on the copper base, and delicate copper ribands are shaped by 
means of pincers to follow the lines of the design. These are now 
cemented in position by means of a special vegetable glue, forti- 
fied by a metallic composition which maintains the shape of the 
wire tracery whilst it is being annealed in a primitive oven sur- 
rounded by a wire cage containing charcoal, which is kept at a red 
heat with fans. 

When cool, the vase is scoured in an acid decoction and is 
now ready for coloring. An artist, supplied with a number of sau- 
cers containing all the colors he requires, now takes the vase and 
from memory, and without reference to any illustration, fills in the 
interstices between the wires (the cloisons) with the proper pig- 
ments. These consist of crystals with a base of saltpetre, and of a kind 
of calcareous sandstone found in the neighboring hills. The differ- 
ent colors are obtained by composition with iron pyrites, oxides 
of iron, or salts of lead." The colored crystals, ground to a powder 
are mixed with rice water, and the resulting paste forms the base 
of the enamel. The colors are applied by means of a small trowel, 
and the operation calls for great skill and dexterity. 

When all the spaces are filled the vase is again baked in the 
oven for a certain number of minutes, as decided by the expert in 
charge of this operation. When cool, the vase is smoothed off 
with a file and returned to the coloring room, where all defects are 
made good. In some cases several of the spaces may require to be 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 57 



done over again ; when the now solid vitreous color is chipped 
out and the "cloison" refilled with paste. 

The vase is again baked and polished, this time with lime- 
stone, on a lathe. The retouching, rebaking and polishing are con- 
tinued until the desired result is obtained. The final lathe polish- 
ing is done with charcoal. 

The vase is now ready for gilding, which is done by an or- 
dinary galvanic process ; and a final polishing renders the article 
ready for the market. 

GROUP 43. 

CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

1 .12 Woolen carpets, first quality 8' xlO' 

5 1 " " " 10' xlO' 

8 2 " " " 9' xl2' 

10 1 " ■ " " 8' xl2' 

13 1 " "" " 5' x 8' 

23 6 " " " 2'5"x 5' 

24 2 " " " 2'6"x 2'6" 

26 21 " " " 3' x 6' 

28 1 " " " 4' x 8' 

29 13 " " " 2'5"x 5'5" 

34 2 '." " " 4' x 6' 

35 1 " " " 2'2"x 3' 

36 2 " " " 2 , 3 ,/ x 3' • 

45 3 " ■ " " 6' x8' 

-17 2 ■" " " 10' xl2' 

59 2 " " " 2'2"x 2'2" 

61 2 " saddle cloth, " 

14 2 carpet, second quality 10' xlO' 

15 7 " " " 8' xlO' 

22 1 " " " 9' xll'3" 

38 3 " . '■' " 4' x 7' 

39 1 " - " 4' x 6' 

41 1 " " ■" 3'9"x 5'4" 

43 2 " "' " 12' xl5' 

51 1 " " " 12' xl3' 

54 1 " " " 4'5"x 6' 

62 2 " " " 12' xl5' 

64 1 " " " 9' x!5' 

67 8 " " ' " " 3' x 6' 

75 1 " " " 20' x30' 

88 1 " " . " 10' xl5' 

89 1 " " " 2'5"x 5'5" 

109 4 " « " 2'5"x 5' 

44 1 Silk carpet 3' x 6' 

113 1 " 6' x 8' 

114 1 " 6' xll' 



58 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. WILLIAM FORBES & CO. 
TIENTSIN. 

GROUP 60. 
FURS AND SKINS, FUR CLOTHING. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




1 


Bear skins. 


4 


Deer skin rugs. 


6 


Dog skin mats. 


IV 

1 


Dog skin robes. 


12 


Goat rugs, grey. 


13 


Goat rugs, white. 


14 


Goat rugs, black. 


25 


Marmot skin, robes. 


27 


Sheep skin, rugs. 


3 


Cat robe. 


8 


Ermine cross. 


16 


Kid skin crosses, black. 


17 


Kid skin crosses, grey. 


18 


Kid skin crosses, white. 


20 


Lamb coats, Thibet. 


21 


Lamb crosses, Thibet. 


. 23 


Lamb skin crosses (small) 


29 


Slink skin crosses. 


31 


Squirrel skin coats. 


32 


Squirrel skin crosses. 


33 


Squirrel tails. 


33b 


Stone marten skins. 


5 


Dog skins. 


9 


Fox skins, white. 


10 


Fox skins, red. 


11 


Fox skins, black. 


19 


Lamb skins, Thibet. 


22 


Lamb skins, Mongolian. 


24 


Leopard skins. 


26 


Otter skins. 


28 


Slink skins. 


30 


Squirrel skins. 


34 


Tiger skins. 


35 


Weasel skins. 


36 


Wolf skins. 




GROUP 95 




INEDIBLE AGRICULTUR 


37 


Wool, sheep. 


38 


Wool, camels. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 59 



39 Wool, goats. 

2 Bristles, pigs. 

15 Hair, horse. 



GROUP 121. 
PRODUCTS OF HUNTING. 



33a Sables, untanned. 

34a Sheep skins, untanned. 

34b Goat skins, untanned. 



60 Catalogue of the Tientsin Collection 



EXHIBITED BY THE CHINESE ENGINEERING AND 
MINING CO., TIENTSIN. 

GROUP 25. 
CIVIL AND MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

273 "Tangshan" Portland cement. 

274 * "Tangshan" cement mosaic, sizes 109, 110, 111 and 113 

are represented. 
307 Tiles. 

GROUP 45. 

CERAMICS. 

3-62 ''Arch" fire bricks. Samples of following radii : 18", 
22", 24", 28", 30" and 34". 

63-112 "Square" fire bricks. A class. 

113-162 "Square" fire bricks. B class. 

163-212 "Square" fire bricks. C class. 

213-262 "Square" fire bricks. D class. 

263-266 Small furnace blocks. 

266a-267 Large furnace blocks. 

GROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

2-68 Fire-clay (ground.) 

1 Kaiping "naval lump" coal. 

2 Kaiping "loco lump" coal. 



J 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 61 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. VRARD & CO., TIENTSIN. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Art Work in Metal. 

1 One set of cloisonne table ornaments, dragon pattern, 

consisting of 2 candelabras, 2 fruit dishes, 1 cen- 
ter piece. 

GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

2 1 Silk carpet, first quality; 4 feet 5 inches x 4 feet 7 in- 

ches. 

3 1 Silk carpet, first quality; 8 feet 9 inches x 11 feet 9 

inches. 

4 1 Silk carpet, first quality; 3 feet 9 inches x 6 feet 11 

inches. 

5 1 Silk carpet, second quality; 4 feet 9 inches x 9 feet 9 

inches. 
G 1 Wool carpet, first quality ; 8 feet x 13 feet 1 inch. 

7 1 Wool carpet, first quality; 8 feet 2 inches x 12 feet 5 

inches. 

8 1 Wool carpet, second quality ; 6 feet 9 inches x 12 feet 8 

inches. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

CHEFOO COLLECTION. 



GROUP 16. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

30 Album of views of Chefoo. 

31 Panoramic view of Chefoo. 

GROUP 40. 
MORTUARY MONUMENTS AND UNDERTAKER'S FURNISHINGS. 

1 White marble tombstone (head piece). 

GROUP 50. 
TEXTILES. 

G t Model of wheel for reeling cotton. 

GROUP 57. 

SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

7-29 24 Pieces Shantung Silk Pongee, of various qualities. 

This silk is made from the Attacus Pernyi, oak- 
fed silk worm cocoons, which are found in 
the Provinces of Shantung, Yunnan, and Feng- 
tien. This tissue is well known by its cheap- 
ness and solidity, and is used greatly in the 
confection of summer costumes. It can- 
not be dyed into any other color than black or 
grey. The average exportation from Chefoo 
during the last five years has been of 2,683,408 
lbs. 

Silk pongee factories are increasing in 
number yearly and the industry is resuming its 
former importance. This silk is made up iv 
pieces of 20 yards of various weights. 

- 62 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 63 

Exhibit 
Number. 

37 White raw silk, steam reeled. 

38 Yellow "■ " • 

39 Tussah 

40 Tussah raw silk, hand reeled. 

The raw white silk owes its color to the silk worm itself, 
not to what the silk worm feeds on. The production of this silk 
in Shantung is but small, the annual exportation being of some 
17,600 lbs. 

The raw yellow silk is made from the mulberry-fed 
silk worm cocoons. The total production in Shantung is esti- 
mated at 600,000 lbs. ; the annual exportation from Chefoo is of 
about 340,600 lbs. 

Raw Tussah silk. 'Hand and steam reeled. . One of the most 
important industries of the province. The silk worm feeds on 
scrub oak leaves and produces the cocoon from which this silk 
is reeled. Chefoo at present owns six or seven steam worked 
filatures, but the bulk of the silk is reeled by hand in the native 
filatures. The production of this silk tends to increase yearly, 
owing to the fact that the natives finding an easy and remunera- 
tive market for their silk, are constantly covering the slopes of the 
hills with plantations of young oak trees. 

41 Silk waste. 

GROUP 60. 
LEATHER, BOOTS AND SHOES, ETC. 

42-48 Shoes (women). 

49-66 Shoes (men). 

GROUP 61. 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

67-69 Caps. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

70 Model of Sampan. Dimensions, 17' x 6' .4" x 2' ; draft ; 

r 6"; crew, 2 men; cost, Mex., $70. 

71 Model of Tinyu Junk. Dimensions, 77' x 20' x 6'; 

draft, 5'. 2" ; capacity, 108 tons ; crew, 16 men ; 
sails, 3 ; cost, Mex. $8,600. 

72 Model of Kualou Junk. ' Dimensions, 76 x 12' x 6' ; 

capacity, 73 tons ; draft, 5' ; sails, 3 ; crew, 13 
men ; cost, Mex., $8,000. 

73 Model of Kaotou Junk. Dimensions, 44' x 15' x 4'; 

capacity, 18 tons ; draft, 3', 3" ; sails, 3 ; crew, 
9 men ;' cost, Mex., $2,000. 



64 Catalogue of the Chefoo Collection 

GROUP 79. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND FARM MACHINERY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

75 Model of harrow. 

76 [Model of plough. 

77 Model of pick. 

78 Model of hoe. 

79 [Model of seeding machine. 

GROUP si. 
TOBACCO. 

80-82 Tobacco leaves. 

GROUP 87. 
FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR DERIVATIONS. 

83 Vermicelli. 

GROUP 90. 
SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY— CONDIMENTS AND RELISHES. 

84 Vinegar. 
85-6 Soy. 

GROUP 93. 

SYRUPS AND LIQUORS— DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL 

ALCOHOL. 

87-8 Samshu. 

GROUP 96. 
USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

32 White cocoons, mulberrv-fed. 

33 Yellow 

34 Tussah cocoons, oak-fed, autumn. 

35 Tussah 

36 Tussah cocoons, oak-fed, spring. 

GROUP 110. 
SEEDS AND PLANTS FOR GARDENS AND NURSERIES. 

89-110 Vegetable seeds — 22 varieties. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 65 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

2 Soda. 

3 White alum. 

4 Green alum. 

5 Opaque. 

111 White Shantung marble. 

112 Shantung" granite. 

GROUP 122. 
FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 

74 Model of Shantung fishing raft. 



(36 Catalogue of the Chefoo Collection 



EXHIBITED BY THE INDUSTRIAL MISSION, CHEFOO. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
- 174 Hair brushes. 

175 Cloth brushes. 

176 Shoe brushes. 

177-8 2 Waste paper baskets. 

179-81 2 Knitting baskets. 

182-3 2 Flower baskets. 

184-5 2 Work baskets. 

186-01 6 Wall pocket baskets. 

192-4 2 Sponge baskets. 

195 12 Napkin rings, made of strawbraid, 

196-8 2 Tea coseys, made of strawbraid. 

GROUP 58. 

LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

113-73 Collection of silk and cotton lace, lace collarettes, table 

covers, etc., etc. 



EXHIBITED BY CARLOWITZ & CO., CHEFOO. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

199 Samples of strawbraid. 

These trusses are made from the stalks of wheat. There are 
no strawbraid factories ; the braid is all made in the homes of the 
natives from samples furnished by foreign dealers. It is exported 
in matting-covered bales, except the superior qualities, which 
sometimes are packed in wooden boxes. A bale is composed of 
240 rolls, the length of each roll varying between 120 yards for 
the trusses known as "mottled" and 30 yar*ds for the fancy kinds. 
The average exportation during the last five vears has been 
4,145,831 lbs. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

CHUNGKING COLLECTION. 



GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

6 8 Water colored scrolls painted at Chengtu. 

GROUP li. 
SCULPTURE. 

12 11 Carved wood figures. 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

1-2 35 Photographs of scenes on the LFpper Yangtze River 

and neighborhood of Chungking (exhibited by 
Lieutenant Leon Collos, of the French Navy.) 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

3 Chinese map of the Szechuan Province. 

4 " " Chengtu. 

5 " " " Chungking. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Collection of coins from the Provincial Mint at Chengtu com- 
prising: 

Silver coins — cents, 5, 10, 20 and 50 and one dollar. 
Copper coins — half cent, one cent, and two cents. 
Silver Rupee — This coin is especially made for Tachienlu and 
is current along the Tibetan border, South of that place. The Chi- 

-67 — 



68 Catalogue of the Chungking Collection 

nese Rupee is an imitation of the Indian coin which it was thought 
to oust; but the Chinese, and Tibetans for some reason refuse to ac- 
cept it on the same terms, although the weight in silver is the 
same in both coins, yet that of China is only changeable at 21 per 
cent, discount. 

GROUP 21. 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

135 1 Gong as vised in temples. 

GROUP 23. 

CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

151 Specimens of Toilet Soap. 

244 " " Tallow (exhibited by Messrs. Little & Co.) 

284 " " Sulphur. 

285 " " Soda. 
160-161 " Tibetan incense. 

275 " Deer glue. 

276 " " Tortoise glue. 

277 " " Cow glue. 
291 " " Varnish. 

229 " " Indigo. 

230 " • " Safflower. 

231 " " Yang-Ian. 

210 " Raw Szechuan Opium. 

211 *' Prepared Szechuan Opium. 

212 " Raw Yunnan Opium. 

213 " Prepared Yunnan Opium. 

GROUP 29. 
CUTLERY. 

154 Specimen of Szechuan knives. 

GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 

140 1 Set Szechuan woman's silver ornaments, comprising: 

2 bracelets, 2 rings, 8 earrings, 6 hair pins, 1 tooth- 
pick, ear cleaner, etc., 3 needle holders. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

136 1 Set of 5 round Yunnan lacquered leather toilet cases. 

137 1 " 5 square 

138 1 " 5 oblong 

139 1 " 5 heart-shaped " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



69 



Exhibit 
Number. 

153 Specimens of wooden combs. 

14 1 Pair carved wood thumb rings. 

292 3 Coir tea pot holders. 



GROUP 41. 
HARDWARE. 



Pewter- 


-ware : 


117 


2 Joss Candlesticks. 


118 


1 Incense Burner. 


119 


1 Food and wine warmer. 


120-122 


3 Tea pots, various shapes. 


123-124 


2 Wine " 


125 


1 Oil Lamp with stand. 


126 


1 Hand spittoon. 


127 


1 Adaptable Candlestick. 


128 


1 Incense stick stand. 


Copper 


-ware : 


129 


1 Incense burner. 


130 


1 Hand warmer. 


131 


1 Tea kettle with stand. 


132 


1 Water pot. 


133 


1 Cooking pan. 


134 


1 Kettle with stove combined 



GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

147 2 Bed mats, fine and coarse. 

148 1 Reed mat. 

149 1 Floor mat. 

150 3 Woolen Rugs. 



Terra Cotta Ware : 



GROUP 45. 
CERAMICS. 



97 


4 Tea pots. 


98 


10 Flower pots. 


99 


1 Tea cup, with covc- 


100 


2 Flower vases. 


101 


2 Wine cups. 


102 


2 Rice bowls. 


103-104 


2 Food warmers. 


105 


2 Pots. 


106 


2 Hat stands. 


107 


1 Tobacco pot. 



70 Catalogue of the Chungking Collection 



Glazed 


Pottery Ware : 


Exhibit 




Number. 




108 


9 Tea pots. 


109 


6 Tea cups. 


110 


1 Basin. 


111 


1 Wine heater. 


112 


10 Flower vases. 


113 


1 Spittoon. 


114 


2 Incense Pots. 


115 


4 Altar Ornaments 


116 


1 Small vase. 



GROUP 54. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

60-70 11 pieces Suifu Cotton Cloth. 

71-81 11 " Chungking Cotton Cloth. 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

3 pieces Fine Grasscloth, bleached. 
" Coarse Grasscloth, bleached. 
" Grasscloth, unbleached. 
" Grasscloth, various colors. 
Board containing specimens of Coir and Hemp 
Ropes. 
142 1 Board containing specimens of Bamboo Ropes. 

GROUP 56. 
YARNS AND FABRICS OF ANIMAL FIBRES. 

162 4 -Specimens Tibetan Woolen Cloth. 



82-84 


3 


85-87 


3 


88-90 


3 


91-96 


6 


41 


1 







GROUP 57. 




SILK AJS1D FABRICS OF SILK. 


235 


Specimen Raw Silk from Tung-chuan 


236 


( i 


" Chiang-pei. 


237 


u 


" Chin-tan. 


238 


" 


Sui-ting. 


239 




Pi-shan. 


240 


" 


Chi-chiang. 


241 




Wild Silk from Pi-hsien. 


242 




Refuse Silk from Chengtu. 


243 




" Kiating. 


359 


Chengtu 


Silk Wadding. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 71 



Exhibit 






Number. 






15-21 


7 pieces 


Chengtu Silk, each, 4 7 


23-26 


4 " 


u a a ^" 


27 


1 " 


Figured Satin. 


28 


1 " 


Camlet. 


29 


1 " 


Taffeta. 


30 


1 " 


Gauze. 


31-32 


2 " 


Damask. 


35-36 


2 " 


Chengtu Satin. 


37-38 


2 " 


" Silk. 


51-52 


2 " 


Tsun I-fu Silk. 


53-54 


2 " 


Paoning 


55-59 


5 " 


Kiating 


39-40 


2 " 


Chengtu Silk Velvet. 


42-50 


9 " 


" Ribbons. 



GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

7-8 20 pieces Chengtu Silk, embroidered with imitation 

gold and silver thread. 

9-11 4 pieces Chungking Silk Embroideries. 

22 1 piece Green brocaded Silk, embroidered with imita- 

tion gold thread. 

33 2 Red Silk Curtains, brocaded with imitation gold thread. 

34 1 Red -and green Silk brocaded Curtain. 

GROUP 60. 
LEATHER, BOOTS AND SHOES, ETC. 

144 4 pairs straw Sandals. 

145 3 " " Shoes. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

143 2 Szechuan Straw hats. 

146 5 Specimens Szechuan Strawbraid. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 



296 


Model of large Kwatzu boat. 


297 


small 


298 


Guard-boat. 


299 


Life-boat. 


300 


Ma-yang boat. 


301 


Wai-wai (crooked stern) boat. 


302 


Salt boat. 


303 


Cargo boat. 



Catalogue of the Chungking Collection 





GROUP 81. 




TOBACCO. 


Exhibit 




Number. 




202-203 


2 Specimens of Tobacco, leaf. 


204-209 


6 " prepared. 


155-157 


4 Szechuan made Cigars. 


158 


4. rolled Tobacco. 


159 


6 made Cigarettes 



GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 



223 


Ground Nut Oil. 


224 


Sesamum Seed Oil. 


225 


Poppy 


226 


Rape " " 


227 


Wood Oil 


228 


Castor " 




GROUP 89 


PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEG] 


272-273 


Preserved Cabbage. 


274 


Turnips. 


257 


Walnuts, dried. 


258 


Lotus nuts, 


259 


Peanuts, 


260 


Melon, 


261 


Oranges, 


244 


Ginger, in syrup. 


245 


Peaches, « 


246 


Pears, 


247 


Plums, " " 


248 


Grapes, 


249 


Crab apples, " 


250 


Fu-shou, 


251 


Dates, " " 


252 


Olives, 


253 


Cherries, 


254 


Mulberries, 


255 


Lotus root, 


256 


Lily " " " 



VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 



221 

222 



GROUP 90. 

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY. 

White Sugar. 
Brown " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 73 



Exhibit 




Number. 




262 


Shou-mei Tea. 


263 


Yu-chieri 


264 


Ts'o-she 


265 


Mao 


266 


Lao 


267 


Hwa 


268 


O 


269 


Oman 


270 


Ktmg 


271 


Pu-erh 



GROUP 95. 

INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

214 Hemp, Boehmeria Nevia. 
215 

216 " Cannabis Satira. 

217 " Phyllostachys Mitis. 

Exhibited by Messrs. Little & Co. 

278 Wool, white. 

279 " " greasv. , 

280 " black. 

281 " " greasy. 

282 Feathers, fowl and duck. 

283 Pig's Bristles, white and black. 

GROUP 96. 
USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

293 Beeswax. (Exhibited by Messrs. Little & Co.) 

GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FOREST AND OF FOREST 

INDUSTRIES. 

178-192 15 Specimens of Szechuan timber. 

218 ■ Kiating White Wax. 

219 Paoning 

220 Branch of wax tree, showing deposit. 

GROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

232-233 Specimens Pan Salt. 
234 " White " 

287-288 " Sulphate of Iron. 



74 



Catalogue of the Chungking Collection 



Exhibit 






Number. 






286 


Specimen of White Lead. 




289 


" Yellow Lead. 




163 


Sample Coal from Ai-wan Mine. 




164 


" Ho-hsing " 




165 


" " Kao-tan " 




166 


•• Lao Yan-ai No. 1 Mine. 


167 


it it it tt a o 

* 


n 


168 


" Ling An-sen 


a 


169 


" . " Ching Shan Kou 


a 


170 


Hsiang Lit Shan 


" 


171 


" Ta-chiao 


tt 


172 


" Wan- Kou 


tt 


173 


" Hei-Kou 


" 


174 


" Hsing-chiang 


a 


175 


" Shitt-Pa-ai 


it 


176 


" Tich Shan Kou 


a 


177 


" Lung Wan-tung 


a 


290 


Specimen of Gold in leaf. 





193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
207 
295 



GROUP 121. 

PRODUCTS OF HUNTING. 

Grey Fox skin. 

Yellow " " 

Grass "■ " 

WildCat " 

Cat 

Sheep " 

Lamb 

Rabbit 

Wolf 

Buffalo Horns. (Exhibited by Messrs. Little & Co,) 



CATALOGUE 

-OF THE— 

HANKOW COLLECTION. 



GROUP 11. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1-2 9 Agate Ornaments from Tao Yang. 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

19 Panoramic view of the Hankow Bund. 

20 Panoramic view of the Han Yang Iron Works. 

GROUP 3 7. 
BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS— BOOK BINDING. 

21 Hankow Daily News, published daily by the Hupeh 

authorities. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

22 Foreign map of Hankow. 

23 Chinese map of Hankow. 

24 Chart of Yochow Harbor. 

25 Map of Hunan Province. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

34-37 One set Grain Measures. 

38 One set Liquid Measures. 

39 Collection of Coins from the Wuchang Mint. 

This mint was established in 1895 by H. E. Chang Chih Tung 
and is equipped throughout with foreign appliances and machinery 



76 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



and foreign minting methods are practiced in all the coining opera- 
tions. It is divided into two great departments, one for silver coins 
and one for bronze pieces. 

The silver department, established over eight years ago, makes 
dollars, twenty, ten and five-cent pieces to the value of gold, $12,000 
a clay; while the copper department, not yet two years old, strikes 
bronze coins each of 10 cash value to the number of 50,000 pieces a 
day. 

GROUP 23. 

CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

40-42 Varnish, 3 qualities. 

43-48 Pills used as tonic. 

592 Bupleurum octoradiatum. This root is prescribed in 

thoracis and abdominal inflammations, in puer- 
peral fevers and in acute diarrhoea. 

593 Beetle skins. A decoction of these skins is used to 

counteract the effects of bad smells. 

594 Artemisia maxa. A plant used as a carminative stim- 

ulant and resolvent remedy. 

595 Chicken Blood Glue. Said to be very nourishing. 

596 Armadillo scales. Used in cutaneous diseases. 

597 Bellwort. The root of the Platycodon grandiflorum. 

A tonic and stomachic taken for syphilis. 

598 Gendarussa. Dried roots. Boiled in milk they are 

given in cases of rheumatism, fever, jaundice, 
etc. 

599 Unknown. Probably an orchid ; said to have tonic 

and stomachic properties. 

600 Calomel. Common salt, mercury and alum are mixed 

and then heated in an iron pan, covered with 
an earthen dish, well luted down. Heat is ap- 
plied and the calomel sublimes as white crys- 
tals into the cover. As an ointment it is used 
for sores and ulcers, and also as a remedy for 
syphilis. 

601 Indigo. A form of indigo used medicinally for swell- 

ings, bruises, etc., and it is said to be a specific 
for convulsive diseases. 

602 Common Salt. Impure , sodium chloride, probably 

containing sodium sulphate. Used in treat- 
ment of malarious enlargement of the spleen 
and liver. 

603 Tree bug\_ Made into an ointment, applied to wounds. 

604 For diseases of the kidneys. 

605 Tree lichens. An excrescence found on the liquid am- 

ber tree. Recommended as a cure for urinary 
disorders, fluxes, etc. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 77 



Exhibit 
Number. 

606 Imitation vermillion. 

607 Angelica. A sweet smelling plant, used as a stimu- 

lant in cases of catarrh, rheumatism, apoplexy 
and tooth ache. 
607 Croton seed. Croton Tiglium. An oil is extracted 

from these seeds. Used in cases of dysentery 
and diarrhoea, apoplexy and paralysis, obsti- 
nate constipation, etc. In large quantities an 
exceedingly irritating poison. 

609 Uvularia grandiflora. Given in fevers, coughs, 

hemorrhages, deficiency of milk and diseases of 
the eye. 

610 Valeriana. The rhizomes of a kind of Valeriana. It 

is inhaled in cases of phthisis and considered 
good for gout and swellings of the feet. 

611 Cordyceps. A fungus that grows on the head of a 

caterpillar. It is' used in jaundice, phthisis, 
and in cases of any serious injury. 

612 Chrysanthemum. Chrysanthemum album and Florum, 

and a great many other varieties are used as 
tonics and sedatives, and also for making eye 
lotions. 

613 Orange peel. The many kinds of orange peel are 

largely used in Chinese medicine for their stom- 
achic, stimulant, anti-spasmodic and other 
qualities. 

614 Orange peel. The inner part of the skin of the orange, 

used as above and to flavor food. 

615 Scorpions. Scorpions preserved in salt. Made into a 

tincture for rheumatism, paralysis and ague. 

616 Libanotis. The root is given as a derivative or elimi- 

native remedy in diseases in which chills or 
damp have been encountered, and as an antidote 
to aconite. 

617 Root of a plant. A Febrifuge. 

618 Citron. Citrum medica, stimulant, tussic and tonic 

properties are attributed to it. 

619 Sand. It is boiled in water, and the liquid is used as 

a lotion to brighten the eyes. 

620 Magnolia Bark. Bark of magnolia hypolenca, tonic 

and stomachic remedy. 
.621 Magnolia Flowers. 

622 Dendrobium Ceraia. Of several species. Possesses 

tonic, stomachic, pectoral, etc., qualities. 

623 Barkhausia Repens. Used as an eye lotion and mixed 

with goose-gall is applied to piles. 



78 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

624 Yam. (Dioscorea sativa). Several species are used 

in medicine. Said to be very nourishing; eaten 
by opium smokers to sustain their strength, 
and used as a food for infants. 

625 Sophora tementosa. Much used as a tonic pectoral 

and diuretic medicine. 

626 Justicia. (Coptis tecta.) Root used as a febrifuge 

and as a remedy for dyspepsia. 

627 Stem of a plant. Febrifuge and used in kidney dis- 

ease. 

628 Mercuric Oxide. Red oxide of mercury. Some me- 

tallic mercury is poured into a mixture of alum 
and nitre contained in an iron bowl, which is 
covered with an earthen ware cover luted on. 
The oxide sublimes into the bowl. It is used 
for buboes, ulcers and sores. 

629 Mercury oxide. A mixture of mercuric oxide and a 

little nitrate. Made by fusing cinnabar, nitre, 
realgar, alum, sulphate of iron and sometimes 
red lead. The sublimate is collected as above 
described in the case of the Mercuric oxide. 

630 Convolvulus. Roots. Used as an adulterant of gin- 

seng, which it is said to resemble in properties. 

631 Iron pyrites. Iron pyrites in cubic habit, also the fer- 

ric oxide, pondoform. The crystals are made 
into bracelets and used as a charm against 
neuralgia and leprosy. The virtue lies greatly 
in the symmetry of the cubes. 

632 Ginger. Zingiber officinale. Dried ginger; it is used 

medicinally for headache, toothache, and in eye 
lotions. 

633 Passerina. Roots. It is used in the treatment of her- 

nia, tympanitis, and to relieve pain generally. 

634 Berberis Lycium. The fruit shoots and leaves are 

used medicinally, infusions are prescribed for 
nervous headaches, ague, etc. 

635 Realgar (inferior). Bi-sulphide of mercury. 

636 "Thunderpills." (Mylitta lapidescens). It is a fun- 

gus dug out of the ground. The pills are rec- 
ommended for worms, infantile diseases, and 
for impotency. 

637 Veratrum Nigrum. Considered an acrid poison. It is 

given in apoplexy as an emetic, and is also 
used as an ointment for irritation. 

638 Lotus stamens. (Nelumbium speciosum). It is used 

as an astringent and cosmetic. 

639 Noularia. An expensive variety of Ch'uan-pei. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 79 

Exhibit 
Number. 

640 Dragon's teeth, (ossac draconis). Fossil teeth of 

many varieties of animal. Used as medicines 
for the liver, and as cordial and sedative reme- 
dies. 

641 Dragon's bones. Pieces of fossil ivory and bones, and 

limestone impressions of the same. The pow- 
dered fossil, nearly always of calcareous com- 
position, is prescribed for ague and fevers, etc. 

642 Gentian. Dragon gall grass. The root is a cooling 

remedy and also for ophthalmia. 

643 Licoperdon giganticum. Applied as a powder to dry 

up ulcers and sores, and internally for throat 
and lung affections. 

644 Lily roots. Ophispogon Japonicus. A pectoral, re- 

frigerant, and tonic remedy. 

645 Uncaria Gambir. A decoction ; is used in infantile. 

diseases. 

646 Convolvulus roots. (Adenophora.) The sun dried 

roots are used as a cheap substitute for true gin- 
seng and is prescribed in cases of spermatorrhea, 
debility and dyspepsia. 

647 Galls. From various species of oak trees. An astrin- 

gent; used in dysentery, diarrhoea, etc. 

648 Arum pertaphyllum. Formerly given in apoplexy 

and diseases depending on presence of phlegm ; 
it is poisonous in large doses, producing numb- 
ness. 

649 Peony bark. (Paeonia Moutan.) For congestion, 

blood diseases, menstruals disorders, etc. 

650 A root. Fresh, it acts as an emetic, prepared it is 

given for fevers, rheumatism, etc. 

651 A root. Checks tendency to congestion of blood. 

652 Long Pepper, (Blavica Roxburghii.) A stimulant. 

653 Gardenia berries. (Gardenia florida.) The berries are 

used in medicine for fevers, fluxes, dropsies, 
jaundice. 

654 Ginseng leaves. (Panax quinquefolium). They have 

emetic and expectorant properties. 

655 Rehmannia Chinensis. (Rehmannia Chinensis). A 

cooling and purifying drug. 

656 Fossil crabs. The broken fragments are ground to a 

fine powder, levigated and used in eye diseases. 

657 Fossil shells. Used internally in fevers and in syph- 

ilis, as a powder in ophthalmia and scabies. 

658 Aralia Edulis. A tonic, prescribed in menstrual and 

puerperal diseases of women. 

659 Urtica Tuberosa. A kind of nettle, prescribed in rheu- 

tism, neuralgia, palsy and lumbago. 



80 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

660 Amornum. A species of Amornum. Vulnerary, sty- 

pic and discutient properties are attributed to 
this drug. 

661 Melanthium Cochin Chinese. Recommended for gen- 

eral debility and diseases of the chest. 

662 Atractylodes rubra. It is supposed to be strengthen- 

ing and conducive to longevity. A diaphoretic. 

663 Cardamons. Used to check vomiting and also as a 

condiment. 

664 A root. Taken for diseases of the kidneys. 

665 Stem of a water plant. A tonic. 

666 Enonymus Japonicus. The bark is said to possess 

tonic and invigorating qualities, availed of in 
spermatorrhoea, excessive perspirations and in 
puerperal diseases. 

667 Earth Beetle. A decoction is prescribed to increase 

the blood of females and in consumptive cases. 

668 Colts foot. An expectorant in apoplexy and asthma 

and as a demulcent in fevers. 

669 Aralia papyrifera. Dinretic and pectoral properties 

are ascribed to it; the polen is applied to sores. 

670 Borage root. (Anchusa tinctoria). Used to bring 

out the eruption of smallpox, and to color can- 
dles. 

671 Convovulus. Much used in the treatment of pulmo- 

nary affections and in hoemoptysis, etc. 

672 Centipedes. A decoction of centipedes is used in 

gonorrhoea ; powdered they are applied to 
venerial sores. 

673 Boar-tusk-pods. (Prosopis algaroba). The medicine 

is not much used now, but it is largely employed 
in washing clothes, and the seeds are made into 
a snuff. 

674 Actinolite. A variety of actinolite. Its powder mixed 

with other medicines is used for pains in the 
loins, and as an aphrodisiac. 

675 Safflower. The dried red flowers of Carthamus 

tinctorius. A stimulant and sedative, also used 
to cause abortion ; used as a dye and in the 
making of rouge. 

676 Artemesia. (Artemesia abratanum). It is made into 

a broth and given in catarrhs, fevers, etc. 

677 Golden Turmeric. A species of Curcuma. The tubers 

are used as a dye; in veterinary practice, and 
for epistaxis, hoermatemesis, etc. 

678 Atractylodes alba. An infusion is made of this root, 

and it is said to possess stomachic and tonic 
properties. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. SI 

Exhibit 
Number. 

679 Borax. Sodium borate. Anti phlogistic, expectorant, 

stomachic and corrective properties are attri- 
buted to it ; used for boils ; for strengthening the 
hair. 

680 Cantharides, (Mulabus cichorii). It is used in the 

treatment of hydrophobia and for blistering 
purposes. 

681 China Root. (Pachyma cocos radix). It is found 

growing from the roots of fir trees or in the 
ground near such trees. It is used both as a 
food and as a medicine; in the latter case being 
considered a tonic and stomachic sedative, with 
diuretic qualities. 
682-683 Rhubarb. Rheubarbarum officinale et palmatum. 
Rhubarb is one of the best known drugs in 
China and comes from Shensi, Kansu, Szechuen, 
etc. The product of Shensi province being con- 
sidered the best. The roots are dug up in the 
second or third moon and again in the eighth 
moon. They are carefully dressed with a knife 
or cut into sections, pierced and strung up in 
the sun to dry. Rhubarb is given by Chinese 
doctors as a laxative, astringent, eliminative 
and diuretic medicine. 

684 Turmeric. (Curcuma longa). The dried roots are 

used in medicine in cases of colic and conges- 
tions. It is also employed as a dye, and is large- 
ly exported to India where it is used as a condi- 
ment in seasoning curries. 

685 Nut (unknown). A samshu extract is made and 

drunk in order to relieve bruises. 

686 Indigo from Changsha. 

687 Indigo from Pao Ching. 

688 Green Alum. Common. From Yochow. 

689 Green Alum. (Copperas). Made by mixing sulphur- 

ous coal and iron pyrites and allowing spon- 
taneous chemical action to take place, the heap 
being plastered over with mortar to keep out 
the air. It is used in making dyes, varnish ; and 
in medicine for ague, uterine fluxes and throat 
diseases. 

690 White Alum. The alum stone is thrown into a fire 

of brushwood as it is quarried and the frag- 
ments are boiled. The lixivium is poured into 
reservoirs to crystallize into a solid mass. Alum 
is used in apoplexy, aphonia, and various forms 
of cynanchi; affections of the stomach, tongue, 
teeth, nose, eyes and ears. 



82 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 
691 Liquorice. Used to sweeten disagreeable tasting 

medicine; as a mouth wash, and for inflamed 
throat. 

590 Potash. Manufactured from wood ashes. Used in 

the manufacture of paper, also for cleaning 
clothes. 

591 Cinnabar. Mercury sulphide prepared from the native 

product. 

GROUP 24. 
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

49 Paper of different colors and ornamentation. Maae 

of bamboo. Used for lining boxes, and making 
figures for religious ceremonies. 

50 Paper of different colors. Made of bamboo ; used for 

match boxes, ornamental scrolls, lanterns, etc. 

51 Paper. White. Made of bamboo. Used for packing 

and for heavier kind of manuscript books. 

52 Paper. White. Made of bamboo. Fine packing paper. 

53 Paper. White. Made of straw. Used for packing 

and making lanterns. 

54 Paper. Gray. Made of straw. Used for windows and 

fire crackers. 

55 Paper. Gray. Made of straw. Used for packing. 

56 Paper. Black glazed. -Made of bamboo. Used for 

figures burnt in religious ceremonies. 

57 Oiled Paper. Made of straw. Oiled with three coats 

of boiled white wood oil and sun dried. Used 
as water proof covering. 

58 Oiled Paper. Made of straw, with two coats of oil, 

sun dried. Used for wrapping. 

59 Oiled Paper. Made of straw, with two coats of oil, 

dried under cover. Used for packing cloth and 
making plasters. 

60 Oiled Paper. Made of straw, with one coat of oil, 

dried under cover. Used for packing and plas- 
ter. 

61 Common printing paper for cheap quality books. 

62 Medium quality paper. Used chiefly for school copy 

books 

63 Inferior quality paper. Used for rough account books. 

64 Medium quality, with surface gloss. Used for rough 

account books. 

65 Letter paper. 

66 "Joss Paper." Used for temple worship. 
67-68 Wrapping paper. 

69-70 Printing paper. |j 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



83 



GROUP 27. 
ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING. 

71 Model of a Gentleman's Town Mansion. The ele- 



ments that enter into Chinese domestics archi- 
tecture are not very many, and the most strik- 
ing features in the best native buildings are the 
roofs and gables — with their ridges and fan- 
tastic finals. The foundations are, as a rule, 
laid with stones, and the skeleton is constructed^ 
of wood. The roof is usually supported on posts" 
on which rest principal girders made of stout 
timbers, across which purlins are laid, and then 
rafters, and these are covered with tiles. The 
spaces between the posts are filled in with rub- 
ble work or bricks laid in mortar, and the win- 
dows are constructed of wooden framework of 
many different designs, covered with strong 
paper. Among the wealthy classes glass is 
slowly displacing paper, for the Chinese quite 
appreciate the superiority of a transparent over 
a translucent medium ; and it is interesting to 
note the modifications that are taking place in 
their building construction, in order to admit 
of its adoption. 

The model shows the town dwelling of an 
official family who has had the supreme dis- 
tinction of producing a Chuang Yuan, or Senior 
scholar of the Palace Examination, the highest 
literary honor a Chinese student can obtain ; 
the double dragon placard with the gilt charac- 
ters proclaims this fact to the passer-by. The 
house is composed of two buildings, each of two 
stories joined together by covered ways with 
an open court in the middle. As we enter on 
the left is the gate-keeper's lodge, and on the 
right the chair room. At the doorway are two 
carved stone drums, relics of the ancient custom 
of placing drums at the doors of official resi- 
dences for the injured to beat when appealing 
for justice. In the open court under the veran- 
da a grandson is serving tea to the old gentle- 
man of the house, who now enjoys the atten- 
tions and honors due to virtuous old age, while 
his son is addressing a few words of admoni- 
tion to one of his own offspring who is late for 
school. Farther in is the guest hall and family 
altar; and behind is the kitchen. The upper stor- 
ies contain the living rooms proper. In the front 
building to the left is a sitting room; on the 



84 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

right is the school room, where another grand- 
son is seen repeating his lesson with his back 
turned to the tutor, in order that he shall by 
no means see the text. In the back building are 
the bed rooms. 
72 Model of a Jeweler's Shop. This model repre- 

sents a high clasL-i shop, and shows the 
kind of decoration to be seen on the best 
streets of a Chinese city. Its sign is "The Red 
Phoenix," and in keeping with the goods sold 
so it is itself highly ornamented with carved 
balconies, turned pillars, and profuse gilding. 
Business is sometimes done on very little capi- 
tal in China, and in order to make up for the 
small quantity of ready made jewelry on show, 
the shop has to be furnished in an attractive 
manner; and so the two groups of mythological 
figures, together with the chairs, tables, and 
lanterns serve to support the few show cases 
containing the samples of the jeweler's art. 
The group on the left represents Tien Kuan, 
the managing head of the Chinese pantheon, 
who is also said to be the guardian spirit of the 
family, through whose agency blessings and 
good fortune come. He is surrounded by his 
ministering attendants. The right hand group 
represents the P'an Tao Hui-, that is the cele- 
bration of the birthday of Wang Mu Niang 
Niang, the Goddess of the Western Paradise, 
held on the 3rd day of the third moon. She is re- 
ceiving the genii and spirits who come to con- 
gratulate her, and is offering to them spiral 
peaches (P'an T'ao), the eating of which con- 
fers immortality. All these figures are dressed 
in the ancient garb of China, which was worn 
from the T'ang dynasty till the establishment 
of the Ch'ing dynasty. 

Note the effective lighting of the front shop 
by the large roof light ; and also the elaborately 
carved panels and balcony underneath; the 
dense crowding of a Chinese city and also fear 
of burglary compel the architect to resort to 
skylights. 

The notices on the walls protest the high 
quality of the goods and the reasonableness of 
the cost, and also announce to the public that 
the price asked is the only price accepted. On 
the left through the inner doorway is seen a do- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 85 

Exhibit 

Number. 

mestic altar, where daily worship is paid to the 
gods of happiness, wealth and longevity; and 
to the right, behind, is a counting house. 

The upper story is divided into living rooms 
and silversmith's laboratories. The railed-in 
platform on the back roof is used for drying 
clothes. 

73 Model of Tea House. In China the Tea House 

takes the place of the bar and saloon in 
other countries. Here the Chinese meet 
to smoke, gossip, play cards and discuss 
business, and also to settle differences and dis- 
putes ; for in no country in the world is arbi- 
tration resorted to more frequently than in 
China. Every transaction is discussed accord- 
ing to the rules proper to the situation and 
much honor is won by the middleman who pil- 
ots a delicate case to a successful and amicable 
issue. 

While the pros and cons are being set forth 
the interested parties often retire to a tea shop, 
where, for a small sum, they keep their throats 
moist and refresh themselves without the phy- 
sical and moral degradation that so often ac- 
companies the imbibing of alcoholic liquors in 
western countries. 

The model represents a tea shop that does a 
flourishing city business, and in testimony of 
favors received, and others yet to come, the 
owner has erected an altar to the god of wealth 
in the inner guest hall. Its balconies are all 
elaborately carved and are the resort of the 
fashionable men of the town. The ground 
floor also serves as a shop, where the placards 
tell us that only the best teas at cheap prices 
are sold. The first floor is the most spacious, 
farther from the street smells and commands 
a good view, and so it is the most frequented 
part of the building by guests. The second 
floor is also second class, highly respectable, of 
course, but a double warning is posted up 
plainly cautioning the guests to be careful of 
• their money and garments, for the shop keeper 
takes no responsibility. The living apartment 
is behind. 

74 A [oriel of Boot, Fan and Umbrella Shop. This 

is a good class of shop owned by a merchant 
named Ho, who has registered his sign as Chi 



8^ Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



Exhibit 

Number. 

Hsiang Tai (Good-luck, Felicity and Nobility). 
The business is divided into two departments, 
the one on the left for boots and shoes, and the 
other for umbrellas and fans. His placards de- 
clare the goods to be the latest fashion from 
Peking, all high class, and well worth to any- 
one the money charged, and the customer at 
the counter seems by his attitude to be part 
way towards that consummation. Behind there 
is an altar to the god of longevity. The upper 
story is the living apartment. 
75 Model of Carpenter's Shop. The carpenter is 

one of the craftsmen to be found in every 
village. His kit of tools complete would 
cost about two gold dollars and with these he 
is able to produce quite wonderful results. 
There is one great drawback to carpentry in 
China, and that is the scarcity in very many 
places of good wood for house construction. 
Special workmen such as carvers and cabinet 
makers, however, attain a high degree of skill 
in their craft, and also in artistic design, as may 
be witnessed at Ningpo and Canton. 

The model represents a city furniture shop, 
which may be met in any average street, being 
really a work-shop ; its decoration is not elab- 
orate. 

7(> Model of a Farmer's Homestead. As America 

is the country that best .represents "ex- 
tensive," so d° es China represent "intensive" 
cultivation. A Chinese family consisting of 
three generations could live comfortably on a 
piece of ground scarcely large enough to place 
the implements of many an American farm. 
There may or may not be a horse to help to till 
the ground ; probably there will be a cow, a buf- 
falo or a donkey. Human labor is the main 
source of energy, and the farmer, his wife, and 
children all work unremittingly, bestowing in- 
dividual attention to each root, almost to each 
stalk that grows. The ubiquitous pig, a great 
factor in Chinese agricultural economy, is often 
an inmate of house as well as of shed. 

The model sufficiently shows the method of 
house construction, except that the wattling- 
work is covered with mud when winter comes. 
■The primitive furniture consists of a few wood- 
en benches, a table, and some earthenware jars 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



Exhibit 
Number. 

in which are kept the pickled cabbage and grain 
for immediate use. The mud stove is a most 
efficient though simple appliance in which is 
burnt straw, twigs, and all that can be raked or 
scraped from the face of the ground. The far- 
mer's wife is seen grinding at the hand-mill, 
while he himself is having a few puffs of his 
pipe before resuming his day's toil. Outside 
are his two sons, one with a hoe in his hand, the 
other leading out the buffalo and cow. The 
large bin is the receptacle into which the rice 
is threshed, and beside it is a good representa- 
tion of a plough with its yoke and harness. 
77 Model of a Pagoda. The original stands in the 

grounds of Pao Ting Temple, Wuchang. It 
was first erected at the end of the Sung Dynas- 
ty (420-477 A. D.), but was destroyed during 
the Taiping rebellion, and rebuilt. 



GROUP 28. 

. STATIONERY. 

78-81 Paper. Made of bamboo; for writing, printing, etc. 

82-86 Envelopes. Made of straw. 

123 3 White Metal Ink boxes ; chased designs. 

124 1 " " " stand; " 
125-126 2 " " Pen stands; " 

143 1 and ink box; chased design. 



GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

87 2 Bamboo Boxes. 

88 4 Lacquered Spectacle cases. 

130-141 12 White metal water smoking Pipes; chased and fan- 
cy designs. 



GROUP 35. 
ARTICLES FOR TRAVELING AND FOR CAMPING, ETC. 

89-90 4 Umbrellas. Made of oiled paper. 



88 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

GROUP 41. 

HARDWARE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

98-111 Collection of Iron Nails, Clamps, etc. 

White Metal Ware: 
112 2 Incense Burners, with copper lines. 

113-114 2 Braziers. Consisting of basin, three stories and a 
cap, on a carved wooden stand. 

115 2 Cuspidors, with chased designs, 14"xl9". 

116 2 Wash hand basins, with chased designs. 

117 6 sets Tea cups; saucer, cup, and cover, chased with 

flowers and butterflies. 

118 2 Tea Pots, chased designs. 

119 6 Sets Wine Warmers, chased designs ; comprising 

hot water cistern and wine pot. 

120 . 12 Wine Cups, with saucers, chased designs. 

121 6 Mouth " " " " " 

122 6 Fancy Boxes, chased designs. 

127 4 Sets Creuse and Candlestick, chased designs. 

128 2 Hand Warmers, chased designs. 

129 2 Foot Warmers, " 

142 2 Trays, with chased landscapes. 

Pewterware : 

144 Spirit Lamp, with copper chimney and handle chased, 

from Yochow. 

145 Incense Burner, with brass lines on stand, chased, 

from Yochow. 

146 Tea Pot, with brass handle, chased, from Yochow. 

147 Wine Heater, with copper stands, chased, from Yo- 

chow. 
147a 2 Enamelled Trays. 

147b 2 " oval boxes. 

GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

148-149 Cotton Carpeting; white with blue bands and lines. 

150 " five patterns of, various colors, 

151 " Carpets ; eight squares of different patterns 

and colors. 

GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

92 Baby's Cradle. Comprising rocking frame, basket, 

tray, cushion, quilt, pillow, mat and mosquito 
net. 

93-97 5 Straw Pillows. Stuffed with paddy husk. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 80 

GROUP 49. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS, NOT ELECTRICAL, FOR LIGHTING. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

152 One pair Horn Lanterns. 

GROUP 50. 
TEXTILES. 

153 Model of Spinning Wheel to make the cotton yarn 

from which native cloth, or Nankeen, is woven. 

154 Model of Cord-making- machine, showing the appli- 

ance for twisting twine. 

155 Model of Bamboo Rope-making Tower. The rope is 

plaited by hand as shown in the model and is 
made to any size and length. The bamboo 
rope stands much wear and tear. 

GROUP 52. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN BLEACHING, DYEING, 

PRINTING AND FINISHING TEXTILES IN THEIR 

VARIOUS STAGES. 

156 Paper Stencils for indigo printing of cotton cloth. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

160 Cotton Yarn, hand spun. 

161 " No. 14. The product of the Hupeh gov- 
ernment mill, which was established in 1893 
and contains 15,000 spindles. The production 
of yarn does not exceed local demand and a lit- 
tle more for Szechuen, amounting to about 
seven million pounds a year. 

162-163 Cotton, cleaned ; from Shasi. 

164 " nocked; " 

165 " Hankow. 

166 cleaned; " " 

167 cloth, white; woven with native yarn. 
168-170 " " " " " foreign* " i. e., 

Japanese, Indian and English. 
171-173 various colors ; woven with native yarn 

and native dyed. 
174-175 woven with dyed native yarn ; various 

patterns. 
176-177 imitation lambskin. 



90 



Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 
178 

179 
180 
181 



182 

183 
184 
185 
186 



18' 



188 
189 
190 
191 
192 



193 



191-19C 


197- 


199 


200 




201 




202 




203 




201 




205- 


206 


207 




208- 


209 



Cotton cloth, white; woven with native yarn from 
Kingchow. 
light blue, 
dark 

buff. Yochow is celebrated for its 
homespun cotton cloth. w r oven in all 
all the homesteads of the district. The 
production, which is consumed in 
Hunan, is given at 350,000 pieces yearly. 
Foreign yarn has driven the native yarn 
material out of the market; but has in- 
creased production by some 50 per cent. 
The native article is only made to order 
and some 3.000 pieces are made yearly. 
blue striped ; woven with foreign varn. 
checked; 
white; 
ash o-rav; 



Changsha and 



Yochow cloth, dyed 
sold to Canton. 

black ; woven with foreign yarn. Chang- 
sha homespun. Locally dyed and con- 
sumed. 

green ; woven with foreign yarn, 
white; woven with native varn; fine. 

" coarse, 
ash gray ; " " . 

striped ; woven with foreign yarn. A 
specialty of Changteh, where about 
80,000 pieces a year are produced, 
checked ; woven. The latest Yochow 
pattern. Production about 1,000 pieces 
a year, 
tape, various colors; woven with native yarn, 
bands, white, black and white check. 
waist bands, v-arious colors. 
" cords, white and vellow. 

" blue check. 
" " bands, " check. 

Printed cotton cloth, blue figures on white ground; 

stamped on both sides. 
Printed bundle cloth, white figures on blue ground ; 

stamped on one side. 
Printed bundle cloth, wdiite figures on blue ground ; 

stamped on two sides (2 patterns.) 
Printed bundle cloth, blue figures on wdiite ground; 
stamped on two sides. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 91 



Exhibit 
Number. 
210-212 18 Printed handkerchiefs, blue figures on white 
ground ; stamped on two sides. 

213 6 Printed handkerchiefs, white figures on blue ground. 

214 8 Printed bath towels, blue figures on white ground. 

215 Printed pinafore, white figures on blue ground; stamp- 

ed on one side. 

216 Printed pinafore, blue figures on white ground; stamp- 

ed on two sides. 
217-218 2 Printed door curtains, blue figures on white ground; 

stamped on two sides. 
219-220 4 Printed door curtains, white figures on blue ground; 

stamped on two sides. 
221-222 4 Printed woman's coats, white figures on blue ground; 

stamped on one side. 

223 Printed child's jacket, white figures on blue ground; 

stamped on one side. 

224 Printed woman's trousers, white figures on blue 

ground; stamped on one side. 

225 Queue cords; black for ordinary wear, white for 

mourning and blue for half mourning. 

226 Cotton Grey Shirting, 40 yds. by 39 in. ; product of the 

Hupeh Government. Mills. 
227-228 12 Cotton Counterpanes, blue figures on white ground ; 
stamped on both sides. 



GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER 
THAN COTTON. 

229 China Grass Yarn. 

230 Pueraria 
231-232 Rhea 

233 China Grass "' The product of the Hupeh Govern- 

ment Mills. 

234-235 Grass cloth, white, woven from bleached Rhea fibre. 
A large business is done in this article. The 
Liu Yang thread is said to be round and close ; 
while that of the neighboring Kiangsi mart: of 
Wan Tsai is flat and loose. The excellence of 
the Liu Yang water gives the good white color. 

236-237 Grass cloth, grey; natural color. 

238 Grass Cloth, white. This is Pueraria grass cloth (P. 

Thunbergiana). A good quality is called "sil- 
ver thread cloth." A still finer quality is pro- 
duced in private families, and is locally known 
as "girls" cloth. 



02 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

239 Grass Cloth gauze, yellow, made of Pueraria fibre. 

This fabric is made in the Ch'i Yang county, 
southern Hunan. It is a "court" article. The 
fine quality is difficult to obtain. 

240 Hemp gauze, white ; made at Liu-Yang. The manu- 

facture of this article started about 10 years 
ago ; is now a flourishing industry. It is distin- 
guished as the 3, 5 or 7 thread gauze, accord- 
ing to the number of threads in the woof which 
complete the mesh. 

241 Rhea fibre Netting. Green. The chief colors are 

green, white or white and green. It is largely 
used in Hunan. 

242 Twine, white ; made from China grass, from Changsha. 

243 Queue Cords of China grass. White is used during 

mourning and blue for half mourning. 
244-243 Hemp Twine. 
249 Coir 

250-2 " Rope. 

GROUP 56. 

YARNS AND FABRICS OF ANIMAL FIBRES. 

253-254 4 Blankets. Cotton warp and woolen woof, from Kal- 
gan. The great patches of color are due to 
colored woof and the details are printed and 
painted ; also used as rugs and warps. 

255-25G Red Felt, made of sheep's wool ; used as a sleeping rug, 
for saddle cloths, coverings, warp, etc. 

257-258 White Felt. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

259 Raw silk, white; best quality, from Mien-Yang-Chow. 

260 " " yellow; " 

261 " '' " second quality, from Mien-Yang- 

Chow. 



262 '• " white; best 

263 " ' ; vellow; " 

264 " ■ " second 

265 • '• " white; best 

266 " " vellow; second 

267 " " 

268 Coarse Raw Silk. 

269 " " " ends. 

270 Waste " 

271 Refuse Cocoons. 

272 Wild Raw Silk. 



Huang Chow. 

a (t 

Ho- Yung. 
Nan Yangf, 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 93 



Exhibit 
Number. 

273-74 Raw Silk, yellow and white; from Ho-Yung in Hupeh. 

275-7G white and yellow ; Imperial Dragon Chop ; 

the product of the Hupeh Government 
Steam Filature. 

277-78 Silk Thread, various colors, fine and coarse. 

279 6 Pieces Pongee Silk, various colors with flower pat- 

terns ; "from Honan. 

280-281 6 Pieces Pongee silk, various colors with flower pat- 
terns, from Hankow. 

282-283 2 Pieces white plain silk, from Honan. 

284 1 Satin bed cover, with woven geometrical patterns of 

various colors, from Hupeh. 

285-286 2 Satin bed covers with woven geometrical patterns of 
various colors, from Kingchow. 

287 1 Satin bed cover, with stripes and flowers, from King- 

chow. 

288 6 Satin bed covers, various colors, from Shasi. 

289 6 Pieces silk, 

290-293 4 Pieces silk, black and yellow, from Changsha. 

294 Silk Crepe, black. 

295 Silk Queue cords, various colors. 

296 5 Pieces Velvet of various colors. 

297 1 Piece Velvet, with cotton back and silk face; steel grey. 



GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

298 Silk Embroidery worked on red satin ground by hand, 

with silk floss and imitation gold thread, green 
silk fringe and cotton lining. The scene repre- 
sents the celebration of the birthday of Kuo 
Tzu I, the renowned hero who restored the 
Tang dynasty (756 A. D.), and placed the son 
of Tang Ming Wong on the throne, the emperor 
himself retiring in favor of his heir. 
Kuo Tzu I., is the old gentleman with the 
white beard sitting on the right of the cere- 
monial table ; on the left is his wife. On the ex- 
treme right enters the emperor's messenger, 
bringing presents, and a congratulatory tab- 
let, bearing the inscription : "May your whole 
house be happy and prosperous." On the ex- 
treme left approaches a lady, sitting in a car- 
riage, sent by the empress to filicitate the hero 
wife. 

299-300 13 Pieces Silk Fancy Trimmings, various colors. 

301 12 " Cotton " ' 



94 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



GROUP 61. 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

302 Child's jacket. 

303 Woman's trousers. 

304-305 Hat; made of bamboo and oil paper, from I. Yang. 
306 2 Straw Fans. 

307-308 4 Bamboo- Fans. 

GROUP 72. 
CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHT'S WORK. 
Models of : 

390 Sedan chair. An ordinary gentry and semi-official 

town chair. 

310 Sedan chair. For country traveling in Hunan. 

311 Wheelbarrow. The wheelbarrow is one of the most 

ancient and universal means of transportation 
in China. It is a framework of wood with a 
large wheel in the middle ; a platform covers 
and protects the wheel, and two side platforms 
carry the goods or passengers as the case may 
be. The man pushes between the shafts and 
uses a shoulder strap to balance the weight over 
his body and to help him to manipulate the vehi- 
cle. Small barrows are pushed by one man; when 
the load is heavy, however, men or animals are 
harnessed with ropes and pull in front. A 
weight of more than a ton may thus be trans- 
ported along narrow tracks, where carts could 
not travel. 

312 Wheelbarrow with sail, chiefly used in Hunan. 

313 Wheelbarrows with two wheels; the projecting front 

wheel enables the barrow and its load to pass 
over the numerous cutting in the roadways. 
These "cuttings" being the open waterways 
connecting field with field for purposes of irri- 
gation. 

314 Buffalo Cart, commonly employed in agriculture and 

in commerce where the roads permit of its use. 
It is often a very rudely constructed appliance 
made by the farmer himself, with the simplest 
tools, and there are still to be seen carts with- 
out a single piece of iron in their construction. 
Two harp wood shafts are connected by beams, 
upon which the box of the cart is built. Wheel 
with nave, spokes and felloes all bound to- 
gether with an iron tyre are used for higher 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. $> 



Exhibit 
Number. 



class carts, but often the wheel is solid, made of 
two cross pieces with planks filling in the emp- 
ty spaces, and flat headed nails driven into the 
edge, to resist wear while wheels and axle all 
turn together. As the bearing parts are never 
greased, a horrid creaking accompanies the 
slightest movement of the cart, without which 
it is said the buffalo would refuse to advance. 

GROUP 73. 
SADDLERY AND HARNESS. 



315 Donkey Panniers. 

316 Pack Saddle. 

317 Camel Saddle. 



GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

Models of : 

318 Coal Junk. Capachy 50 to 80 tons and car- 

ries coal from Paoking in Hunan to Hankow. 
It is built of pine planks roughly fastened to- 
gether, just securely enough to enable the boat 
to perform one journey only; for on arrival at 
its destination it is broken up ; the timbers are 
sold and the ropes, anchors, etc., are returned to 
Paoking. 

319 General Cargo Junk. Wuchang Boat of Changsha ; 

capacity about 16 tons ; size 60 ft. by 10 ft. by 
6 ft. draft. Built of hard and soft wood. Trad- 
ing to Hankow with paddy, rice and paper; re- 
turning with foreign sundries. 

320 General Cargo Junk. Tao-ha-tzi Boat of Changsha; 

capacity about 18 tons ; size 60 ft by 11 ft. bv 
6 ft. draft. 

321 Official passenger Boat. Capacity about 19 tons. Size 

62 ft. by 12 ft. by 6 ft. 6 in. draft. Made of hard 
wood with movable compartments. Passenger 
boat chiefly from west Hunan. Return with 
cargo if obtainable. Built specially for shallows 
above Changteh. 
Coal Junk. Built at Hengchow of hardwood and en- 
gaged chieflv in the coal carrying- trade ; capa- 
city up to 50 tons; size 70 ft. by 13 ft. by 7 ft. 
draft. 



39.9. 



96 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

323 General cargo junk. Paoking Chintzu boat; capacity 

27 tons. Sixe 65 ft. x 13 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. draft. 
Trade to Hankow with coal, hides, rice and 
steel, etc., returning with a cargo of foreign 
sundries. 

324 Passenger Boat. Manchianghung boat of Siangtou and 

Changsha. Divided into compartments with 
windows. Used chiefly by officials and others 
for traveling. In tea season are freighted for 
Hankow. 95 tons capacitv. Size 100 ft. by 20 
ft. by 14 ft. draft. 

325 Salt Tunk. Tiaokoutzu boat of Changsha and Siang- 

* ton; capacity 70 (to 180) tons. Size 90' x 18' x 
12' draft 

326 Coal Junk; capacitv 50 to 60 tons. 

327 General Cargo Junk ; length 80 ft. x 14 x 7 ft. draft. 

Capacitv 60 tons. 

328-329 2 River Guard boats. 

330-336 7 Salt Junks. 

337 General Cargo Tunk. 

338 Official 

339 Salt 

340 Sugar 

341 Salt and cotton " 
342-345 4 Salt junks. 

346 Passenger Junk. 

347 Salt 

348 Rice 

349 Official 
350-351 2 Salt Junks. 

352 Middle Yangtze raft. The rafts that come to Hankow 

are great structures of 300 to 500 feet long, 
from 50 to 100 feet broad, and 6 to 20 feet deep. 
From 10,000 to 15,000 trunks are used in build- 
ing up one raft; it forms a floating island upon 
which a little village is erected where live the 
100 or 150 men required for its navigation. 
The greater part of the timber comes from dis- 
tant regions of the Empire, from the great for- 
ests surrounding the Tung-ting lake, from 
Szechuan, Yunnan and the Thibetan borders. 
On the Upper Yangtze the rafts are made not 
quite so deep, as lower down they may have to 
be reconstructed two or three times during 
their journey down stream, and gradually in- 
crease in size as the river admits of their occu- 
pying more space, gathering additions from 
different places on their way East, till they 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 97 

Exhibit 
Number. 

reach at last a depot about 10 miles from the 
junction of the Han and Yangtze, where they 
are usually rebuilt into sections. The naviga- 
tors trust to the current to bring them to their 
destination at Chinkiang — a distance of about 
500 miles, lower than Hankow. The trip 
occupies from two to four months, and in cases 
where the reconstruction of the raft is neces- 
sary, it may take as long as a year to complete 
the entire journey. The approximate value of 
a raft of average size is about $30,000 Mex. 

353 Hunan raft. Rafts of timber and bamboo are floated 

down in great numbers from the hill district in 
the central and western parts of Hunan and 
from the borders of adjacent provinces. The 
value of this timber trade has been estimated 
at eight million dollars, gold, a year. 

354-360 Plated and twisted bamboo ropes ( cables), commonly 
used on the Upper Yangtze river for tracking, 
hauling and anchoring vessels on their hazard- 
ous journeys. 

The plaited kinds Nos. 354-357 are made 
from bamboo imported by boat and raft from 
Hunan. Three men working together — one 
plaiting, two splitting and stripping the bam- 
boo and serving the plaiter — can, in the space 
of three days, make a coil of rope 1,860 feet 
long, and varying from 3 to 6 inches in cir- 
cumference. Their earnings in addition to 
food, are 1,600 cash — 90 cents gold. A coil of 
this class of rope sells for 7,000 to 20,000 cash 
according to thickness and quality. 

The twisted kinds Nos. 358-360 similar in 
make, to ordinary Manila rope, are manufac- 
tured in lengths of about 230 feet from the 
outer strips of the bamboo. 



GROUP 80. 

FERTILIZERS. 

361 Bean Cake. The ripe beans and peas are crushed and 

boiled soft, the mass is then pressed into cakes 
and the oil extracted, these cakes are used ex- 
tensively as a manure in the cultivation of the 
sugar cane. 



98 



Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



GROUP 81. 

TOBACCO. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
362-364 Tobacco leaf. 
365 Tobacco Cutter. Comprising tobacco holder, plane, 

knife, mallet, box, tray. 

The leaf is first treated with tea or hemp oil 

and then placed as shown in the holder, then 

shaved off with the plane. 
366, Tobacco prepared. Hupeh, line cut, for smoking in 

water pipes. 

367 Tobacco prepared. Hupeh, coarse cut, for smoking 

in long pipes. Szeclmen and Hupeh mixture. 

368 Tobacco prepared. Hupeh, very fine cut used in 

water pipes. 

369 Tobacco prepared. Hupeh cut, chiefly smoked by 

women. 
370-37 2 Tobacco prepared. Fukien finest cut bleached 
before cutting. 

373 Tobacco prepared. Cake tobacco, finest flavor. 

374 Tobacco prepared. Cake, tobacco, smoked by the 

wealthy. 

375 Tobacco prepared. Fine cut, high quality. 



GROUP 84. 

VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

377-379 Paddy. 

380-383 Sessamum Seeds. Black and white. 

384 Green Beans. 

385 Yellow t% 

386 Broad " 

387 Yellow Peas. 

388 Black Bfens. 

389 Black and vellow Beans. 

390 Yellow 

391 Black 

392 Black Fungus. 

393 Lily Flowers. 

394 Lotus Nuts. 

395 Cabbage Seed. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 99 

GROUP 87. 

VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

Miscellaneous Plants and Their Products. 

NOTES ON CHINA TEA. 

By Wm. MacDonald, A.R.S.M., F.I.C., F.C.S., I. M. Customs, China. 

The tea plant has been cultivated by the Chinese for more than 
a thousand years — some hold for fifteen hundred — and native tra- 
dition says that it was discovered by Chin Nung, who lived 2737 B. 
C. Whether this latter statement be true or not, the infusion of its 
dried leaves as a beverage is mentioned by a Chinese writer of the 
sixth century, and in 793 A. D., a tax was levied on tea by the 
government, (Enclo. Brit.) The early travelers, from the West — 
Portuguese, Dutch and English — mention it as forming a feature 
of Chinese social and commercial life ; and during the last century 
and a half, tea has won for itself a place in the economy of all 
civilized nations, nearly half the inhabitants of the globe now using 
it in one form or another. Its English name is derived from a 
word in the Amoy dialect, "tay" (ch'a in Mandarin) ; and the term 
is applied to the plant itself, and also to the infusion of its leaves. 

The tea plant (Ternstromiacae, Thea sinensis), found in two 
varieties in China, is a bushy, hardy evergreen, closely allied to 
the Camellia, that can grow over a wide range of climate, and is 
indigenous to South and Mid-China, Southern Japan and Northern 
India. In cultivation it is allowed to reach a height of about three 
feet, but rarely five ; it is stated, however, that wild in Assam it 
attains to thirty or forty feet, with leaves nine inches long, and 
a stem about one foot in diameter. The flowers are single and 
white, appearing in great numbers in winter and spring. The 
leaves are elliptical, serrated and veined. In China they are very 
seldom more than four inches long; and those used in commerce 
do not, as a rule, exceed two inches long by one inch broad. Dur- 
ing the progressive stages of development, the veins and cellular 
structure are characteristic, so that an expert can tell with fair 
accuracy the age of a particular leaf. The cultivator, however, 
does not aim at greatness of size, but at goodness of quality and 
flavor. 

Practical experiments have been made in the West Indies, 
South Carolina, some of the Southern States of South America and 
Brazil, in South Africa and also in Australia, with more or less 
success ; while of recent years the enormous development of the 
tea industry in India and Ceylon forms quite a feature of interna- 
tional commerce. 

In order to flourish and bear leaves worthy of being preserved 
— the tea plant requires a tropical moist climate where copious 
rains fall, and a soil suited to its peculiar needs — moderately rich, 
but somewhat sandy and friable, well drained, yet not lacking in 



100 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



moisture, particularly the subsoil. These favorable conditions are 
found on the hill slopes and in the valleys of the. provinces of 
Kuangtung. Fukien and Chekiang ; but especially does tea grow to 
perfection in the Yangtze Valley — Kiangsu, Anhui, Kiangsi, and in 
Hupeh and Hunan, the regions of China in which black tea is 
now principally produced. 

The tea of commerce is of two kinds, black and green, which 
at one time were thought to be the products of two different plants ; 
but it has been established that the difference depends entirely upon 
the various processes employed in their preparation. 

The Tea Season. The tender leaves and leaf-buds are gath- 
ered at three of four periods during the season, each crop grad- 
ually decreasing in fragrance and value ; but only the first and 
part of the second are sent abroad, the balance being converted into 
the coarser grades consumed by the poor classes in China. The 
first crop begins early in April, the second a month later, the third 
in July, and the fourth extends over August, into September; the 
exact dates vary a little according to latitude, and as to whether 
the season be late or early. 

Preparation. The different operations of withering, squeezing, 
fermenting, rolling and firing are not followed with unvarying ob- 
servance either of order or of duration of time, each district having 
evolved the details of its own special method; still, in order to se- 
cure the maximum combination of uniformity and fineness of quali- 
ty in the final product, each step in the curing of a special picking 
has to be performed with regularity and great watchfulness ; delay 
in finishing one operation or hastiness in another may utterly spoil 
the whole picking. 

Green Tea. The newly gathered leaves are spread out thinly 
on bamboo trays, and exposed for two or three hours in order to 
dry and partially wither. They are then thrown in handfuls on to 
a hot iron pan, where they are kept in rapid motion for four or 
five minutes. As the heat acts on the sap, the leaves become soft 
and flaccid, they crackle and give off vapor. They are then trans- 
ferred to a rolling table of rattan or bamboo, where the workmen 
each seize a handful and make it up into a ball of a size convenient 
to manipulate, which is rolled and squeezed to get rid of some of 
the juice, and to twist the leaves. The balls pass from one work- 
man to another who repeat the operation till at last careful exami- 
nation shows that the squeezing and curling are finished, and the 
color of the proper shade. The leaves are now opened out and fired 
a second time by roasting in iron pans under which burns a char- 
coal fire. If necessary the leaves are rolled and fired again. The 
final roasting is done at a temperature which completely dries 
them. "And all is conducted as quickly- as possible in order to 
conserve the green color and prevent fermentation." For the finest 
qualities firing and rolling may be repeated a fourth time. When 
finished the leaves are carefully sifted and picked, and then win- 
nowed free from dust; thus they pass into the market as "Hi cha" 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 101 



It will be noted that green tea retains nearly all its original 
oil and sap, and it is consequently more bitter than black tea. 

Black Tea. Strictly speaking we may take it that the leaves 
for green and black tea both undergo fermentation ; for as soon 
as the leaf is picked it begins to wither, and chemical changes must 
result ; but the degree to which fermentation is allowed to proceed 
in the case of green tea is very slight ; while with black tea it is 
induced, and forms an essential element in its preparation. 

The fresh leaves to be converted into black tea are exposed in 
large bamboo trays to the air, and sometimes to sunlight, for sev- 
eral hours ; or it may be they are kept over night. During this 
withering process they are tossed about and beaten at intervals 
till they are soft. They are then heaped up and allowed to stand 
for an hour or more, during which time they change to a darker 
color. They are now transferred to a hot iron pan on which they 
are moved, and shaken about for five minutes, till soft and pliable, 
and then rolled, as above described in the making of green tea, 
but in this case with the purpose of expressing as much as possible 
of the juice. 

Sometimes, however, the sap is expressed before firing by 
putting the partially dried leaves into cotton bags, which are placed 
in wooden boxes the sides of which are pierced with numerous 
holes. Here they are pressed and kneaded in order to extract the 
juice, which "flows out through the holes as a semi-vicid greenish 
fluid, and the amount expressed is considerable." The object of 
this is to remove some of the tannin, which if left in would render 
the infusion too bitter. (I. M. Customs, Yellow Book. "Tea.") Af- 
ter rolling, the leaves are transferred to baskets and covered up in 
order to favor the fermentative action. The temperature rises 
sensibly, and is sustained till the chemical changes have gone far 
enough, after which the leaves are shaken out and spread on trays. 

The tea is next thrown on to hot iron pans and rapidly shaken 
about for four or five minutes, as already noted. It is at this 
stage that the characteristic aroma of tea comes out. The opera- 
tions of roasting and rolling are repeated as often as juice can be 
expressed, but the number of times depends on the custom of the 
locality, the quality of leaf manipulated, and the demands of the 
market. Congou tea which is one of the well known names, means 
"skillfully worked.'' As a rule the final firing — usually the second 
or third — is performed by the tea-man, that is the wholesale buyer, 
who establishes himself at a convenient -center where he purchases 
from the growers, and classifies and blends the various pickings 
that go to make up the "chops." These he selects from the tea of 
a district that yields a uniform product. He it is who gives the 
tea its final sifting and sorting, and packs it in lead-lined boxes 
ready for export. 

Teas are commonly named after the districts that produce 
them, and they are further denoted by a "chop," which in a some- 
what indefinite manner, indicates their peculiar flavor. This, how- 
ever, changes from year to year, and the watching and valuing of 



102 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

it, is the special province of the "ch'asee," or tea-taster, who is an 
expert, not only in testing the fineness and value of tea, but also 
in knowing what chops suit, for the time being, the taste of the 
different markets of the world. 

The following are the names of the chief districts that produce 
the black tea exported from Hankow : 

Kiangsi. Ping Hsiang, Kiukiang, Man Kiang, Keemun, Wen 
Kai, Liu Ting, Liu Chow-Chi-an, Ho Kow. 

Hupeh. Ichang, Onfa,Nieh Chia Szu, T'ao Yuen, Yang Lou 
Tung, Kao Chi'ao, Tung Shan, Yang Lou Ssu, Li Ling, Hsiang 
Tan, Hsiang Yin, Yung Feng, Tsung Yang. 

Hunan. Chang Shou Kai, Li Lin, Liu Yang. 

The cultivation and preparation of tea have nowhere in the 
world yet reached the highest possible state of perfection. Mr. 
Bredon (now Sir Robert) said in 18*87 : " All (foreign tea mer- 
chants) seem to make light of the question of chemical com- 
position, the knowledge of which I personally consider is an 
absolute necessity if one wants a really correct idea of where- 
in the difference between Indian and Chinese Teas consists, 
and how much of that difference is traceable to original qual- 
ity of leaf, and how much is due to the diverse pro- 
cesses of preparation to which each variety is particularly sub- 
jected." Exact qualitative knowledge regarding the organic sub- 
stances present in tea leaves at the time of picking and throughout 
the various stages of preparation, is not available. Not much even 
is recorded about the quantities of the constituents of aqueous 
infusions, such as are ordinarily drank. Still, there is good reason 
to believe that the important therapeutic and agreeable properties 
of tea depend chiefly upon three substances, viz : Theine, Tannin 
and Oil of Tea. 

Analysis. Dr. Bell, in his "Chemistry of Foods,'' gives the 



following analvsis of two China teas : 



Congou Young Hyson 



(Black.) (Green.) 

Moisture 8.20 5.96 

Theine 3.24 2.33 

Albumen, insoluble 17.20 16.83 

Albumen, soluble 70 .80 

Extractive by alcohol, containing nitro- 
genous matter 6 . 79 7 . 05 

Dextrin or Gum .50 

Pectin and Pectic Acid 2 . 60 3.22 

Tannin 16.40 27.14 

Chlorophyll and Resin 4.60 4.20 

Cellulose 34.00 25.90 

Ash 6.27 6.07 



100.00 100.00 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 103 

The following results obtained by Professor Dittmar, F. R. S., 
from two samples of tea, one India and the other China, each at -Jd 
a pound, may be of some interest in comparing the amounts of 
Theine and Tannin in each case : 



I. Indian. 

Per cent. 

Theine 3.78 

Tannin . 9.68 



China. 
Per cent. 
4.10 

6.16 



II. Number of grains of Theine and Tannin present in the 



infusion derived from 100 grains of tea leaves 



Indian. 

Time of infusion 10 min. 20 min. 

Theine found 3.01 2.96 

Tannin found 5.96 6 . 53 



China. 

10 min. 20 min. 

3.32 3.37 

5.50 3.86 



III. Quantities of Theine and Tannin in the infusion per 
respectively 100 parts of total Theine and 100 parts of total Tannin 
in the tea leaves infused. 





Indian. 


China. 


Time of infusion 


10 min. 20 min. 


10 min. 20 min. 


Theine 


79.00 79.00 


81.60 81.60 


Tannin 


61.60 67.50 


58.20 64.20 



Theine is an alkaloid ( c s H io N 4°2) r i cn ni nitrogen, readily 
soluble in hot water, and to it is due the beneficial and stimulating 
properties of tea, which contains up to 4% of it. 

Tannin has a bitter, pungent taste; its presence in large quan- 
tities is certainly deleterious, and being the most abundant of the 
soluble substances in the leaf, it is very important to get rid of as 
much of it as possible; this is what extraction of the juice and fer- 
mentation tend greatly to effect. 

Oil of Tea is a volatile stimulating substance to which the 
characteristic odor of tea is principally due. 

We must now note the all important and complicated quality 
called flavor, which although, from the commercial point of view, 
it takes the first place, does not lend itself to detailed scientific 
analysis. It is governed by the presence of substances that af- 
fect the senses of taste and smell — the most prominent of which is 
oil of tea — yet the amounts of these delicate ingredients in tea are 
so small as to be quite beyond quantitative determination and in- 
dividual separation. The high class black teas of China, however, 
unquestionably possess to a greater degree than any others the 
properties that contribute to fineness of flavor and excellence of 
quality. They yield a refreshing, wholesome beverage that invig- 
orates both mind and body; it produces activity of thought and 
restores energy to the weary muscles, soothing while gently ex* 



104 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

hilarating, and differing from most other stimulants in that it leaves 
behind neither exhaustion nor collapse. 

How to make tea. Heat the tea pot by pouring into it some 
hot water, and then decant. For every pint of water that the tea- 
pot holds, use an ordinary teaspoonful of leaves, and pour over 
them boiling hot water to the required amount. Cover the pot 
with a cosey and allow infusion to proceed for five minutes (as tea 
tasters rk>). The leaves should be placed loosely in some con- 
trivance whereby the}' can be removed, such as a clean linen 
or cotton bag, a tea-egg, of silver or nickel gauze or a per- 
forated cylinder suspended in the inside of the pot from its mouth. 
For good tea ten minutes' infusion is too long; if extra strength is 
desired, use more leaves, do not prolong infusion ; sugar and cream 
may be added according to taste, and instead of cream a piece of 
lemon as is done in Russia. 



Exhibit 
Number. 
396-39? I. Cheong Chop. 

398-399 Hsien Pin Chop. 

Tea — Ichang District — yields the finest teas for quality and 
flavor. They are produced only in limited quantity, and are mostly 
exported to Russia. 

41)0-101 Kee Hing Chop. 
402-403 Teen Hing Chop. 
404-405 Foo Cheong Chop. 

Tea — Ningchow District. These teas are grown on the high 
hills of the district, and are undoubtedly among the very finest and 
most' delicate flavored Congou teas produced in China. 

400-407 Mut Wha Chop. 
408-409 Shing Kee Chop. 

Tea — Onfar (or Onfa) District is a very large one that pro- 
duces teas noted for their strength and aromatic flavor, both of 
which qualities vary somewhat according to the elevation. 

410-411 Sin Chun Chop. 
412-413 Hoev Yoey Chop. 
414-415 Ming Gua Chop. 

Tea — Kee Mun District producing black teas of high quality 
that yield a strong liquor. 

457-458 Tea Oil, expressed from tea seeds, is an excellent lamp 

oil. 
466 Rice, glutinous. 

4(57-68 " white; 2 qualities. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 105 

Exhibit 
Number. 

469 Rice, a specially fine grain from a locality near to 

Siangtan. The fields are watered from a well, 
which supplies about 600 acres of ground. This 
grain is some 10% heavier than other rice. 

470 Chin Kong Rice. 

471 Chang Sha Rice. 

472 Wheat, hulled ; from Chang-sha. 
47: : > "Wheat, hulled, from Yochow. 
474 Wheat, hulled; from Hankow. 

GROUP S9. 
PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 



475 


Almonds. 


476 


Red Dates. 


477 


Black Dates. 


478 


Dried Persimmons: 




GROUP 93. 



SYRUPS AND LIQUORS— DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL 

ALCOHOL. 

479 Samshu (wine), red; distilled from Barbadoes millet, 

(Kao liang.) 

480 Samshu (wine), white; distilled from Barbadoes millet. 

481 Samshu (wine), yellow; distilled from wheat. 

GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

482 Cotton Plant. 

483 Raw Cotton with seeds. 

484 Cotton Seed, Pods with seed. 

485 Tea Seed, dried. 

4S6 " " with husk. 

487 " " from Hengchow. 

488 " from Hsiang-tan. 

489 Vegetable Tallow. 

490 Seeds. 

491 Wood Oil seeds. 

492 Cotton Seeds. 

493-495 Wood Oil, black and white. The wood oil tree — Aleur- 
ites cordata, M. Arg. — was scattered about 
among the fields. It seems to prefer thin-soiled 
rocky ground, being met with in great abund- 
ance on the banks of the Yangtze west of 
Ichang. It grows to a height of about fifteen 



106 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

feet, and has large beautiful, shady green leaves, 
with bunches of small pink white flowers. It pro- 
duces a large green fruit like an apple, the large 
pips or seed of which contain the oil for which 
the tree is famous. The fruit is gathered in 
August and September. Primitive wooden 
presses with wedges are used for extracting 
the oil, which is sent to market in wooden tubs 
with tight fitting lids, and is employed for a 
variety of purposes, such as the manufacture of 
paint, varnish, waterproof paper, umbrellas, as 
well as for lighting. 

496 Vegetable Tallow from the fruit of the varnish tree 

(rhus vernicifera.) 

497 Vegetable Tallow manufactured at Shasi from the 

seeds of the Tallow Tree (Stillingia sebrifera.) 

498 Vegetable oil manufactured at Shasi from the seeds of 

the Tallow Tree ; used principally as a lamp oil. 

499 Animal Tallow. 

500 Gallnuts, smooth, (Nux gallae:) These are the galls 

produced by a coccus upon the Rhussemi Alata 
tree. The nuts are. steamed to kill the insects. 
These galls are used by dyers and tanners to 
produce a black color, or are mixed with cochi- 
neal and other coloring substances to produce 
gray, brown and fawn tints. Largely employed 
in the manufacture of foreign ink. 

501 Gallnuts, horny. 

502 Gallnuts, cones. 

503 Gallnuts, acorns. 



GROUP 96. 
USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

504 Yellow Cocoons. 

505 Yellow Bee's Wax. The honey combs are boiled and 

the liquid product is cooled in a mould; used 
for coating pills, for polishing woodwork, and in 
the manufacture of candles. 

506 White Wax. The excreted product of an insect, (coc- 

cus pela), that lives on the leaves of a kind of 
privet (Ligustrum lucidum). Szechuen is the 
chief source of production, but Kwei-Chow, 
Hunan, Fukien, Che Kiang and Anhui also 
supply a certain amount. It is used in the 
manufacture of candles, but since the great in- 
crease in the use of kerosene oil lamps the cul- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 107 

Exhibit 

Number. 

ture of the wax insect has greatly declined. It 
is also used for giving a gloss to silk, and in 
medicine for covering pills. 



GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FORESTS AND FOREST 

INDUSTRIES. 

507 Elm. (Saphora Japonica). The blossoms are used for 

making a yellow dye, and the timber for tillers 
and helms. 

508 Cedar. (Thuja oriantalis). Used in boat-building and 

making furniture. 

509 Pear'tree. (Pyrus sinensis). Used for furniture and 

joinery. 

510 White pine. (Cunninghamia sinensis). Used for house 

construction and common carpentry. 

511 Red pine. Used for house construction and as piles. 

512 (Ligusticum sinense). — Used for buckets, tubs and 

boat building. 

513 Willow. (Salix babylonica). Used for special beams 

in house construction. 

514 Boix. (Boixus sempervirens). Used for chopsticks,. 

cups and spoons. 

515 (Cedrela odorata). — The buds are boiled in water and 

eaten. 

516 Camphor Wood. (Laurus Camphora), Used in cabi- 

net making and boat building. 

517 Coir. This name is given to the fibrous integument 

of undeveloped or abortive leaves or a special 
coating to protect each year's budding leaves 
of various species of palm trees (Chamoerops 
excoelsa C. Fortunei) from which they are 
gathered in spring. The fibre is not long but 
is strong, and useful in making ropes, brooms, 
brushes, etc. 

518 Coir fibre, combed. The raw product is softened by 

steeping in water and combed with an iron 
comb. 
519-523 Bed Mats. The grass from which these much-prized 
mats are wove grows on the hills in the south 
of Hunan adjoining Kuangtung. They are a 
most useful and cooling adjunct to a couch in 
hot weather. 

524 Coir rain coat; used by the poorer classes, especially 

by laborers. 

525 Resin. 



108 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



GROUP 115. 

WORKING OF MINES, ORE BEDS AND STONE QUARRIES. 

Exhibit 

Number. 
526 Gold washing Pan and bamboo holder. With this 

Primitive pan a Chinese will laboriously toil 
for some six cents gold per day. The bam- 
boo tube is the receptacle into which the 
gold specks are carefully washed after each 
panful has been treated. This tube is 
tied either to the leg or around the waist. 
Alluvial gold is found in many parts of China 
but it hardly repays the labor of working. Af- 
ter summer floods around Yochow, men — 
chiefly wind-bound crews of boats and rafts — 
may be seen to work, happy if they can add a 
few cents to their wages. The Yangtze river 
is known in its upper reaches as the "River of 
gold sand," and the same name it would seem 
might be applied to the Hunan rivers in their 
mountain homes. 



GROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

527 Saltpetre, from Changsha. 
528-529 Sulphur from Lichow. 

530 Coke from Hengchow. 

531 Hard Coal, from Hengchow. 

532 Anthracite Coal, from Chang Yang in Hupeh. 

533 Anthracite Coal, from Ho Yung in Hupeh. 

534 Antimonite. Sulphide of antimony, from Hengchow. 

535 Math. Malted sulphide of antimony. This is first 

furnace product on the way to extraction of the 
metal. This math or regulus is sent to Hankow 
where it is refined. 

536 Bulende. Sulphide of zinc from Hengchow. The 

ore is exported to Hankow where it is concen- 
trated and then re-exported to Europe. 

537 Galena. Sulphide of lead; from Hengchow. 

538 Copper carbonate from Feng Huang. 

539 Cinnabar. Mercury sulphide, from Feng Huang. 

540 Vermilion. Mercury sulphide, from Chen Chow. 

541 Vermilion,, from Hankow. 

542 Copper Ore, from Yochow. 

543-514 Galena. Sulphide of lead, from Chin Chow. 

545 Nickel. 

546-547 Auriferous Quartz, from Ping Chiang. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




547a 


Haematite. 


547b 


Pyrolencite. 


547c 


Limestone. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 109 



Massive Ferric oxide. 
Massive Manganic oxide. 
Massive Carbonate of Galium. 

The Ta-Yeh mines, about sixty miles lower down the Yangtze than 
Hankow were rediscovered some ten years ago, at a time when the 
Chinese seriously began to undertake mining operations. The name of 
the county, meaning "great smelting" suggested to the Viceroy Chang- 
Chih-Tung that the place had at some former period been the scene of 
metallurgical works, and after search an enormous deposit' of iron ore 
was found, accompanied by a certain amount of manganese ore ; with 
good limestone near at hand, and also there were discovered distinct 
traces of former smelting operations, which are supposed to date as 
far back as the Tang dynasty. The ore is used in the Han Yang Iron 
"Works and also exported to Japan 

GROUP 118. 
METALLURGY. 

548 Pig Iron, 5 specimens. 

549 Rolled Steel Angles ; 2 specimens. 
5.50 . Rolled Steel Rods ; 9 

551 Rolled Steel Angles : 2 

552 Rolled Steel Bars; 6 

553 Section of Steel Rail showing bolted joint. 

In 1893 the Hupeh Government Iron and Steel Works near the 
city of Han Yang were established by His Excellency, the Viceroy 
Chang Chili Tung. The total capital invested amounted to six 
million taels. The yearly manufacture of iron amounts to about 
two hundred thousand tons, and the yearly expenditure to about 
one million two hundred thousand taels. For every ton of iron 
produced, one tael is paid to the Government as a sort of refund 
of the capital invested. Besides the steel required for the arsenal, 
these works produce the rails used in the construction of the Pe- 
king-Hankow railway. 

554 Pig iron from Paoking, prepared by native methods. 

555 Iron bars from Paoking 

556 Steel from Changsha ; " It 

enjoys a considerable reputation in and out of 
Hunan. 



GROUP 121. 
PRODUCTS OF HUNTING. 
Feathers : 
~^u Reeve's Pheasant. 

55S Golden Pheasant. 

559 Heron. 



110 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




560 


Heron. 


561 


Heron. 


562 


Duck. 


563 


Duck. 


564 


Duck. 


565 


Duck. 


566 


Wild Duck. 


567 


Mandarin Duck'. 


568 


Vulture. 


569 


Royal Eagle. 


570 


Brown Eagle. 


571 


Yellow Eagle. 


572 


Striped Eagle. 


573 


Eagle down. 


574 


Bustard. 


575 


Swan. 


576 


Crane. 


577 


Corean Crane. 


578 


Owl. 


579 


Silver Pelican. 


580 


Goose. 


581 


Gull. 


582-583 


Fowl. 




GROUP 127. 




ETHNOLOGY. 



q$± Domestic Shrine to the God of Wealth. Xo Idol in 

China is more universally worshipped than T'sai 
Shen Yeh, the God of Wealth. His shrine is to 
be found in nearly every home, high and low 
are always ready to burn a stick of incense be- 
fore him. . He is considered to be the deified 
spirit of Pi-Kan — a sage of the 12th century,. 
B. C, who was a relative of the infamous tyrant 
Chou Hsin, the last ruler of the Shang dynasty. 
Pi-Kan reproved him for his wickedness, where- 
upon the emperor ordered that the sage's heart 
should be cut out in order to see if there were 
really seven orifices in the seat of the wise man's 
intelligence, as commonly believed to be the 
case. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. Ill 

EXHIBITED BY A. F. SCHEPENS, 

Imperial Customs Service, Hankow. 

GROUP 19. 
INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 

ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

39 Collection of Chinese, Armamese, Japanese and Corean 

Coins and Charms. The special attention of nu- 
mismatists is directed to this exhibit, for in some 
of its features it is probably unique, notably as re- 
gards ancient knife coins and iron cash of the Nan 
Sung Dynasty. There is not a single dynasty, or 
rebel ruler, however ephemeral, whose coinage 
is unrepresented. 

CHINESE COINS. 
I. Ku Pu or Ancient Coins. 

No. of 
coins. 

3 K'ung Shou Pu or, Hollow headed coins shape A 

1 a a »< u a a a a -p 

4 Yuan Tsu Pu or Round legged coins " C 

24 Fang-Tsu Pu or Square legged coins ." D 

18 Chien Tsu Pu or Pointed legged coins " E 

Various dates are assigned to the preceding coins. 
Some authors place them as early as 2255 before Christ, 
however, not one gives them a more recent date t han 720 
before Christ. 

10 II. Ch'i Tao or knife coins of the state of Ch'i 

B. C, 683— B. C, 263 shape F 

15 III. Lieh kuo Tao or knife coins of the state of 

Lieh B. C. 720 " G 

142 IV. Ming Tao or knife coins of the City of 

Ming B. C. 481— B. C. 255 " H 

5 V. Kuei Tou Ch'ien or Ghost's head money B. 

C. 612— B. C. 589 " I 

12 VI. Yuan Fa or Round shaped coins Chou Dy- 
nasty B. C. 660— B. C. 336 . " T 

5 Ch'in Dynasty B. C. 220 " " 

Western Han Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Kao Ti B. C. 206 " " 

7 Empress Lii Hqu B. C. 187 " " 

19 Emperor Wen Ti B. C. 179— B. C. 156 " " 

10 " Wu Ti B. C 140— B. C 86 " " 



112 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

No. of 
coins. 

41 Usurper Wang Mang A. D. 9-23 shape T 

3 " Wang Mang A. D. 9-23 . " K 

15 " Wang Mang A. D. 9-23 " L 

2 Ruler Kung Sun Shu A. D. 23 " J 

Eastern Han Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Kueng Wu Ti A. D. 25-58 " 

1 " Ling Ti A. D. 186 " .,' " 

Epoch of the Three Kingdoms Minor Han Dynasty. 

3 Emperor Ch'ao Lieh Ti A. D. 221-223 

Eastern Wu Dynasty. 

2 Emperor Ta Ti A. D. 222-252 " T 

3 " Fei Ti A. D. 252-25(5 " " 

3 Ruler Shih Le A. D. 319-322. " " 

Liu Sung Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Wen Ti A. D. 424-454 " T 

1 " Hsiao Wu Ti A. D. 454-1(35 " " 

4 " Fei Ti A. D. 465 " " 

Liang Dynasty. 

7 " Wn Ti A. A, D." 502-550 " J 

8 " Ching Ti A. D. 555-557 " " 

Northern Wei Dynasty. 

1 " Hsiao Wen Ti A. D. 471-500 " " 

4 " Hsiao Chuang Ti A. D. 528-530 " ". 

Northern Ch'i Dynasty. 

1 " Wen Hsuan Ti A. D. 550-5(50 ........ " " 

Ch'en Dynasty. 

1 " Hsiian Ti A. D. 569 " " 

Northern Chou Dynasty. 

8 " Wu Ti A. D. 564-572 

4 " Hsiian Ti A. D. 578-580 " " 

Sui Dynasty. 

3 " Kao Tsu A. D. 581-601 " " 

1 Ruler Hsiao Hsie A. D. 617 " 

65 Unclassed Wu Chu Coins 

Wu Chu Coins have been issuel from the Han to the 
Tang Dynasty. It is not possible to give the exact date 
for each of these coins. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 113 



No. of 

coins. 



T'ang Dynasty. 

25 Emperor Kao Tsu A. D. 618-627 shape T 

1 " Kao Tsung A. D. G50-683. 

10 " Su Tsung A. D. 756-763". . 

1 " Tai Tsung A. D. 763-780. 

2 " Te Tsung A. D. 780-785. . 
2 " Chao Tsung A. D. 889-905 

3-1 Wu Tsung A. D. 811-847. 



2 Rebel Shih Ssu Ming A. D. 761 

1 Rebel Huang Chao A. D. 880 . 

Posterior T'ang Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Chuang Tsung A. D. 923-926. . 

Posterior Chin Dynasty. 

2 " Kao Tsu A. D. 936-943 

Posterior Han Dynasty. 

3 " Kao Tsu A. D. 937-948 



Posterior Chou Dynasty. 

20 " Shih Tsung A. D. 954-960 

Former Shu State. 

5 Ruler Wang Chien A. D. 890-918 

3 Ruler Wang Tsung Yen A. D. 919-925. . 

Southern Han State. 

1 Ruler Liu Yen A. D. 911-942 

Southern T'ang State. 

9 Ruler Li Ching A. D. 943-961 

Great Min State. 

2 Ruler Wang Shen Chih A. D. 892-925. . 

Ch'u State. 
1 Ruler Ma Yin A. D. 896-930 

Min Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Wang Yen Chen A. D. 943 .... 

Sung Dynasty. 

16 " Tai Tsu A. D. 960-976 

14 " Tai Tsung A. D. 976-998 

9 " Chen Tsung A. D. 998-1023. . . 

25 " Jen Tsung A. D. 1023-1056... 

5 " Ying Tsung A. D. 1064-1068. . 

27 " Shen Tsung A. D. 1068-1086. . 

33 " Che Tsung A. D. 1086-1101. . . 

49 " Hui Tsung A. D. 1101-1119: . . 



Ch'in Tsung 1126 



114 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

No. of Southern Sung Dynasty. 

coins. 

18 Emperor Kao Tsung A. D. 1127-1163 shape T 

65 " Hsiao Tsung A. D. 1163-1190 " 

36 " Kuang Tsung A. D. 1190-1195 . . " 

166 " Ning Tsung A. D. 1195-1225 "■ " 

81 " Li Tsung A. D. 1225-1265 " u 

11 " Tu Tsung A. D. 1265-1275 " " 

1 " Tuan Tsung A. D. 1276-1278. " 

1 ■-' Ti Ping A. ' D. 1278 " " 

2 " ' Kung Ti A. D. 1275-1276 , " M 

Liao Dynasty. 

% " T'ai Tsu A. D. 916-925 " T 

2 " Sheng Tsung A. D. 983-1031 " " 

5 " Tao Tsung A. D. 1055-1101 " " 

3 " Tien T su A. D. 1101-1225 " " 

1 Coin issued by Liu Yu of Wei Ch'i A. D. 1120. . " " 

Hsia Dynasty. 

1 Emperor Ch'ung Tsung A. D. 1087-1139 " " 

2 " Ten Tsung A. D. 1139-1191 " 

1 " Hsiang Tsung A. D. 1206-1211 " " 

1 " Shen Tsung A. D. 1211 " " 

Chin Dynasty. 

1 " Hai Lung Wang A. D. 1149-1161. .. . " " 
8 " Shih Tsung A. D. 1161-1190 " " 

2 " Chang Tsung A. D. 1190-1209 " 

1 " Hsiiaii Tsung A. D. 1213 " " 

Yuan Dynasty. 

2 " Ch'eng Tsung A. D. 1295-1308 " " 

4 " Wu Tsung A. D. 1308-1312 " " 

11 " Sun Ti A. D. 1333-1341 '" " 



Coins Issued by Rebels at the End of the Yuan Dynasty. 

1 Ruler of Sung, Han Lin Eurh A. D. 1355-1366. " 
4 Ruler of T'ien Yuan, Hsu Shou Hui A. D. 

1351-1360 . " 

1 Ruler of Han, Ch'en Yu Liang A. D. 1360-1364 . " 
1 Ruler of Wu, Chang Shih Ch'eng A. D. 1354- 

1367 " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



115 



No. of 
coins. 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

4 

1 

1 

1? 

4 

21 

60 



Ming Dynasty. 

Emperor T'ai Tsu A. D. 1368-1399 shape T 

Hui Ti A. D. 1399-1403 

Ch'eng Tsu A. D. 1403-1425 . 
Ten Tsung A. D. 1425-1426.. 
Hsuan Tsung A. D. 1426-1436 
Ying Tsung A. D. 1436-1450. 
Yino- Tsung A. D. 1457-1465. 



Hsien Tsun A. D. 1465-1488. 
Hsiao Tsung A. D. 1488-1506 
Wu Tsung A. D. 1506-1522. . 
Shih Tsung A. D. 1522-1567. 
Mu Tsune A. D. 1567-1573.. 



Shen Tsung A. D. 1573-1620. . . . 
Kuang Tsung A. D. 1620-1621. . 

Hsi Tsung A. D. 1621-1628 

Chuang Lieh Ti A. D. 1628-1642 



Coins Issued by Descendants of the Ming Emperors. 

2 Wu Wang A. D. 1645 

4 Fu Wang A. D. 1645 

5 Fang Wang A. D. 1645 

17 Yung Ming Wang A. D. 1646 



Coins Issued by Rebels at the End of the Ming Dynasty and Be- 
ginning of Ch'ing Dynasty. 

2 Li Tzu Ch'eng A. D. 1637-1644 shape J 

3 Chang Hsien ^Chung A. D. 1644 - 

5 Sun K'o Wang A.^D. 1655 . . " 

17 Wu San Kuei A. D. 1674 " 

4 Wu Shih Fan A. D. 1679 " 

3 Keng Ching Chung A. D. 1 676 " 

1 Recent Rebel Coin ■ " " 

2 Chinese Turkistan Coins " " 

Ch'ing or Reigning Dynasty. 

2 Emperor T'ai Tsu Kao Huang Ti A. D. 1616- 

1627 " " 

1 " T'ai Tsung A. D. 1627-1644 " 

59 '• Shih Tsu A. D. 1644-1662 " " 

Sheng Tsu Ten Huang Ti A. D. 1662- 

1723 " " 

16 Shih Tsung Hsien Huang Ti A. D. 

. 1723-1736 " " 

38 Kao Tsung Shun Huang Ti A. D. 

1736-1796 " 



9 



116 


Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 




No. of 
coins. 

32 

46 


Emperor Jen Tsung Jui Huang Ti A. D. 1796- 

1821 

Hsiian Tsung Ch'eng Huang Ti A. 

D. 1821-1851 

1851 


.shape J 


9 


Coins Issued by the T'ai P'ing Rebels. 
Hung Hsiu Ch'iian A. D. 1851-1864 




119 


Wen Tsung Hsien Huang Ti A. D. 
1851-1862 


{ i 4 j 


C>G 


Mu Tsung Yi Huang Ti A. D. 1862- 
1874 


(t a 


45 


Reigning Emperor with title of Kuang Hsu A. 
D. 1875 


a a 



1 

1 
1 

3 

23 
8 
4 
9 
4 



ANNAMESE COINS. 

Ly Dynasty. 

Dug A. D. 107 
King Cao Tong A. D. 1176-1211 

Tran Dynasty. 

King Thai Tong A. D. 1225-1258 , 

" l Du Tong 1 A. D. 1342-1370 

Rebel Su A. D. 1391-1392 

" Ho Oui Ly A. D. 1402-1403 

" Ho Han thoung A. D. 1403-1407 
" Li Loi A. D. 1426 



Le Dynasty. 

3 King Nhon Tong A. D. 1443-1460. 
" Thanh Tong A. D. 1460-1498 



Hien Tone A. D. 1498-1505 



Thuong Due De A. D. 1509-151' 



Than Tong A. D. 1648-1662 



" Du Tong A. D. 1705-1727 

" Hien Tong A. D. 1740-1785 

u Chien Tong De A. D. 1785 , 

Rebel Nguyen van Nhac A. D. 1777-1792 

" Hue A. D. 1786-1791.... 

" Toan A. D. 1791-1800... 

Nguyen Dynasty. 

King The To Cao Hoang De A. D. 1776-1820.. 
" Thanh To Nhon Hoang De A. D. 1820 

1838 

" Hien To Chuong Hoang De A. D. 1838- 

1845 



to. the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 117 



No. of 
coins. 

2 Ruler Mac Dang Dung A. D. 1527-1530 shape T 

1 " " " " " A. D. 1530-1541 " " 

1 Rebel Nung Van Van A. D. 1832 " " 

11 Doubtful annamese coins A. D. 1600 to date. ... " " 

JAPANESE COINS. 

1 Emperor Kuan-Mu-Tenno A. D. 782-805 " " 

1 " Sei-Wa-Tenno A. D. 870 " " 

1 " Go- Yo-Zei-Tenno A. D. 1595-1614. .. " " 

4 " Mei-Sio-Tenno A. D. 1624-1643 " " 

1 " Rei-Gen-Tenno A. D. 1661-1672 " " 

1 " Naka-Mikaclo-Tennc A. D. 1711-1715. " " 

6 " Sakura-Machi-Tenno A. D. 1736-1743, " " 

3 " Go Sakura-Machi-Tenno A. D. 1763- 

1770 • " " 

1 " Go Sakura-Machi-Tenno A. D. 1763- 

1770 " >J 

2 " Xinko-Tenno A. D. 1835-1846 " .O 

1 " Komei-Tenno A. D. 1847-1864...... " J 

COREAN COINS. 

3 Coins issued A. D. 1102-1107-1392 ' " " 

46 by the Pyeng An Do Province. ... " 

1 Coin " Ham- Kyeng Do Province.. " " 

2 Coins "- " Hoang Hai " " ... " " 

3 " " " Kjang OuAi " " ... " " 

18 " " " King Ki " "-...." " 
14 " Relief Department " " 

1 Coin Board of Works " " 

300 Coins " " Revenue "■ " 

17 " Land Tax Department " " 

1 Coin " " Revenue l< " " 

19 Coins " " Pay " "• " 

9 " " '■* Military " " " 

45 " " " " " 

44 " " " Head War " " " 

189 '" " '" Military academy " 

13 Admiralty Department " " 

10 " City of Soul " " 

72 " town of Song Do " " 

1 Coin " Kang Hoa. . . '' " 

2 Coins " Chuen Lo Do Province " " 

49 " " " Kyeng San " " " 

The above Coins were issued from A. D. 1636 to date. 
120 Coins used as Amulets, etc., shape J and Sundry. 

8 Doubtful Coins shape J 

Total, 2975 

(For shapes, see plate.) 



118 



Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 




DIAGRAM SHOWING SHAPES OF COIN. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 119 

EXHIBITED BY C. C. STUHLMANN, PH. D. 

Commissioner of Customs, Shasi. 
GROUP 82. 

APPLIANCES AND METHODS USED IN AGRICULTURAL 
INDUSTRIES. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
376 Model of Vegetable, Tallow and Oil Factory: 

I. Front part containing: (a) Furnace for steaming the 
tallows and heating the kernels, (b) Mortar for 
separating tallow from the seeds, (c) Press for 
extracting tallow and oil. 
II. Back part containing : (a) Husking mill, (b) Crush- 
ing mill. 



Notes on the Manufacture of Vegetable Tallow and Vegetable Oil 
at Shasi, Province of Hupeh. 

BY C. C. STUHLMANN, PH. D., COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS. 

The tallow as well as the oil are obtained from the seeds of a 
tree known locally as "mu tzu shu," which Giles defines as Sapium 
sebiferum, Roxb. Its fruit forms capsules that open on ripening and 
disclose 3 or 4 seeds which in size and shape somewhat resemble coffee 
beans. They are covered with a firm layer of white tallow underneath 
which is a hard, black shell enclosing an oily kernel. Great quantities 
of the seeds are brought in from the country during the latter part of 
the year and sold to the manufacturers at about 2,500 cash a picul*. 
The mode of separating the tallow and extracting the oil is as follows : 

The seeds are first of all put into wooden tubs provided with a 
• wicker-work bottom and steamed for a considerable time. This is 
done by placing the tubs on large iron pans in which water is kept 
boiling by a fire made of coal. When the tallow begins to soften, the 
contents of the tubs are emptied into stone mortars of a conical shape 
and pounded by means of a large mallet worked rapidly by a long- 
lever on which three or four boys are treacling. This detaches the 
greater part of the tallow from the shells containing the oily kernels. 
The resultant mixture, which is of a loose, earthy consistency, is 
scooped out and thrown on to a bamboo sieve. In sifting, the tallow 
passes through the meshes of the sieve and is separated from the rest 
of the seeds. It is now of a dirty brown color and, after being meas- 
ured off in quantities of about 50 catties, is put on pieces of cloth 
spread over an iron frame resting on one of the pans already alluded 
to and steamed a second time. When in a sufficiently liquid state, the 
contents of the cloth are emptied into an incasement of straw placed 
in two or more circular iron hoops of about l]/ 2 foot diameter resting 
on the top of each other so as to make a rough kind of mould. Into 



120 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

this the tallow is kneaded by one of the workmen using his feet for 
that purpose, and the cakes thus formed, after being" covered on both 
sides by an additional layer of straw, are put on trays and transported 
in as hot a state as possible to the press. This consists of a hollow 
cylinder made of two approximately square logs laid horizontally one 
on top of the other. Both parts are well banded together and fastened 
in a wooden frame securely embedded in the ground. The cakes are 
inserted through a lateral slit between the upper and lower half of the 
cylinder and placed on edge with the iron hoops still encircling them. 
A disc of several pieces of strong wood is now set upright against 
the last of the cakes and pressure exerted by a number of iron capped 
wooden wedges which are driven in one lifter the other between 'the 
disc and the solid end of the press by what looks something like a bat- 
tering ram. This instrument is made of a heavy beam, suspended in 
the middle by a bamboo rope fastened to the roof of the building. To- 
wards the end of the operation, when it becomes more and more diffi- 
cult to insert the wedges, the man ■ at the press, in order to 
heighten the effects of the blows, steps backwards a couple 
of paces and grasping the beam in the middle raises it by a dexterous 
movement high above his head and then directs its iron-pointed head 
right on to the wedges with wonderful precision and tremendous mo- 
mentum. This phase of the work seldom fails to attract a large num- 
ber of spectators from the street, who, with the characteristic love 
of the Chinese for the grotesque, much admire the laborious efforts of 
the man wielding the beam (with a result, by the way, which could be 
much more effectively obtained by using a hydraulic press). As the 
pressure increases the tallow commences to run out from the cakes 
through the bottom of the press and is collected in tubs placed under- 
neath. The temperature is still considerably above solidifying point, 
one of the conditions on which the success of the process depends be- 
ing that tallow in the cakes keeps liquid as long as the pressure 
is applied. When the iron hoops nearly touch one another the flow 
ceases and the cakes are removed from the press. As a rule they are 
practically free from tallow but in cold weather, when the tallow 
congeals quickly, the cakes are broken up again and submitted for a 
second time to the various operations already described. After this the 
cakes are dried in the air and employed as fuel in one of the processes 
mentioned hereafter. The tallow obtained is of clean, whitish appear- 
ance and when cooled down to the consistency of lard is put into bucket- 
shaped moulds where it hardens into solid blocks of about 90 catties 
each. A square piece of wood, weighing about one catty, with the 
name of the firm on it, and said to serve for preserving the exact 
shape of the block, is inserted in the center. The tallow is now readv 
for the market and when sent to other places is neatly packed in mats 
covered with a network made of split bamboo. Its melting point I 
ascertained to be 115° F. (46.1° C). It sells at about 12,000 cash 
per picul and is largely used by Chinese in the manufacture of candles. 
The seeds containing the oil, which as stated before, were left on 
the sieve after the tallow had been separated from them, are first 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 1-1 

passed through a small handmill of the ordinary Chinese type, the 
stones of which are roughly grooved so as not to crush the kernels but 
only crack the shells enclosing them. The mixture is then winnowed 
and the kernels which are still mingled with a considerable amount of 
the shells are put into an iron pan tilted up at an angle of 45° under 
which fire is made of the shells and some broken up pieces of the cakes 
from which the tallow has been extracted already. The contents of 
the pan are now constantly stirred with a rake in order to prevent 
scorching, and afterwards transported to the mill which forms by 
far the most conspicuous part of the establishment. Its main parts 
are a long wooden arm carried on one end by a pivot in the center of 
a floor surrounded by a circular stone trough about a foot deep in 
which a disc-shaped stone roller fixed vertically to the other end of 
the arm is kept rotating by a blindfolded water buffalo harnessed in 
front of it. As the stone describes its circular path its wedge-shaped 
rim which fits loosely into the trough crushes the kernels that are 
replenished from time to time by one of the workmen. A small broom 
is dragged behind the stone roller for the purpose of keeping the kernels 
in proper position. After the crushing has been completed the mass 
is put into pieces of cloth, heated by steam, made into cakes and event- 
ually the oil is expressed in the same manner as has been described in 
the manufacture of the tallow. A rude check on the results is supplied 
by collecting the oil from the press in gauged tubs and ascertaining 
the height of the liquid, obtained from a certain number of cakes, by 
a measuring rod. The oil which is used for lamps, etc., sells at about 
7,000 cash per picul. The cakes are dried in the air and sold for fer- 
tilizing purposes, their value being about 800 cash per picul. 

There are thus obtained from the seeds: 1° tallow, 2° oil and 
3° fertilizing cakes (besides the tallow cakes which furnish part of the 
fuel in the manufacture of the oil), but this does not exhaust the list 
of saleable products as the shells are also ultimately disposed of in the 
market. As stated above, they are used for supplying the fire under 
"the roasting pans, but only the remnants of oil adhering to them are 
allowed to be consumed and the shells themselves, after undergoing a 
process of charring, are raked out and, still containing a high percent- 
age of combustible matter, are sold as fuel for small house stoves at 
the comparatively high price of 600 cash per picul. 

The average yield of 1 picul of seeds, the price of which is, say, 
2,500 cash, is given below : 

2 4 catties of tallow at cash 12,000 per picul. .cash, 2,880 
12 " " oil " 7,000 " . . " 840 

18 " " " cake " 800 " . . " 144 

18 tallow, cake used for fuel in 

working. 
15 r carbonized shells at cash 600 per 

picul " 90 



Total cash, 3,954 



122 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

This leaves a surplus of 1,454 cash per picul for working expenses 
and profit. 

I have gone into the description of this remarkable industry at 
some length, as the tallow obtained thereby has, for some years past, 
found a ready market in foreign countries where it is employed in the 
making of soap and candles. Its comparative cheapness entitles it to 
a great many other applications where animal fats have been used 
hitherto, especially if it could be freed from the poisonous properties 
which the tallow as well as the oil are said to possess. 

In conclusion I would draw attention to the manner in which 
the various by-products are utilized which furnishes one more instance 
of the wonderful thrift possessed by the people of this great empire. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 1-3 



EXHIBITED BY S. ROSENBAUM— HANKOW. 

GROUP 85. 

ANIMAL FOOD PRODUCTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

459 Xo. 1. Albumen from chickens' eggs. This is pure white 

of eggs without any admixture, clarified and dried. 
It is easily soluble and can be used by bakers and 
confectioners in the same way as fresh white of 
eggs. Albumen from fresh duck eggs is similar 
but of a lighter color. Chickens' eggs are used in 
spring. At other times ducks' eggs are the chief 
source of supply. On drying albumen breaks up 
into small pieces, and after a while is liable to 
darken in color if not kept very free from mois- 
ture in airtight packing — developing small reddish 
crystals, whose presence, however, do not affect 
the quality of the albumen, as they readily dis- 
solve. These have to be distinguished from the 
red spots due to over-heating in the drying room, 
which do not pass into solution on treating with 
water. 

460 Xo. 2. Fermented Albumen from chickens' eggs. This 

is pure albumen, without any admixture. but being 
fermented, is not suitable for food, and is em- 
ployed only in technology. It breaks up into larger 
pieces and is preferred by the trade, as it is less 
liable to change it color. 

461 No. 3. Albumen from ducks' eggs ; prepared like X"o. 2. 

This exhibit is made solely from ducks' eggs in 
the fall of the year, when chickens' eggs are scarce. 
Earlier in the season, when possible, chicken albu- 
men is mixed with duck albumen in order to im- 
prove the color. 

462 Xo. 4. Yolk from chickens' eggs is* prepared with salt 

and boracic acid in such a way that the salt shall 
not exceed 10%. It is used by the tanners of kid 
leather in France, England, Germany and Aus- 
tria. It is such a well known article 'that it is 
freely accepted and has not been analyzed as to 
the amount of oil. 

463 X^o. 5. Yolk from ducks' eggs is prepared like No. 4 

and has come into favor owing to its richness in 
egg oil so necessary an ingredient in tanning kid. 
There is at least 24% in this preparation, and this 
has been confirmed by frequent analysis ; the last 
determination gave 27.99% and salt 6.61%. 



124 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

464 No. 6. Yolk from chickens' eggs. This is preserved 

with a small percentage of boracic acid, which, 
however can be removed, and then the yolk is 
fresh and sweet ready for culinary purposes. It 
can also be employed in technology in cases where 
salt is not required. The presence of salt seems 
to affect the egg-oil, and as this article contains 
none, the percentage of egg-oil is higher. 

465 No. 7. Yolk from ducks' eggs. The remarks made 

about No. 6 apply also to this sample. As was 
already remarked, chickens' eggs are procurable 
only in spring, and yolk and albumen from chick- 
ens' eggs are always mixed with the same prod- 
ucts from ducks' eggs, in order to improve them. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



125 



EXHIBITED BY "THE TRADING COMPANY," HANKOW. 

(Successors to Alexis Goobkin, A. Koosnetzoff & Co.) 

GROUP 84. 

VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

Congon Teas. 

Generally these teas come from the interior to the Hankow market 
in packages called half-chests, i. e., wooden boxes pasted over with or- 
namented paper, lined inside with thin lead and tea paper, as shown in 
models : 



Exhibit 
Number. 

417 

418 



Black Tea, No 



21- 

9. 



A. K. & Co., 101 — Keemun Tea. 
135 — Nino-chow " 
but without the matting wrapper and rattan pro- 
tection. These two latter additions are made by 
the foreign merchant when the tea is to be ex- 
ported by sea. The average weight of a half- 
chest is about G7 lbs. The Models 



419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 



containing Keemun Tea 



No .24^ 
No. 25 £Ep. 
No. 26 AKNKo 



Oonfar Tea 



Yang-low-toong Tea 



6) 15 

No. 27 £*£*l 
No. 28 



Tea 



170 
AT of) AKNKo 

X\U. w' 9) 2 g 

Xo. 30 ^^ 



Nip-car-see Tea 
Cheong-Sow-Kai 
Tow-Yuen Tea 
Wun-Kai Tea 
Tai-Sar-ping Tea 



show the elaborate packing adopted to protect the 
tea on its long and sometimes rough journey on 
camels into Northern Asia. It is placed in a lead 
lined wooden box, which is protected with three 
layers of split bamboo, and sometimes covered out- 
side with a rough canvas wrapping (gunny bags), 
the whole being finally secured with a coir rope. 
The rapid and careful carriage of tea by rail has 
allowed of the replacement of lead by parchment, 
this material being found sufficient to preserve the 
flavor of the tea by the Siberian route, besides be- 
ing a great saving on freight. Such packages are 
called chests, and contain from 85 to 105 or more 
pounds of tea. The following are samples of 
representative teas exported from Hankow: 



126 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




42; 


Ning-chow Tea, 


42 S 




429 


(t a 


430 


Keemun 


431 


n 


432 


a 


433 


Oonfar 


434 


(( 


435 




436 


Tow Yuen 


437 


"' 


438 


Tai-sar-ping ' 


439 


Cheong-sow-Kai 


440 


"•- 


441 


Yang-low-toong 


442 


" ci 


443 


Xip-car-see 


444 


it a 


445 


Tablet Tea. Th 



Tea. 



Tablet Tea. This tea is prepared from Congou tea sitt- 
ings called ''Tea Dust." (Shown in sample bot- 
tle No. 19), and the procedure is as follows: The 
required weight of tea dust in its natural dry state 
is put into a small square mould with removable 
bottom and cover, (shown in photograph No. 5a 
and 5b), which is transferred to a hydraulic press, 
and there subjected to a pressure of 300 lbs., to the 
square inch. This forms the dust into a nice little 
tablet of Yx Russian pound in weight. (1 Russ : 
pound — 0.90 lb., a. d. p.). It is at once removed 
from the press and wrapped first in tea paper, then 
in a leaf of tin foil, and lastly in a printed wrapper 
imported from Russia. The number of tablets 
in a case varies, for cases going via Dalny and 
Amur ports, 504 is the general custom, by the 
Mongolian route, 432. 

446 Tablet Tea. One sample box, marked ~\ 2 \^l showing 

packing (10 tablets). 

447 Tablet Tea. One sample box, marked nTTT showing 

tablets (10 tablets). 

Black Brick Tea. 

This kind of tea is prepared from the same material as tablet tea, 
%. e. } tea dust (see sample bottle No. 19), which is first placed in small 
bags, and steamed. In this moist condition it is transferred to a mould 
(shown in photograph No. 4, on the floor), and there it is compressed 
just like tablet tea, under a pressure of 240 lbs. to the square inch. 
While still in the press, the screws that act on mould blocks are securely 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. l-< 

tightened, and the tea is kept thus for 3 or 4 hours, after which the 
brick is removed and weighed. Next it goes to the drying room, 
where it remains for 21 days. When quite dry, it is wrapped in two 
lavers of paper and packed in baskets, secured with rattans and gunny 
bags, and finally corded. For the Mongolian route the favorite pack- 
ing is 72 to 80 bricks in a large basket, and 24 to 60 in a small one. 
Each brick weighs from 13 to 3 Russian pounds and costs Mexican 
SO. 25, duty paid at the moment of export. The models containing 
bricks show the manner of packing, viz : 

Exhibit 
Number. 

448 One package with gunny bag covering. 

449 One package with split bamboo only. 

Green Brick Tea. 

450 Coarse Green Tea. The material used for the prepara- 

tion of this tea is old coarse tea leaves, and even 
twigs (Lao Cha). See sample bottle No. 20. The 
method of manufacture adopted is the same as 
in Black Brick Tea. The weight of a brick is 
oYz to 4 Russian pounds, which cost Mexican 
($0.09) ready for export. 

451 Green Brick Tea. One package with gunny bag cover- 

ing. 

452 Green Brick Tea. One package with split bamboo only. 

show how Tablet and Brick Tea are packed in 
■ baskets and split bamboo wattling against trans- 
port on camel back through North China and Si- 
beria. The usual packing is 36 to 45 bricks to a 
basket. 

The Mongols infuse tea not only in the ordinary way for a beverage, 
but also boil the leaves like a vegetable, and eat them with butter. 
The bricks also serve them as a medium of exchange in buying and 
selling. 

Native Appliances for the Manufacture of Brick Tea. 

453 Winnower. W nen tea for tablets and bricks comes from 

the country, it is first of all winnowed by passing 
it through a native contrivance for separating 
any foreign dust from the pure leaf. 

454 Drying Pan. This consists of an iron pan into which 

is placed some live charcoal which is made into a 
slow fire, carefully regulated by tempering it with 
ashes. Over the pan is placed the bamboo cylin- 
der with the narrow waist, into which fits the 
round rattan shelf, convex face upwards. The 
tea is poured into the upper half of the cylinder, 
and the heat passes through the shelf and dries 



123 Catalogue of the Hankow Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

the tea ; which is covered during the process with 
a cotton cloth. The operation may last two hours 
till the tea (leaves or dust) indicates by its odor 
and appearance that the drying is complete. 

After cooling it is sifted and the leaves of differ- 
ent sizes classified by means of sieves. 

455 Tea Sieves. One set of ten pieces. 

Before making into Tablets or Bricks the 
leaves or dust are steamed and then moulded in a 
press. 

456 Brick Tea Press (model.) 

This instrument is also a native invention and though primitive 
is very efficient as a machine worked by manual labor. The steamed 
dust is placed in the wooden mould, and then transferred under the 
large lever. Two men lay hold of the handle that works the roller, 
which is connected with the large lever, by means of a rope, and great 
pressure is thus applied to the mould. While still under pressure the 
mould blocks are secured by means of wedges, and then removed from 
the press to allow the brick to dry partially. As soon as it may safely 
be handled, it is sent to the drying room and there it remains till hard 
and desiccated. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

Hupeh Provincial Exhibit. 



GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Art Work in Jadestone, Crystal and Porcelain : 

Exhibit 
X umber. 

692 Ancient jacle Flower vase on carved red wood stand. 

693 Ancient pure white jade Tablet, embossed with a de- 

sign of an elephant, etc., in relief — on carved in- 
laid red wood stand. 
691 Mountain scene in white jade — on carved red wood 

stand. 

695 Mountain scene in green jade — on carved red wood 

stand. 

696 Ancient pure white jade flower vase with chrysanthe- 

mum flowers in high relief — on carved red 
wood stand. 

697 Ancient jade flower vase in the form of a fish, mount- 

ed on carved red wood stand. 

698 Malachite rock flower vase — on carved red wood stand. 

699 White jade paper weight, in the form of a duck — on 

carved red wood stand. Han Dvnastv (206 B. 
C. to 25 A. D.). 

700 White jade fruit plate — on carved red wood stand. Han 

Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.). 

701 Clouded jade paper weight in the form of a mythical 

animal — on carved red wood stand. Han Dvnastv. 
(206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

702 Ancient jade flower vase, embossed with beautiful carved 

ornamentation — on carved red wood stand. 

703 White jade flower vase with a design in relief of a 

phoenix on a bamboo branch — on carved red wood 
stand. 

704 White jade bowl, with three dragons in relief — on carved 

red wood stand. Han Dvnastv (206 B. C. to 25 
A. D.). 

— 129 — 



130 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

705 White jade incense burner, rectangular, cover of Tzu Tan 

wood, cut crystal knob, and inlaid with mother of 
pearl — on carved red wood stand. 

706 Ancient jade cup in the form of a half peach, with peach 

blossoms in high relief — on carved red wood stand. 

707 Ancient jade flower vase in form of a lotus leaf, with 

lotus flowers and leaves in high relief — on carved 
red wood stand. 

708 Ancient white jade bowl, mounted on a beautifully 

carved red wood stand, representing a lotus flower. 
Han Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

709 "White jade paper weight, in the form of a buffalo, with a 

bov riding on its back — on carved red wood stand. 
Han Dynasty (206 B. C, to 25 A. D.). 

710 White jade paper weight in the form of a buffalo — on 

carved red wood stand. 

711 White jade paper weight in the form of a caparisoned ele- 

phant with a man on its back — on carved red wood 
stand. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.). 

712 White jade paper weight in the form of a caparisoned 

elephant with two boys in attendance — on carved 
red wood stand. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 
A. D.) 

713 Carved amber wine cup in the form of a lotus leaf with 

flower birds, insects, and animals in high relief — on 
carved red wood stand. 

714 Carved amber pen stand, with figure of a man, a deer, 

and a monkey — on carved red wood stand. 

715 White jade tablet, embossed with landscape scenery and 

figures in relief — on carved red wood stand. 

716 Ancient white jade flower vase with dragons in low 

relief — on carved red wood stand. 

717 White jade cup with flowers and blossoms in high relief — 

on carved red wood stand. 

718 Crystal bottle, with carved ornamentation — on carved red 

wood stand. 
710 White jade hanging bottle with stopper carved out of 

one piece — on carved wood stand. Han Dynasty 
(206 B. C, to 25 A. D.). 

720 White jade ornament with design of dragons in two 

pieces dovetailed together, formerly used as a pass- 
port — hanging from a carved red wood stand. 
Han Dvnastv. (2 pieces) (206 B. C, to 25 A. 
D.). 

721 Ancient green jade bowls — on carved wood stands (2 

pieces). 

722 Carved stone ornament representing a landscape with 

temple and figures — on a carved stone' stand. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 131 

Exhibit 
Number. 
723 Variegated marble seals. (9 pieces in one box.) 

7.24 Bamboo root ornament in the form of an elephant and 

three figures — on carved red wood stand. 

725 Carved bamboo water flask, ancient pattern — mounted on 

red wood stand. 

726 Carved ivory screen with peach blossoms and bamboo on 

one side and beautifully carved scenery on the 
other. 

727 Ancient brick of the Han Dynasty. Hollow, with figures 

and ornamentation. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.). 

728 Ancient porcelain vase, in five colors with black ground, 

decorated with chrysanthemum flowers. Budd- 
ha's hands, peaches and peach flowers, bamboo 
leaves, etc., made during the reign of Emperor 
Kang-Hsi. (1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

NOTE — This is a most rare and valuable piece — which both in quality 
and workmanship and in perfection of preservation is probably unique. A 
cracked specimen of the same kind of work was sold in 1900 at Peking for 
$10,000 Mex. 

729 Y\ nite and blue porcelain vase with flowers — made during 

the reign of Emperor Kang-Hsi. (1662 tol723 A. 
D.) 

730 Ancient blue and white porcelain vase, with red bats and 

white characters in relief ("fu and shou"), Hap- 
piness and longevitv. Chien Lung. (1736 to 1796 
A. D.) 

731 Porcelain vase with blue and red flowers. During the 

reign of Emperor Kang-Hsi (1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

732 Blue and white porcelain vase with landscapes. Kang- 

Hsi (1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

733 Porcelain vase in five colors, with historical pictures. 

" Kang-Hsi (1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

734 Large black porcelain vase. The brilliancy of the glaze 

is exceedingly »ood. Kang-Hsi (1662 to 1723 A. 
D.) 

735 Large white and blue porcelain vase, Kang-Hsi. (1662 to 

1723 A. D.) 

736 Porcelain vase in five colors, with fancy colored birds, 

butterflies, phoenix and flowers. Tao Kuang 
(1821 to 1851 A. D.) 

737 Green porcelain vase, with embossed ornamentation from 

the Lung Chuen factory. 

738 Ancient blue porcelain vase. 

739 Porcelain vase with embossed designs of the Ming Dy- 

nasty (1368 to 1644 A. D.) 

740 Ancient porcelain vase in five colors, decorated with his- 

torical pictures. 

10 



132 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

741 Ancient blue and white crackled porcelain vase with phoe- 

nixes and peonies. The drawing is considered ex- 
cellent. Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644 A. D.) 

742 White and blue crackled vase. "Ming Dynasty (1368 to 

1644 A. D.) 

743 Blue and white crackled porcelain vase with figures. 

744 Green earthenware vase. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. to 

25 A. D.) 

745 Green earthenware vase. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. to 

25 A. D.) 

746 Earthenware incense burner. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. 

to 25 A. D.) 

747 Earthenware incense burner. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. 

to 25 A. D.) 

748 Earthenware incense burner. Han Dynasty (206 B. C. 

to 25 A. D.) 

749 Earthenware pot of the Han Dynastv (206 B. G, to 25 A. 

D.) 

750 Two ancient earthenware candle sticks in the form of 

lions. 

751 Two ancient earthenware statuettes. Yuen Dynastv 

(1127 to 1180 A. D.) 

752 Ancient yellow porcelain pot with blue flowers. Ming 

Dynasty (1368 to 1644 A. D.) 

753 Blue and white porcelain vase, decorated with mythical 

animals. Kang-Hsi (1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

754 Blue and white porcelain pot with white flowers and 

carved red wood cover. Kang-Hsi Dynasty (1662 
to 1723 A. D.) 

755 Green earthen pot, used at the graves in connection with 

ancestral worship. Sung Dynasty (960 to 1127 A. 
D.) 

756 Yellow porcelain vase with carved designs of three blue 

lions. Iling Dynasty (1368 to 1644 A. D.) 

757 Green porcelain vase with design of a dragon and a fish in 

relief. 

758 Yellow porcelain vase in five colors, decorated with butter- 

flies. 

759 Black porcelain vase with a blue and white medallion. 

Two dragons in the clouds. 

760 . Blue and white porcelain vase, with design of 

peach tree in blossoms, in imitation of an ancient 
pattern. 

761 White porcelain flower vase, drawn with design of peach 

tree in fruit. 

762 Blue and white porcejain vase with blue flowers. 

763 Blue porcelain vase — rectangular. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 133 

Exhibit 
Number. 

764 White porcelain vase with lake scene, lotus flowers and 

ducks, after an ancient pattern. 

765 Sang-de-boeuf porcelain vase. 

766 White crackled porcelain vase — rectangular — with design 

of the Pa Kua (Eight Diagrams) in relief. 

767 Porcelain flower vase — decorated with peach trees in 

fruit. 

768 Shark's skin porcelain vase. 

769 Black porcelain vase, an imitation of an ancient pattern. 

770 Blue porcelain vase, decorated with golden dragon and 

phoenix. 

771 Yellow porcelain vase, with embossed almonds design. 

772 Sang-de-boeuf porcelain vase — in the form of an olive. 

773 White porcelain vase decorated with golden dragon and 

phoenix. 

774 White porcelain vase with red dragon and phoenix. 

775 Black porcelain vase with design in relief of aquatic ani- 

mals. 
• 776 Black porcelain vase with a rectangular cover, decorated 

with ornamentations of ancient designs. 

777 Blue porcelain vase decorated with designs of peach trees 

and chrysanthemum. 

778 Porcelain vase in five colors, decorated with landscapes, 

birds, flowers and red phoenix. 

779 White porcelain amphora, decorated with red dragon, 

phoenix, flowers, etc. 

780 Large porcelain plate, highly decorated with bats, 

characters and flowers. 

781 White porcelain plates, decorated with flowers. (2 

pieces.) 

782 Green porcelain plates, decorated with floral designs. (2 

pieces.) 

783 Porcelain plates, decorated with flowers. (2 pieces.) 

784 Pink porcelain plates — oval — with floral decorations. 

(2 pieces.) 

785 White porcelain sacrificial bowls — rectangular, with cover 

— decorated with design of gold and red flowers. 
(2 pieces.) 

786 Blue porcelain sacrificial bowls — oval — with gold decora- 

tions. (2 pieces.) 

787 White porcelain sacrificial bowls, round, decorated with 

red flowers. (2 pieces.) 

788 Blue porcelain sacrificial bowls, round, with red, yellow 

and light blue decorations. (2 pieces.) 

789 Yellow porcelain flower pots, decorated with storks and 

dragons inside, and two dragons outside. (2 
pieces.) 



134 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

790 Blue porcelain flower pots and saucers, round, decorated 

with characters "Fu and Shou" (Happiness and 
longevity). 

791 Yellow porcelain flower pots, rectangular, decorated with 

red lotus flowers. (2 pieces.) 

792 Peacock green porcelain flower pots, round. (2 pieces.) 

793 White porcelain flower pots, decorated with floral designs. 

(2 pieces.) 

794 Blue porcelain flower pots and saucers, round, decorated 

with peach trees in fruit. (2 pieces.) 

795 Yellow porcelain vases with cover, decorated with carved 

ornamentation. (2 pieces.) 

796 Sang-de-boeuf porcelain flower pots and saucers. (2 

pieces.) 

797 Yellow porcelain plates decorated with green and brown 

dragons. (2 pieces.) 

798 White porcelain plate, decorated .with peach trees inside 

and lotus flowers outside. (2 pieces.) 

799 Yellow porcelain sacrificial bowls — oval, decorated with 

carved ornamentation. (2 pieces.) 

800 Yellow porcelain sacrificial bowls, round, decorated with 

carved ornamentation. (2 pieces.) 

801 Blue and white porcelain flower pots, decorated with 

dragons. (2 pieces.) 

802 White porcelain flower pots, decorated with dragons and 

phoenixes. (2 pieces.) 

803 Yellow porcelain bowls, with floral decorations and four 

white medallions. 

804 Yellow porcelain bowl — large — decorated with red bats. 

805 White porcelain bowl — large — with blue dragons. 

806 White porcelain bowl, with floral decorations and four 

medallions. 

807 Blue porcelain tea cup. 

808 Large white porcelain bowl, with floral decorations and 

mythical animals. 

809 Coral red porcelain rice bowl, with four medallions, blue 

and white inside. 

810 Yellow porcelain bowl with Chinese characters "Fu and 

Shou" (Happiness and longevity) and decorated 
with peaches and blue bats. 
811. Peacock green porcelain rice bowl with design of drag- 

ons. 

812 White porcelain bowl with fancy colored flowers and four 

medallions. 

813 White porcelain milk bowl, with fancy colored flowers. 

814 White porcelain rice bowl, with fancy colored flowers in 

five colors. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 135 

Exhibit 
Number. 

815 White porcelain rice bowl, with design of lotus flowers 

outside and blue lotus leaves inside. 

816 White porcelain rice bowl with design of red phoenixes. 

817 Dark gold porcelain rice bowl. 

818 White porcelain tea cup with floral decorations. 

819 Dark porcelain rice bowl. 

820 Small white porcelain bowl with fancy flowers. 

821 Light green porcelain rice bowl, decorated with six 

phoenixes. 

822 Porcelain rice bowl with designs of flowers, dragons and 

phoenixes, in red and green. 

823 Blue and white porcelain rice bowl with the eight dia- 

grams and storks. 

824 Large porcelain bowl with design of the eight geniis 

traveling on the sea. 

825 Yellow porcelain rice bowl with designs of green and 

brown dragons. 

826 Rust brown porcelain rice bowl with design of dragons. 

827 Yellow porcelain wine holder, rectangular, with dragons 

in brown and green. 

828 Blue porcelain wine cup with bamboo joints. 

829 Porcelain wine cup in form of a lotus flower. 

830 Porcelain wine cup with design of red dragons. 

831 Yellow porcelain wine cup with green and brown bats. 

832 Ten pieces white porcelain wine cups with peaches and 

bats. 

833 Black porcelain wine cup on three legs in imitation of an 

ancient bronze sacrificial vessel. 

834 . Black porcelain wine cup, with dragons in relief. 

835 Blue porcelain wine cup, with golden dragons, three 

legs. _ 

836 Porcelain wine cup — ancient pattern — three legs, deco- 

rated with conventional flowers. 

837 Yellow porcelain wine cup, decorated with bats, peaches 

and characters. 

838 Porcelain wine cup, decorated with red flowers. 

839 Small porcelain wine cup, with flowers in three colors. 

840 Yellow porcelain pen holder, with bamboo and chrysanthe- 

mums. 

841 Yellow porcelain pen cleaners, eagle standing on a tree 

stump and a bear looking up at it. 

842 Brown porcelain paper weight in the form of a lion. 

843 Yellow porcelain pen holder with crabs and flowers in 

relief. 

844 Gray porcelain pen holder with figures and scene in relief. 

845 Olive green porcelain wine pot with design of flowers in 

relief. 

846 Porcelain flower vase with landscape and figures in relief. 



136 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

847 Yellow porcelain pen stand with design of flowers in 

relief. 

848 White porcelain wine cup with transparent design of 

dragons. 

849 Gray porcelain pen cleaner with flowers in relief. 

850 Black porcelain wine cup — white inside with cow's head. 

Porcelain Dinner Service — with designs of Dragons in red and 
gold — comprising : 



851-853 


3 Fruit Plates. 


854-855 


8 " Dishes. 


856 


12 Bread Plates. 


857 


12 Coffee cups and Saucers 


858 


12 Dessert Plates. 


859 


1 Souo Tureen. 


860 


1 Sauce Dish. 


861 


1 Vegetable Dish. 


862-864 


. 3 Pudding Dishes. 


865-869 


5 Serving 


870 


40 Dinner Plates. 


871 


24 Soup 


Porcelain Tea Service, comprising : 


872 


4 Dishes for sweets. 


875 


12 Cups and Saucers. 


874 


1 Sugar Basin. 


875 


1 Milk Jug. 


876 


4 Jam Dishes. 


877 


4 Butter 



Porcelain Dinner Service — with gilt edge and designs of 
Narcissus and Tea Flowers — comprising: 



878-880 


3 Fruit Plates. 


881-882 


8 Dishes. 


883 


60 Serving Plates. 


884 


24 Soup 


885 


12 Tea 


886 


12 Coffee Cups and Saucers 


887 


12 Small Plates. 


888 


1 Soup Turin. 


889 


1 Sauce Dish. 


890 


1 Vegetable Dish. 


891-893 


3 Pudding Dishes. 


894-898 


5 Meat 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 137 

Porcelain Tea Service, comprising: 



Exhibit 




Number. 




899 


4 Dishes for Sweets. 


900 


12 Cups and Saucers. 


901 


1 Sugar Basin. 


902 


1 Milk Jug. 


903 


4 Jam Dishes. 


904 


4 Butter " 


905 


1 Milk Jug. 



The Chinese Porcelain Company was established in 1903 under 
Imperial sanction, and it has been granted leave to work the world- 
renowned porcelain factory at Ching Te Chen near Kiukiang in the 
province of Kiangsi, where the Imperial porcelain has been made from 
time immemorial. Under its charter the company can now under- 
take the execution of orders never before possible. The samples ex- 
hibited on this occasion have been especially made (somewhat hurriedly) 
for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, but the time since the establish- 
ment of the new management has been too short for the Company to 
do full justice to the production of such a large variety of articles and 
patterns as they would wish ; and are likely to attract buyers from out- 
side the Chinese Empire. The Company, however, is in a position to 
execute orders for porcelain services, vases and articles of all kinds ; 
and detailed information may be obtained on inquiry at the Chinese Sec- 
tion of the Exposition. 



Art Work in Bronze : 

906 Ancient bronze basin — on carved red wood stand. Han 

Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

907 Ancient bronze basin — on carved red wood stand. Han 

Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

908 Ancient bronze vase — on carved red wood stand. Han 

Dynasty (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

909 Ancient bronze bell of very unusual shape and ornamen- 

tation with Tadpole characters — on red wood 
stand. Chou Dynasty (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

910 Ancient bronze vase embossed with carved ornamenta- 

tion on red wood stand. Han Dynasty. (206 B. 
C. to 25 A. D.) 

911 Ancient bronze flask — on carved red wood stand. Han 

Dynasty. 

912 Ancient gilded bronze incense burner, rectangular, with 

carved red wood cover — on wooden stand. 

913 Ancient bronze vase — on wooden stand. Chou Dynasty. 

(1122 to 225 B. C.) 

914 Ancient bronze vase, rectangular, with one hundred rings 

on wooden stand. 



138 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

915 Ancient gilded bronze ducks, mounted on a stand. (2 

pieces.) 

916 Ancient bronze sacrificial vessel on three legs. Chou 

Dynasty. (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

917 Bronze sacrificial vessel for holding food, inlaid with 

silver and gold, mounted on wooden stand. Chou 
Dynasty. (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

918 Bronze sacrificial vessel in the form of a ram standing 

on a four-wheeled carriage. 

919 Bronze pot, mounted on wooden stand. Shang Dynastv. 

(1766 to 1122 B. C.) 

920 Bronze hanging bottle (a sacrificial utensil) — on red 

wood stand. Chou Dynasty. (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

921 Bronze incense burner on three legs (a sacrificial utensil). 

Chou Dynasty. (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

922 Bronze bell of the Chou Dvnasty — on red wood stand. 

(1122 to 225 B. C) 

923 Bronze incense burner on three legs — red wood cover 

with jade top in the form of a Genii — on red wood 
stand. Chou Dynasty. 

924 Bronze incense burner — on red wood stand. Chou Dy- 

nasty. (1122 to 225 B. C.) 

925 Ancient gilded bronze single-horned antilope. 

926 Large ancient bronze incense burner on three legs with 

conventional ornamentation — inside there are tad- 
pole characters. 

927 Mirror of the Tang Dvnastv, ornamentation with blos- 

soms. (618 to 907 A. D.) 

928 Mirror of the Han Dynastv, ornamentation with the signs 

for the 12 hours of' the day. (206 B. C. to 25 A. 
D.) Cracked. 

929 Presentation mirror of the Han Dynasty with ancient 

Chinese characters, wishing good fortune to the 
posterity of the recipient. 

930 Mirror of the Han Dynasty with a design of blossoms 

and dragons in relief. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

931 Mirror of the Han Dvnastv embossed with a beautiful 

design of blossoms. "(206 B. C. to 25 A. X>.) 

932 Mirror of the Tang Dvnastv with birds and clouds (618 

to 907 A. D.). 

933 Mirror of the Tang Dvnastv, ornamentation with animals. 

(618 to 907 A. D.) 

934 One pair mirror Tang Dynastv, ornamentation with ani- 

mals. (618 to 907 A. D.) 

935 Presentation mirror of the Han Dynasty with blossoms 

in relief and Chinese characters, wishing official 
success to the recipient. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 139 

Exhibit 
Number. 

936 Governor's bronze seal of the Ming Dynasty. (13G8 to 

1644 A. D.) 

937 Gilded bronze idol of Northern Wei Dynasty. (336 to 

535 A. D.) 

938 Iron pictures. (8 pieces.) 

939 Military drum, used by the famous General and Prime 

Minister "Chu Ke Liang" of "San Kwo" (Three 
Kingdoms) fame — on carved stand. Han Dy- 
nasty. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

940 Ancient bronze bells mounted on wooden stands. Chou 

Dynasty. (2 pieces.) ,(1122 to 225 B. C.) 

941 Ancient bronze sacrificial vessel with "Tu Tan" cover 

and carved jade knob. Chou Dynastv. (1122 to 
225 B. C.) 

942 Ancient bronze wine bowl. Chou Dynasty. (1122 to 

225 B. C.) 
966 Ancient cloisonne vase — with conventional floral 

decorations. Ming Dynastv (1368 to 1644 A. D.) 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

943 One photograph of the Directors, Professors and Stu- 

dents of the Translation's College, Wuchang. 

944 One photograph of the Members of the Translation De- 

partment, Wuchang. 
045 Six photographs of the Prefectural School, Hanyang. 

GROUP 17. 
BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Books Published by the Hupeh Government Book Depot and the 
Translation Department. 

946 5 works, Commentaries on the Chinese Classics. [Chou 

Ye (Book of changes.) Shu Ching, Shih Ching 
(Books of Rites), Books on Classic] all of which 
have been revised and published by Imperial order. 

947 6 works — Books on the Chan civil system. Commentar- 

ies on the Confucian analects, revised and pub- 
lished by Imperial order. Books of Imperial ad- 
vice to the people, and books of instruction an i 
advices for governing the family. 

948 3 works — Books exorting to virtue, and containing the 

wise sayings of the great and good men of China, 
published by Imperial order. 

949 10 works — Text books of the Chinese Classics mentioned 

above including pictures of ceremonies. 



140 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

950 24 works — Commentaries on the Confucian Annalect 

(Chun Chou) by various authors, book on musical 
sounds and harmonies. Commentaries and explan- 
ations of phraseology from the Chinese classics. 
Standard dictionary of Kong Chi. Books on liter- 
ary composition by various authors. Books on 
etymology and penmanship. 

VU1 1 work — Books on ancient bronzes. 

952 5 works — Books on pronunciation and formation of 

Chinese words. Books on the new Learnings. 

953 18 works — History of the Dynasties (Old). History 0£ 

the Dynasties (New). Commentaries on History 
by various authors. General History revised and 
published by Imperial order. History of the Mintr 
Dynasty 1368 to 1641 A. D.). The History of 
Wu Kung Hsien. 

954 22 works — Books on arrangement of seats in the Confu 

cian Temple. Books on sacrificial utensils and mu- 
sic. Book on Chinese Government of present dy- 
nasty. Chinese law books. Book on the duties 
of officials. Books on good government. Book 
on management of famines. Book on how to 
destroy locusts and insects. Officials' Handbook. 
Magistrates' Handbook. Abstract of important 
laws composed in verses for easy remembrance. 
Books on Economies. The virtuous women of 
Hupeh province. 

955 19 works — Text books for children. Time table for 

studying History. Chinese 4 classics (Text-book). 
Memoirs of various good men. Elementary mathe- 
matics. Letter writing. Astronomy. Military 
tactics. 

956 38 works — Biography, Poetry and Essays, etc. 

957 11 works — Medical books. Medicine and Surgery. 

958 16 works — Geography, Atlases. Gazetters. The Hupeh 

Gazetters. Chin Lung's Gazetters of Chinese Em- 
pire. General map of Chinese Empire. 

959 Translations from foreign languages into Chinese : 

Blue Book No. 6 of 1901. 

Blue Book No. 6 of 1901. 

Documents Diplomatique, Evacuation de Shanghai. 

Blue>No. 3, 1902, Evacuation of Shanghai. 

Blue No. 7, 1901. 

Description of European colonies in the far East — 

Chronicle and Directory, 1902. 
Customs, tariffs and trade regulations in the East — 

Chronicle and Directory, 1902. 
Treaties between European and Asiatic Countries. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 141 



Exhibit 
Number. 



Elements de Droit Public — Resume de Cours a l'Uni- 

versite de Bruxelles. 
Resume du Cours de Fortification, lere partie. 
Physique — Cours Elementaire 
Condition d' Installation des Lycees et Colleges. 
Higher Education — Germany and England. 
Physiography. 
Education from Japanese. 
Useful Knowledge — selected from the 5th Nelson 

Royal Reader. 
Government and constitution of schools in Europe and 

the West. 
Reuter's Telegrams — January and February, 1903. 
Resume of Foreign Telegraphic News — April, May 

and June, 1903. 
Catechism of General Knowledge and Affairs. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Ancient Coins and Charms: 

960 Five boxes, 32 pieces copper cash (thick) of the Han 

Dynasty, and eight pieces copper cash (thin) of 
the Han Dynasty. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

961 2 Ancient Copper Cash of the Han Dynasty. 

(206 R. C. to 25 A. D.) 

962 1 Ancient Copper Knife coin=5,000 cash of the Han 

Dynasty. 

963 10 small Copper Cash of the Han Dynasty. (206 B. C. 

to 25 A. D.) 

964 3 Copper Charms. 

964 6 Copper Cash of different Emperors of the Han Dy- 

nasty. (206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

GROUP 31. 

JEWELRY. 

967-975 Official Hat Buttons as worn by the nine recognized 
grades of Official Rank. 

GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

976 2 Lacquered boxes — Foochow — highlv decorated with 

flowers and landscape in relief. 



142 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 



GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

Exhibit • " 

Number. 

977 Large Carpet from "The New Dominion." Yellow 

ground with flowers in five colors. 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

Old Silk Embroideries: 

978 Red large wall curtain, embroidered with figures of 

one hundred children. 

979 Blue small wall curtain, embroidered with design of a cat 

and butterflies. 

980 Red small wall curtain of mosaic silk with figures of a 

Chinese Fairy. 

981 Dark green embroidered large table cloth. 

New Silk Embroideries. 

982 1 Dark green embroidered large table cloth. 

983 1 Olive " " silk 
984-988 25 Embroidered silk table cloths. 
989 1 " " coverlet. 
990-991 4 " " piano covers. 
992-998 14 " window curtains. 
999-1000 5 " silk wall 

1001 40 " cushion covers. 

1002-1004 3 " " carriage cushions. 

1005 4 " white small scrolls. 

1006 1 " " wall curtain. 

1007 16 " " large scrolls. 

1008 7 " " mantel covers. 

1009 10 " " stove screens. 

1010 2 " " pillows. 

1011 2 Cloth bags for carrying brushes, etc. 

1012 1 Embroidered silk bag for carrying brushes, etc. 

1013 3 " " night dress 'bags. 

1014 2 " " large bags. 

1015 2 " " small ' 

1016 2 " " large " for Handkerchiefs. 

1017 8 " " small " " 
1018-1027 10 " dark blue silk caps. 
1028-1035 8 " silk tea coseys. 
1036 6 pairs embroidered silk slippers. 
1037-1039 12 " " " shoes. 

1040 8 " " white silk shoes. 

1041 8 Embroidered silk antimacassars. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 143 



Exhibit 
Number. 

1042-1045 17 Dragon flags. 

1046 10 silk thread belts. 

1047 10 Embroidered silk handkerchiefs. 

1048-1056 9 Pairs Official Badges from the 1st to the 9th rank. 

GROUP 60. 
FURS AND SKINS. 

1057 2 Tiger skins. 

1058 2 Leopard skins. 

1059 4 Monkey skins. 

1060 200 Thibetan sheep skins. 

GROUP 127. 

ETHNOLOGY. 

Ancient Rubbings from Stone Monuments of the Han Dynasty 
(206 B. C. to 25 A. D.) 

1061 42 Rubbings of sculptures of the Han Dynasty. (206 B. 

C. to 25 A. D.) from Wu Liang Temple. 
2 from Wu Shih Monument. 
10 " Monuments in Wu Liang Temole. 

1062 5 " " " the Tai Shan— Tang Dynasty. 

(618 to 907 A. D.) 

Ancient Armour: 

3 'Breach-loading swivel cannon on tripod, with three 

breach-pieces, ramrod, lock bolts and firing Rod. 
(16th century.) 

4 Gingal for two men. (This type is used at the present 

day.) 
* 5 Gun. 

6 Two handed sword. 

7 Single " 

8 Fork. 

9 Two handed long sword. 

10 Halberd. 

11 Iron flail. 

12 Leather Powder horn. 

13 2 wooden powder flasks. 

14 Arquebuse. 

15 Leather quiver of poisoned arrows. 

16 Coat of mail with silk face and lining, for protection 

against spear and sword. 

17 Iron helmet with inside cap, and outside cloth decora- 

tions. This is an excellent specimen of Chinese 
ancient metal work. 



144 Catalogue of the Hupeh Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

18 Suit of Armour, comprising: Doublet lined with iron 

plates and embroidered with blue silk dragons; 2 
arm plates ; 2 thigh plates ; 1 skirt ; 1 set of breast 
and back plates. 
91 Military Tent. 

26 Dragon Flag — silk, ancient, triangular, used by the mili- 

tary for signalling, etc. 

27 Flag — silk, ancient, square, large used by the 
military for signalling, etc. 

28 Flag — silk, ancient, square, small, used by the 
military for signalling, etc. 

29 Official Flags — silk, blue with red border; carried before 

the higher officials when they go out, in order to 
warn the people to keep order and be respectful. 

30 Official Flags — silk, plain blue, carried before official 

Chairs in procession. 

31 Flying Tiger Flags — silk, white with red border; mili- 

tary flags used on parade. 

32 Flying Dragon Flags — silk, red with black border; mili- 

tary flags used on parade. 

33 Celestial Dragon Flags — silk, Imperial yellow, with green 

border, used on the occasion of State functions. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

Hunan Provincial Exhibits. 



GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1063 Water color — a Hare — by Yang Chi Fang, the celebrated 

painter of Ning Hsing Hsien, Changsha pre- 
fecture. 

GROUP 11. 
SCULPTURE. 

1064 Jade ornament, bunch of grapes, on carved stand. 

1065 Jade vase, two tubes, phoenix and dragon, on stand. 

1066 Jade pen cleaner, with c storks flying through clouds, 

in high relief. 

1067 Jade ornament, lotus leaves and flower, and arrowroot, 

on a pond. 

1068 Carved stone pictures, in high relief. 

1069 Agate Vase, with bamboos and plums in relief, 
on carved stand. 

1070 Agate Pen cleaner, with dragons, in high relieef. 

1071 " • ' ; " " round. 

1072 " Ornament, lotus leaf and ripples. 

1073 " " Buckles (2). 

GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

1074 12 Engraved pictures on glass, in black frames. 

1075 Porcelain teapot and four cups of chased porcelain, 

made in Changsha city by Lai Ching Ko. 

1076 Porcelain blue and white vase on stand, Kang Hsi 

(1662 to 1723 A. D.) 

1077 Porcelain white olive shaped vase, crackled, on stand, 

ancient. 
1092 2 Ancient cloisonne vases, on wooden stands. 

1078 Ancient bronze mirror on carved stand, Chou Dynasty 

(1122 to 225 B. C.) 

— 145 — 



146 



Catalogue of the Hunan Exhibit 



Exhibit 
Number. 
1079 

1080-1088 



GROUP 23. 
CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 



Scented Soap, made in the city of Changsha. 
White Scented Face Powder, made in the city of Chang- 
sha. 



1089 



GROUP 28. 

STATIONERY. 

20 Note Books of various colored papers, with printed 
satin covers. 



1090 
1091 



GROUP 30. 

SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

6 Silver Lockets, of hammered work. 

2 Flower boxes, of hammered work. 



1093 


2 


1094 


2 


1095 


4 


109G 


8 


1097-1100 


14 


1101-1102 


o 

6 



1103 



1104 



GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

Bangle boxes, brown, lacquered. 
Jewelry boxes, black with bamboo, lacquered. 
Hat boxes, black, lacquered. 
Spectacle cases, lacquered. 
Tobacoo boxes, lacquered. 

Stationery Cabinets, black, with chased pictures, lac- 
quered. 
Nest of four lacquered boxes, black, decorated with 

Fu and Kuei characters. 
Nest of four lacquered boxes, black, oblong, deco- 
rated with green and red orchids. 
Tea caddy, black. 
Lacquered boxes. 
Trays. 

Clothes boxes, black lacquered wood. 
Soap boxes, oval. 
Carved Bamboo Trays. 

Picture Frames. 

Tea Caddies. 

Seal Boxes. 

Work Boxes. 

Pencil Holders. 

Jewel Boxes. 

Glove " 
Sets cups, woven bamboo and lacquered. 



1105 


1 


1106-1108 


4 


1109-1110 


2 


1111-1113 


6 


1114 


4 


1115-1116 


2 


1117 


5 


1118 


7 


1119-1120 


4 


1121 


2 


1122 


2 


1123-1125 


7 


1126-1127 


4 


1128 


3 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 147 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1129 2 Wrist rests, bamboo, carved in relief. 

1130 . 4 Carved Bamboo Wrist rests. 

1131 20 Ink boxes. 

1132 14 Cigarette boxes. 
1133-1134 8 Stationery boxes. 

1135 12 Spectacle cases. 

1136 1 Bamboo box, with variegated bamboo edgings. 

1137 140 Pipe stems, of variegated bamboo, 1st quality. 

1138 60 Pipe stems, of variegated bamboo, 2nd quality. 

1139 4 Carved pictures, of bamboo, each with three scenes. 
1140-1141 6 Combs, of Huang Yang wood. 

1142 1 Green wood box, carved with box- wood figures in re- 

lief. 

1143 1 Cigarette holder, of Huang Yang wood, carved with 

leaves and berries. 

1144 2 Cigarette holders, of Huang Yang wood, carved with 

Hawthorn flowers. 

1145 2 Cigarette holders, of black wood. 

1146 1 Set carved peach stones representing the twelve hours 

of the day. 

GROUP 35. 
ARTICLES FOR TRAVELING AND FOR CAMPING. 

1147 12 Folding Chairs with pigskin seats. 

1148 12 " " painted mat and pigskin seats. 

GROUP 37. 

DECORATION AND FIXED FURNITURE OF BUILDINGS AND 

DWELLINGS. 

1149-1152 8 Slate slabs, polished, variegated green, slate 8i"x8|". 
1152 1 Pagoda stone. 

1154 1 Polished black stone in form of an ancient bell. 

GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

1155 1 Round table, black lacquered top, on pedestal. 

1156 1 Oval table, with Pagoda stone top, on pedestal. 

1157 4 Yellow chairs, with black lacquered seats. 

1158 1 Square table with porcelain top. 

1159 1 " " " black lacquer top. 
1160-1161 19 Pillows of Dragon's beard grass. 

1163 2 Ear pillows of Dragon's beard grass. 

1164 1 Screen, four leaves, with painted panels, woven bamboo 

back. 
.1165 1 Screen, two leaves, with embroidered panels. 

11 



148 Catalogue of the Hunan Exhibit 

GROUP 41. 
HARDWARE. 
White Metal Ware : 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1166 1 Brazier, large, on three copper legs. 

1167 1 Brazier, small, on three copper legs, on wooden stand. 

1168 4 Paper weights. 

1169 12 Soap spoons with carved handles. 
1170-1171 4 Wash hand basins. 

1172-1173 4 Round trays, chased with flowers and leaves. 

1174-1175 4 Ash-travs/on stands. 

1176 2 Tooth-pick boxes. 

1177 2 Cardamon seed boxes, chased. 

1178 2 Incense burners, each 7 pieces, with copper top. 

1179 2 Incense burners, each 8 pieces, square. 

Pewter Ware. 

1180-1181 4 Fruit plates. 

1182 2 Tureens, with hot water cisterns. 

1183 12 Small plates. 

1184 2 Large deep plates. 

1185 2 Small deep plates. 

1186 2 Hot water serving plates. 

1187 4 Sugar boxes. 

1188 1 Wine heater and food warmer, with wine pot, 2 cups, 

2 basins and 2 plates, with spirit lamp for heating. 

1189 2 Wine heaters. 

1190 1 Teapot. 

1191 2 Incense burners. 

GROUP 43. 

CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

1192-1193 4 Rugs, cotton warp and cow hair woof, with two storks 
in six colors, used for bed coverings. 

GROUP 49. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS, NOT ELECTRICAL, FOR LIGHTING. 

1194 8 Lanterns, bamboo, with printed panels of white silk. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

1195 4 pieces Cotton cloth, bamboo joints pattern, blue and 

white yarn. 

1196 4 " " " dark blue stripes, blue and white. 

. yarn. 



Exhibit 






Number. 






1197 


4 pieces 


Cotton 


1198 


4 " 


ei 


1199 


1 piece 


" 


1200 


12 pieces 




1201 


1 piece 


it 


1202 


2 pieces 


a 


1203 


2 " 


it 


1204 


2 " 


" 


1205 


4 " 


it 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 149 



cloth, bamboo joints pattern, blue and 
" large check, blue and white yarn. 
" white, coarse. 
" white, fine. 

white, medium. 
" black.' 

ash gray, coarse. 

yellow," coarse. 

green gauze for ladies' long 

coat. 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

120G 4 Hanks China-grass Thread. 

1207 4 pieces Grass-cloth, white, fine. 

1208 1 piece " " coarse. 

1209 2 pieces " black. 

1210 1 piece yellow, fine. 

1211 1 " - " white, very fine. 

1212 1 " " yellow, coarse. 

1213 2 " Puerena Gauze, yellow. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

1214 2 pieces Changsha Silk, black. 

1215 1 piece " vellow, fine. 

1216 1 " " " coarse. 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

1217 4 pieces Embroidered satin, in carved oval frames. 

1218 4 White satin embroidered pictures, in red wood 

frames. 

1219 1 piece Black satin embroidered pictures, three hares. 

1220 4 pieces Embroidered white satin, in red wood frames. 

1221 1 piece Olive green embroidered satin, mantel border. 

1222 2 pieces White embroidered satin, mantel border. 

1223 1 piece Satin card case, embroidered blue and heliotrope. 

1224 2 pieces Satin pocket-books embroidered blue and 

heliotrope. 

1225 2 Embroidered pink satin table centerpieces. 
122G 24 " " " silk handkerchiefs. 

1227 2 " Satin black ties. 

1228 2 " " pouches. 



150 Catalogue of the Hunan Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 
1229-1230 2 pieces Embroidered satin table cloth; dark brown. 

1231 2 " " " clothes bags ; red. 

1232 2 " " " tobacco pouches, double, 

blue. 

1233 12 " " " table covers, round, red. 

1234 12 " " " " " " olive 

green. 

1235 2 " " " pillows, white. 

1236 1 piece White satin embroidery, framed. 

GROUP 60. 
LEATHER, FURS AND SKINS, ETC. 

1237 8 Deer Skins, used for boots, pouches and purses. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

1238 2 Satin caps for boys. 

1239 12 Bamboo baskets of artificial flowers. 

1240 1 Brass clothes stand and table. 

1241 2 Fans of Dragon's beard grass. 

GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

1242 Mushrooms, grown on hempskins, Lin Yang, 

1243 Bamboo shoots, Changsha. 

1244 Root of the Ling Chih. 

1245 10 boxes Black Tea "Kui Hua." 

1246 6 " " " "Hua Mo" from Lin Yang and Au 

Hua. 

1247 6 " " "Chu Lan" from An Hua. 

1248 10 Bricks Tea, native made, from Lin Hsiang. 

1249 2 boxes Seeds of Tungshan grass. 

GROUP 87. 
FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. 

1250 4 boxes Arrowroot flour. 

1251 2 boxes Water-Chestnut flour. 

1252 2 boxes Lily-root flour. 

GROUP 89. 
PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

1253 2 boxes Lotus nuts, white. 

1254 2 boxes Lotus nuts, red. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 151 

GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FORESTS AND OF 
FOREST INDUSTRIES. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1255 Sample of Lao Shan Hsiang wood used for making in- 

cense on account of its sweet perfume. 

1256 2 Bed mats of Dragon's beard grass. 

1257 2 Mats, square. 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

1258 Sulphur, partially refined. 

1259 Cinnabar, 1st quality, from Chen Chow. 

1260 Cinnabar, 2nd quality, from Chen Chow. 

1261 Cinnabar, showing occurrence in lote, from Chen Chow. 

1262 Galena with blend, from Chang Ling. 

1263 Blende, from Chang Ling. 

1261 Auriferous Quartz, from Ping Chaing. 

1265 Antimonite, from Hsing Hua. 

1266 Antimonite, from Shao Yang. 
1267-1268 Antimony Regulus, from Changsha. 

GROUP 118. 
METALLURGY. 

1269 Native steel, in bars from Pao Ching. 

GROUP 127. . 
ETHNOLOGY. 

1270 3 Sets of figures representing Happiness, Wealth and 

Longevity. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 



KIUKIANG COLLECTION. 



Exhibit 
Number. 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46- 

47 



GROUP 24. 

'MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

Market value 

per picul 

Mex. dollars 

Drawing Paper, first quality 177 00 

" 150 00 

140 00 

127 00 

Writing- " 50 00 

44 00 

22 00 

Drawing " " 75 00 

101 00 

Red Scroll " " 126 00 

202 00 

Coarse Paper 10 00 

8 50 



Colored 



Note Paper, 8 lines 



16 
12 



32 



70 00 
50 00 
54 00 
75 00 

130 00 

71 00 

72 00 
100 00 
100 00 
190 00 

80 00 



Red Note Paper, 32 lines 80 00 

Note Paper, ■ " " 42 00 

Writing Paper, first quality 52 00 

second quality 45 00 

third " 40 00 

'. 35 00 

34 00 

Visiting Cards, small 150 00 

" ' " large 200 00 



152- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



153 



Exhibit 
Number. 

48 

49 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5- 
9- 
13 
14 



8 
12 



Paper folding ..." 

Envelopes A, per 100 pieces 
B, 



c, 


a 


" 


D, 


a 


a 


E, 


" 


a 


F, 


a 


" 


G, 


a 


" 


H, 


a 


" 


I, 


a 


a 


K. 


a 


a 


L; 


a 


a 


M, 


a 


" 


N, 


a 


a 


O, 


(C 


u 


P, 


u 


a 


0, 


a 


a 




GROUP 


16 



8G 00 
13 
20 
20 
40 
40 
30 
50 
50 
60 
60 
50 
70 
70 

1 00 
90 

1 30 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Panoramic, view of the Port of Kiukiang. 
Fort near Kiukiang. 
Mountain scene near Ruling. 
Hukow City. 

Four views of Kuling settlements and mountains. 
Four views, road to Kuling mountain. 
Pagoda and Temple in Kiukiang City. 
"Little Orphan'' Island, forty miles down river from 
Kiukiang. 



50 



51 



53 
54 



GROUP 28. 

STATIONERY. 

Collection of Brushes, Pens, Inks, Inkstands.. Ink 
Boxes, etc. 

GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Silver Tray, round, hammered pattern, bamhoo border 
and handles, dragon design, with three small 
feet. 

Tray, oblong, hammered pattern, with bamboo 
handles and dragon design. 

12 Silver Napkin Rings, different patterns. 

12 Pagoda shape Pepper boxes, different pat- 

terns. 



154 Catalogue of the Kiukiang Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

55 15 Silver Salt-cellars, different patterns. 

56 7 Belt Buckles, different patterns. 

57 24 " Tea spoons. 

58 15 " Brooches. 

59 Tea set (4 pieces), round design, dragon and flowers, 

dragon handles. 

60 Tray, round, hammered pattern, bamboo rim, dragon 

design and three small feet. 

61 .2 Silver Card trays, round, hammered pattern, bam- 

boo rim and dragon design. 

62 2 Silver Card trays, octagonal, hammered pattern, 

dragon design, rim figures. 

63 2 Flower Vases, stork design. 

64 2 Silver Flower Vases, lotus design. 

65 2 " " bamboo and dragon design. 

66 2 " " " flowers design. 

67 10 " Glass holders, dragon handles. 

68 2 " Photo frames, oval, dragon and phoenix 

69 2 " frame, " chrysanthemum, design. 

70 Silver Photo frame, dragon and "Fti" design. 

71 2 Silver Photo frames, bamboo and figured design. 

72 " frame, flowers and bird design. 

73 " dragon and bamboo. 

74 . " bamboo, bird and dragon design. 

75 Silver Photo frame, double, phoenix and "Fu" design. 

76 oval, figured design. 

77 " " " double, figured and "Fu." 

78 square, flowered and "Fu" design. 

79 " " " bamboo design. 

80 Tea set (4 pieces), hammered pattern, bamboo 
handles. 

81 Tray, square, hammered pattern, dragon de- 
sign, bamboo rim, with 4 small feet. 

bamboo rim, with four small feet. 
Tray, octagonal, hammered pattern, dragon de- 
sign, bamboo handles. 

Candlesticks, dragon design, flowers and fig- 
ures. 

Mugs, figured and dragon handles. 
Candlesticks, square design with dragon figures. 
Tea st (5 pieces), round design, flowrs and fig- 
ures, bamboo handles. 

Tea set (5 pieces), twisted design and flowers. 
6 Silver Candlesticks, dragon design. 

Claret Jug, hammered pattern, dragon, bam- 
boo and figures design. 
92-93 5-" Matchbox holder. 



82 




83 


2 


84 


2 


85 


2 


86 




87 




88-90 


6 


91 





to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 155 

Exhibit 
Number. 

94 Silver Cigarette box, hammered pattern, dragon de- 

sign on lid. 

95 " Cigarette box, hammered pattern, dragon de- 

sign on lid, square. 

96 12 " Cigarette Cases, different designs. 

97 Tray with figured border and dragon design 
and three small feet. 

97a " Tea set (4 pieces), hammered pattern, dragon 

design and bamboo handles. 

96 12 " Cigarettee cases, different designs. 

97 Tray with figured border and dragon design and 
three small feet. 

97a Tea set (four pieces), hammered pattern, dragon 

design and bamboo handles. 

GROUP 45. 

CERAMICS. 

The Great Potteries of China — Process of the Manufacture of 
Porcelain at King-te-chen. 

The town of King-te-chen, though many of its former glories 
have departed, is still the chief center of the porcelain manufac- 
ture in China. It derives its name from the Emperor Chen Tsung, 
of the Northern Sung dynasty, who reigned from A. D., 998 to 1023, 
and the second of whose reign was called King-te. He may be 
considered the founder of these potteries. The fullest description 
that has been given of porcelain making at King-te-chen is that 
by Pere d'Entrecolles, written in 1712 and 1722. This description 
is fully applicable to the present day, the only change to be re- 
corded being that the quality of the work has somewhat deterior- 
ated. The porcelain works of to-day are also very different in mag- 
nitude from what they were a century ago. The Taiping rebels in 
their victorious career along the Yangtze and throughout Kiangsi 
province paid several visits to this place and demolished nearly the 
whole of the works. According to latest accounts there are 120 fur- 
naces and about 160,000 hands. 

The only fine procelain now made is "tribute porcelain," of 
which a large supply is sent annually to Peking for the use of the 
Emperor. This was formerly baked in special furnaces called Yu- 
yoa, or Yuan-yao, Imperial or official furnaces, as distinguished 
from the wai-yao or ming-yao, outside or popular furnaces. But 
since the destruction wrought by the Taipings, the Imperial fur- 
naces have been in ruins, and all the porcelain is baked in the out- 
side furnaces. Only quite perfect pieces are sent to the court; 
hence many pieces baked for Imperial use, but in favor of supposed 
superior pieces, or for some flaw or imperfection, find their way into 
the local market. These are the best modern pieces open to pur- 



156 



Catalogue of the Kiukiang Collection 



chase by the general public. Many of the patterns on the tribute 
porcelain of the present date are precisely the same as those for- 
warded to the Emperor Chia Ching in A. D., 1528. Most of the 
exhibits are duplicates of Tribute porcelain. 

The same method of manufacture prevails now as obtained in 
the time of Pere d'Entrecolles. The materials used are two sorts 
of earth, one called pai-tun-tzu, a hard, white, fusible quartz, the 
other Kao-ling, decomposed felspar of granite. King-te-chen does 
not produce these ingredients ; they are imported from other places 
in Kiangsi, and from Anhui. Other materials have been tried from 
time to time, of which soapstone is the principal. 

The glaze is obtained by mixing the ashes of a fern growing 
in the neighborhood of the town with pounded pai-tun-tzu, thus 
forming a silicate of flint and alkali. 

It is difficult to ascertain what the annual output of the King- 
te-chen potteries may be. According to native authorities, in a 
good year now-a-days the total production reaches a value of about 
gold, $2,000,000. In the old prosperous clays, a value of five mil- 
lions was often reached. 



Raw Materials, Particularly Chemical Products Used in Ceramic 

Industries . 



Exhibit 
Number. 

98 

99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 



Pigment 



white 
ochre 
blue. 



green ) [ 

white | 

red I Mixed together I 

green ( to make green. | 

yellow I 

white J [ 

green 

green (light) 



green 

white 

green 

white 

red 

green 

red . . 



(dark) 
(light) 



Mixed together 
'' to make green ^ 



yellow (dark) 

red 

ochre 

white 

yellow(light) 

white 

white 

red 



Mixed together J 
to make yellow. * 



Market value 

per picul 

Mex. dollars. 

70 00 

150 00 

. 150 00 

150 00 

20 00 
. 450 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 00 

20 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 
. 150 

150 00 

. 150 00 

. 150 00 

150 00 

. 150 00 

60 00 

20 00 
. 150 00 
. 150 00 

20 00 
. 900 00 



00 
00 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



157 



Exhibit 






Market value 
per picul 


Number. 






Mex. dollars. 


124 


Pigment green 




. 150 50 


125 


' ' rouge 




400 00 


126 


" white 




. 150 00 


127 


" olive ••• "1 


1 

) 


. 150 00 


128 
129 


" yellow. . 1 , ,. , , ,, 

u J m , { Mixed together to 


. 150 00 

. 150 00 


130 


( to make dark green. 
t; green . . fe 


I ' 


. 150 00 


131 


i; white . . J 


1- 


20 00 


132 


" olive 




. 150 (K) 


133 


" vellow 




150 00 


134 


" red . . . 




. 150 00 


135 


•' blue 




150 00 


136 


Glazing fluid, prepd., blue 




. 600 00 


137 


" " " brown 




. 450 00 


138 


" " ; ' brown 




. 450 00 


139 


' ; " " light blue 




. 450 00 


140 


black 




. 140 00 


141 


" " " blue 




. 600 00- 


142 


red 




450 00 


143 


" " yellow 




450 00 


144-5 


" " white 




450 00 


146 


"' " " opal 

Various Porcelains. 




450 00 


147-148 


2 Pairs Vases. 






149-150 


S Fruit Bowls. 






151 


4 Wine Cups. 






152-153 


8 Tea Cups. 






154 


4 Soup Bowls. 






155 


4 Fruit Bowls. 






156 


4 Tea Cups. 






15.7 


4 Wine Cups. 






158 


2 Sacrificial Vessels. 






159 


1 Sacrmcial Dish. 






160-161 


2 Pairs Vases. 






162 


2 Pairs Plates. 






163 


2 Plates. 






164 


2 Bowls. 






165 


2 BoavIs, large. 






166 


2 Bowls, middle size. 






167 


4 Dishes. 






168 


4 Plates. 






169 


4. Bowls. 






170-171 


8 Soup Bowls. 






172 


2 Bowls, large. 






173 


2 Dishes, large. 






174 


4 Bowls, small size. 







158 Catalogue of the Kiukiang Collection 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER 
THAN COTTON, 

t^ i^*l- + Market value 

xLxniDit p er picul 

Number. Mex. dollars. 

175 Grasscloth, fine, white 380 00 

176 " " " 350 00 

177 " coarse, white 220 00 

178 " fine, white 400-00 

179 " " " 225 00 

180 " " " 165 00 

181 " " pink 460 00 

182 " " " 400 00 

183 ". " " 390 00 

184 " ' '"■ red 290 00 

185 " coarse, red 270 00 

186 " " " 220 00 

187 " fine, lilac 360 00 

188 " " " 400 00 

189 " " " 400 00 

190 " " green 400 00 

191 " coarse, green 240 00 

192 " " " 220 00 

193 " fine, pale blue 390 00 

194 " " " 350 00 

195 " coarse, pale blue 200 00 

196 " fine, light blue 300 00 

197 " coarse, light blue 250 00 

198 " " " , 250 00 

199 " fine, dark blue 370 00 

200 " " " 320 00 

201 " coarse, dark blue 160 00 

202 " " " brown 220 00 

203 " " " " 210 00 

204 " " " " 150 00 

205 " " black 280 00 

906 " " " 220 00 

207 " " • " 180 00 

208 " fine, pale straw 185 00 

209 " coarse straw 90 00 

2io " " " 80 00 

2ii " " " 58 00 

212 " " " <35 00 

213 " " " : 65 00 

214 " " figured 150 00 

915 " " " 130 00 

91$ ■" " " 130 00 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 159 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Exhibit Cost 

Number. _ Mex. dollars. 

217 River Junk, capacity 230 tons 1,500 00 

218 " " " 80 " 1,500 00 

219T " " " 230 " 6,000 00 

220 " " " 150 " 2,500 00 

221 " " " 100 " 2,000 00 

222 Official House-boat 6,000 00 

223 Guard-boat 800 00 

224 Ferry boat 800 00 

225 Dragon boat 150 00 

GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

Market value 
Mex. dollars. 

226 Hemp, 1st quality 21 00 

227 " 2nd " 19 00 

228 " 3rd " . ... 17 00 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

229 Porcelain earth 6 00 

230 " " 6 00 

231 " " 7 50 

232 " " 6 00 

233 " " Kaolin or Mingsha 45 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

WUHU COLLECTION 



GROUP 12. 



ARCHITECTURE. 

Pagoda at Wuhu. This pagoda stands at the mouth 
of the small river whose junction with the 
Yangtsze furnishes the site of the city of Wuhu. 

It is called the Chung Chiang Chu, or Chung 
Chiang Pillar, Chung Chiang (midway river), 
being an ancient name for Wuhu which 
stands half way between the mouth of the Yang- 
tsze and the group of contiguous great cities — 
Hankow, Wuchang and Hanyang. The build- 
ing of this pagoda was begun in the 46th year 
of the reign of the Emperor Wan Li of the Ming 
Dynasty (A. D. 1619) and was completed, after 
long interruptions, in the 8th year of Kang Hsi 
of the Ching Dynasty (A. D. 1670.) 

The pagoda, which now consists of seven 
stories, is said to have had, originally, nine — 
two have been removed on account of their 
supposed unfavorable geomantic influences. It 
is now a picturesque ruin whose beauty is great- 
ly diminished by the closely surrounding houses 
concealing three stories from view. It is a 
favorite roosting place for large flocks of birds ; 
and trees of considerable size grow on its roof. 

The city of Wuhu is situated on the right 
bank of the Yangtsze (264 miles above Shang- 
hai). It is the principal commercial city of 
the Province of Anhui, and the residence of 
the Taotai whose jurisdiction extends over the 
Southern half of the province. Wuhu was op- 
ened by treaty to foreign trade in 1877, at which 
'time its population amounted to about 40,000. 
In 1903 its population is about 105,000, its 
growth being practically due to the port's hav- 



— 160- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 161 

ing become the outlet of the greatest rice-pro- 
ducing territoy in the Empire. Seven Foreign 
Missionary Societies have established here, and 
there are nearly one hundred foreign residents. 
The net value of the trade of the port in 1902 
was 19,090,828 taels, equal to 12,790,854 (gold) 
dollars. The export of rice amounted to 4,334,- 
000 piculs— equal to about 9,320,000 bushels. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, ETC — 
COINS AND MEDALS. 

Coins struck by the Anhui Provincial Mint, at 
Ngankin, the Provincial Capital. This mint was 
established in November, 1897, for the minting 
of silver coins — dollars, half-dollars, 20-cent 
and 10-cent pieces. After being in operation 
less than two years the mint was closed in Au- 
gust, 1899, and the machinery and equipment 
removed. In May, 1902, the mint received a 
new installation for the making of copper coins 
only; since which time it has turned out 55,800,- 
000, coins principally 10-cash pieces — but few 
of the 20-cash and 5-cash pieces having been 
issued. The 10-cash piece is worth, in American 
money, about 5 mills. 

GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FORESTS AND OF FOREST 

INDUSTRIES. 



Specimens of timber: 


Exhibit 




•Number. 




1 


Cedrela sinensis. 


2 


Ho ven ia dulcis. 


3 


Peach. 


4 


Pagoda. 


5 


Paulownia imperialis 


6 


Persimmon. 


7 


Species of Oak. 


8 


Dalbergia Lupeana. 


9 


Red poplar. 


10 


White poplar. 


11 


Wijlow. 


12 


Chestnut. 


13 


Soap-tree. 


14 


Oak. 



162 Catalogue of the Wuhu Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




15 


Ltndera tzu-mu. 


16 


Sterculia platanifolia. 


17 


Pistacia chinensis. 


18 


Silkworm thorn. 


19 


Apricot. 


19 


Apricot. 


20 


Elm. 


21 


Mulberry. 


22 


Tallow Tree. 


23 


Liquidamber. 


24 


Jujube. 


25 


Species of Oak. 


26 


Pride of India. 


27 


Red Evergreen Oak. 


28 


Xylosma racemosum. 


29 


Cedar. 


3.0 


Evergreen Oak. 


31 


Ailantus glandulosa. 


32 


Nettle. 


33 


Pine. 


34 


Fir. 


35 


Maiden-hair tree. 


36 


Eucommia ulmoides. 


37 


Species of poplar. 


38 


Maple. 


39 


Wild Pear. 


40 


Hornbeam. ■ 


■11 


Box. 


42 


Bass wood. 


43 


Kuang pi lang. 


44 


Kuo Lang. 




GROUP 116 






MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

45 Anthracite Coal. This coal being taken from near the 

surface is for the most part of very poor qual- 
ity — brittle and friable. It is often ground into 
dust, which, after being mixed with clay, is 
made into briquettes, which are used locally 
for cooking purposes. 

46-48 Copper, silver, lead and iron ore. 

49-52 Copper ore. 

53 Copper and iron ore. 

54 Iron ore. 

55-58 Iron and Copper ore. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

NANKING COLLECTION. 



GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Views of the Port of Nanking: 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Showing the north end of bund, hulks, and lower anchor- 

age with Chinese war vessels. 

2 Showing Lion Hill and fort. City Wall and I-feng gate. 

3 Showing landslips of the river bank which occurred on 

12th January and 3rd February, 1903, old Cus- 
toms House (evacuated on account of landslips), 
Wing Chong's store, temporary Custom House, 
Memorial Archway erected in memory of the 
late Viceroy Liu Kun-yi, and Yung Wo Hotel. 

4 Showing mouth of the creek leading to the Hansi Gate. 

5 The Hsia Kuan Creek ; looking towards its mouth, 

showing fort at the mouth. 

6 Hui Min Ch'iao (Kindness to the People bridge) ; the 

draw r bridge by which the high road crosses the 
creek at Hsia Kuan. 

7 Port of Nanking; view of the low r er anchorage from 

Customs hulk "Kuashing," with Chinese 
Cruiser, and the "Straw Shoe Cut-off" with salt 
junks at anchor. 

8 Port of Nanking, looking up river from Customs hulk 

"Kuashing." 

9 Port of Nanking, looking northeast from City Wall 

near I-feng Gate. 

10 Yangtze River looking Southwest from City Wall near 

I-leng Gate. 

11 The Three Terrace Caves; south bank of Straw Shoe 

Cut-off. 

12 The Drum Tower — dating from the Ming Dynasty — 

on the high road half way between north and 
south gates of Nanking City. 

13 Pei-Chi-Ko-erh. Temple on hill near the Drum Tower. 

— 163 — 



161 Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

14 Kuan Yin Lou. Temple near the Drum Tower. Site 

of an ancient temple called Chi Ming Ssu of the 
Liang Dynasty. 

15 Examination Hall, where the examinations for the 

Degree of Chu Jen, or M. A., are held. 

16 Entrance of the Confucian Temple. 

17 Entrance of the Viceroy's Yamen (Official residences 

and offices) at Nanking. 

18 The Ch'ao Yang Gate on the south side of the City ; 

looking from within the city wall. 

19 Hemisphere forming part of the iron cupola of the 

celebrated Porcelain tower formerly standing 
on South side of the city, now totally destroyed. 
No other traces are remaining. 

20 Tortoise bearing tablet, outside the south gate of City. 

21 The Wu Chao Gate ; one of the entrances of the Tar- 

tar City, destroyed by the T'ai P'ing Rebels. 

22 Marble Tortoise bearing Tablet, covered by archway 

at the entrance of the avenue leading to the 
Tombs of the Ming Emperors. 

23 Stone Camels, forming part of the avenue leading to 

the Tombs of the Ming Emperors ; the Tortoise 
Archway in the background. 
2-1 Avenue of Stone Animals forming approach to the 

Tombs of the Ming Emperors. 

25 Stone Figures of Warriors and Statesmen forming part 

of avenue of approach to Tombs of Ming Emp- 
erors. 

26 Tomb of the Ming Emperors ; with sloping tunnel 

leading to the tumulus at the back. No traces 
are left of the buildings at one time surmount- 
ing the solid mass of masonry. 

27 The Hall of the Ridgeless Roof — Wu Liang Tien — 

situated beyond the Ming Tombs. 

28 Panorama taken from the Pei-Chi-Ko-erh Temple. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

29 Chart of Nanking Harbor. 

30 • Map of Nanking City. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, ETC — 

COINS AND MEDALS. 

List of specimens of coins issued by the Kiangnan Mint from its 
opening to this date. The Mint was opened on the 28th day, 11th 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



165 



month, 23rd year of the reign of the Emperor Kuang Hsu (Dec- 
ember, 1897) . 



. Date oi 


Issue. 


Horary. 

Char- 
acter. 


Denomination of Coin. 
Silver. Copper. 




Chinese. 


Foreign. 
A. D. 


$1 


20cts. 


lOcts. ! 10 cash. 


Remarks. 




Local Designation. 


Kuang Hsu. 


** 


is% 


in mf 




23rd year 


1S97-98 




2 








[No horary charac- 
■< ter was used this 
(year. 


24th year 


1898-99 


*. 


2 


2 


2 






2oth year 


1S99-00 


* 


2 


2 


2 






20th year 


1900-1 


f- 


2 


2 


2 






27th year 


1901-2 


.a. 


2 


2 


2 






28th year 
29th year 


1902-3 
1903 




2 
2 

■" 


2 

2 


2 
2 


2 
2 


f Previous issues^of 
J copper coin are 
I said to have had 
thorarj- character. 
fThe foreign ini- 
1 tials on these coins 
■{ are those of the 
1 assayer Mr. H. A. 
1 Holmes. 



The Nanking Mint is commonly known by the name borne on 
the face of the coins issued from it, "Kiangnan," meaning "South 
of the River." This name is applied, somewhat inappropriately, 
to the three provinces forming the Viceroyalty of the Liang Kiang 
or Two Rivers, namely, Anhui on the north bank of the Yangtze 
Kiangsi on the opposite south bank, and Kiangsu which occupies 
a wide tract covering both north and south banks, lying eastward 
of the first two named provinces. . Anhui has its own mint at 
Anking, the capital city of that province, and this establishment 
must not be confused with the mint at Nanking, the seat of the 
Viceregal Government and the ancient capital of the Ming Emper- 
ors. It is with the Nanking mint alone that this paper deals. 

The mint was opened in December, 1897, during the adminis- 
tration of the noted Viceroy Liu Kun-yi. 

The staff of management comprises an official of the rank of 
Taot'ai, generally rendered in English as "Intendant of Circuit," 
who superintends the working of the establishment, a Secretary, 
Sub-Manager, Compradore (whose duties are much the same as 
those of chief clerk), Shroff (cashier), Chief Engineer, and an 
Assayer, all but the last mentioned being Chinese. The labor em- 



166 Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 



ployed is all Chinese. When the mint was first started in 1897 about 
300 men were emoloved, at the present time the number is 677 all 
told. 

The buildings, enclosed within four boundary walls, comprise 
two engineering shops, blacksmith's, carpenter's, pattern maker's, 
and die maker's shops, iron foundry, and blast furnaces for melting 
iron. There are also the buildings necessary for the various ma- 
chines used in the manufacture of coins, viz. : Six steam rollers, 2 
engines of 75-horse power, 21 coining presses, 12 sets of rollers, 
5 punching machines, 8 machines for drying blanks after pickling, 
4 large annealing ovens, and 50 smelting furnaces for silver and 
bronze. Each class of machines is enclosed within its separate build- 
ing. The machinery and plant is of British manufacture, and was 
supplied by Messrs. Heaton, The Mint, Birmingham. 

At the first opening of the mint only silver coins were made. 
The minting of copper coins w r as introduced about two years ago. 
The annual output of silver coins is very variable. The mint now 
only occasionally works silver, but when in full w r ork can turn out 
sixty thousand dollars and two hundred thousand subsidiary silver 
coins, twenty and ten cent pieces, per diem. Of the bronze ten cash 
pieces about three hundred and sixty thousand are turned out daily, 
or about eight hundred tons per annum. 

The composition of the silver coin is : 

For one dollar pieces : 90% fine silver and 10% copper. 

For half dollar pieces : 86% " " " 14% 

For subsidiary coins : 82% " " " 18% 

Bronze coins are composed of 95% copper, 3% zinc, and 2% 
tin. 

For silver coins Chinese silver ingots or "shoes" are mostly 
used. When the supply of these rims short recourse is had to 
English and American fine silver. : 

Copper is imported chiefly from Japan. No copper from Chinese 
mines has been hitherto used. 

Of the half dollar pieces only a very few were coined, and they 
never got into general circulation, but were taken up privately. None 
are now coined. 

The Kiangnan dollar is taken at par value with the Mexican 
dollar in about Nanking, but at a discount at Shanghai and other 
places, its intrinsic vsdue being about 1% less. 

A special mintage of bronze coins is made for Soochow con- 
sisting of 10 cash and 5 cash pieces bearing the name Kiangsoo, 
the province of which Soochow is the capital, on their face. They 
are all sent to Soochow for issue. 

No five cash pieces are minted for Kaingnan. It is said that 
there is a large profit on the mintage of 10 cash bronze pieces. The 
demand for them is so great that the coins were bought up and sent 
away in large quantities and the Viceroy has found it necessary to 
prohibit their export in quantities greater than 5,000 at a time from 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 167 



Nanking, a coin of this small value being much more suitable for the 
uniformly small transactions of the poorer classes than any of the 
silver pieces coined. Copper cash of ancient dates are still in gen- 
eral use, and in a string of them it is usual to find a number of coins 
bearing the characters of the earlier Emperors of the present dy- 
nasty in the 17th century. 

GROUP 51. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 

1 Hand Loom for weaving brocaded and embroidered 

fabrics. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 



No. Color. Pattern. Length. 

1 Crushed Beans Plum blossom and bamboo 16' 

2 Peking Camel Grained 16' 

3 Sauce color and blue black. . . Duck and drake 16' 

4 Various . Five colored lute embroidery 15' 

5 Sauce color Golden circle and silver plantain 15' 

6 Treasury gold Gold and silver "Immortality" 15' 

7 White ground Five colored clouds and dragons 15' 

8 Red ground Five colored clouds and dragons 15' 

!) Red ground Three "manys" (sons, wealth and years) in 

gold and silver with peach sprays 18' 

10 Treasury gold "Wan" character (ten thousand" 15' 

11 Treasury silver Foreign Chrysanthemums 15' 

Threads. Width. 

12 Sky black 14,000 2' 7" 15' 

13 Swallow black 16,000 2' 7" 15' 

14 Deep black 16,000 2' 7" 15' 

15 Duck black 13,000 2' 7" 15' 

16 Vermilion 12,000 2' 7" 15' 

1 7 Superior blue 2' 2" , 15' 

Patterns. 

18 Iridescent (shot) and rouge 

red Orchid (Woman's robe) 13' 5" 

19 Gold fish red Bamboo 16' 5" 

20 Bright yellow Boundless longevity 18' 5" 

21 Scarlet Boundless longevity 18' 5" 

22 Tea green Antique 18' 5" 

4a Gold ground Peach 15' 

FIGURED SILK. 

23 Vellow - Longevity and happiness 18' 

24 Black (For making shoes) 

VELVETS. 

No. Color. Pattern. Length' 

1 Date Colored Begonia, pomegranate and "Buddha's Hand 

lemon 15' 

2 Ink green Peony, plum and happiness 15' 

3 Crushed beans Plum and water sprite orchid 15' 

4 Golden sauce Peony 15' 



168 Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 

No. Color. Pattern. Length. 

5 Old bronze Bamboo and chrysanthemum (the three pro- 

motions) 15' 

6 Goose yellow Orchid 15' 

7 Tea ashes Peace and prosperity (chair back) 15' 

8 Apricot yellow Five pleasures saluting longevity 15' 

9 Gem blue Flower pattern, circular 15' 

10 Superior blue . .Peach blossom and water sprite orchid 15' 

11 Old bronze Plain 15' 

12 Bamboo green " 15' 

13 Peking camel ... " . .... 15' 

14 Crushed beans " 15 

15 Snowy lake " 15' 

10 Black and yellow. . . " 15' 

17 Black and white " 15' 

18 Black and yellow " 15' 

19 Second blue " (cotton back) 15' 

20 Pearl Black and white (cotton back) 15' 

21 Black and yellow Plain 15' 

22 Bright yellow Figured 15' 

23 2 Green, 1 Mauve (3 pieces for making mirror covers.) 

24 1 Black, 1 Claret (2 pieces for making shoes). 

25 Bright yellow (For making miscellaneous articles : 

dressing case cover, table border, fan case, 
spectacle case, watch case, pocket, ear 
flaps, pillow covers.) 

1-27 Collection of Embroidered Ribbons. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

1 3 Girdle clasps (with belt). 

2 1 Set Official buttons (with hat). 

3 1 Set Court buttons (with hat). 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

1 Photograph of group of beggars. 



NOTES ON THE MANUFACTURE OF NANKING SATIN, 
VELVETS, AND SILK PIECE GOODS. 

(Extracts from a Report written by F. A. Aglen, Commissioner of Customs.) 

The manufacture of satin, velvet, fancy colored ribbons and 
other silk piece goods is an old established and the principal 
industry of Nanking. It gives employement to large numbers of 
men, women and children, and the products of the looms have 
a ready sale in different parts of the Empire and particularly in 
the north. The industry received a blow at the time of the rebel- 
lion from which it has never recovered, many of the skilled hands 
having left the city for other parts of the province never to return. 
A considerable quantity of raw silk is produced in and around Nan- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 16i> 

king, which is used in the manufacture of silk and satin ribbons 
and for the woof of satin and velvet, but the warp of the latter 
products is invariably composed of the liner quality of silk grown 
in Chehkiang. 

Supplies" of the raw material are obtained^ chiefly from Hsia 
Shih Chen in the department of Hai Ning, and it can be laid down 
at from twenty to forty Mexican dollars per 100 ounces. 
The process of converting the raw material into the finished article 
may be divided into three stages : Spinning, dyeing, and weaving. 
The silk on arrival, if from Chehkiang, is given out to what are 
called "Pai Hang," by women and young girls who use hand wheels 
for the purpose. The ting tzu when completed are then placed in 
a larger and more complicated machine to the number of some 
twelve or fifteen and the silk from them is spun into thread. The 
process is called "Shang Hsiao." The machine which is most in- 
geniously contrived out of bamboo with leather fastenings, is 
worked by a large fly wheel turned by one man or boy. After the 
sil.k has been spun to the required number of counts, it is taken off 
the frames and sent to the dyeing establishments. Fifty thousand 
feet of silk thread are reckoned as one "Tzu," and 100 "Tzu" 
make a "Tsu," weighing 220 taels. The cost of -spinning is said to 
be eight Mexican dollars per "Tsu." 

In the dyeing shops the colors most used are black and plum 
color. After being dyed and bleached the silk is re-reeled by wo- 
men and is then handed over to a special set of craftsmen termed 
Chien Ching ti, whose sole business is to prepare the warp and set 
it on the loom. This process is called "Shang Ching." Should by 
chance the threads become broken or require to be renewed, the 
Chien Ching ti must be called in again. In the meanwhile the silk 
for the woof, which need not necessarily come from Chehkiang, 
and which costs about thirty dollars per hundred taels, and has 
also gone through a spinning and dyeing process. It is then re- 
reeled by women and transferred to small spools, "wei kuan" which 
are placed inside the shuttle, and is then ready for the weaver. 
Sometimes as many as four looms may be found in one establish- 
ment and it is not unusual to find spinning and weaving going on 
within the same compound. These larger establishments called 
"Chi Fang," are the result of combination and represent a con- 
siderable capital. They own an extensive plant and purchase and 
work up their own material, disposing of the finished product to 
the dealer under a particular chop. They stand in much the same 
relation to the poorer class of weavers as the factories in Great 
Britain did to the cottage looms which they superceded. In Nan- 
king the weaver, who has no capital, simply works for hire. If he 
is not the possessor of a loom, he obtains employment at one or 
other of the "Chi Fang" alluded to, getting, besides his keep, a wage 
of from 75 cents to 3J dollars per piece, according to the weight of 
the satin upon which he is employed. The weaver who possesses 
a loom of his own, but who has not the necessary capital to provide 



170 



Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 



himself with the raw material, is dependent on what is called 
"Chang Fang.'' These establishments supply silk and defray the 
cost of spinning, dyeing and setting it up. An accurate account is 
kept of all material given out and expenditure incurred, and, on re- 
turn of the coresponding amount of satin, the weaver is paid at the 
following rates : 



Color. 


Quality. 


Warp 

in 

Threads. 


Length 

per 
piece. 


Breadth 

per 
piece. 


Weight 

per 
piece. 


Weaver's 

wage per 

piece. 


Selling 

price per 

piece. 


Plum .. 


1st 


16,000 


40 ft. 


27-28 in. 


60 OZ. 


Mex. $8.00 Mex. $3S 




2nd 


18,000 


40 ff 


" 


50 oz. 


" 7.00 


" 27 




3rd 


10,000 


37-38 ft. 


27 in. 


40 oz. 


" 6.00 


" 22 


Black.. 


4th 
1st 


7,000 

or 

' 8,000 

18,000 


36 ft. 

40 ft. 8 in. 


27 in. 

8 ft. 2 in. 


30 oz. 
90 oz. 


" 5.00 
" 8.00 


<< 18 
" 45 




1st 


15,000 


40 ft. 


3 ft. 


80 oz. 


" 7.00 


" 30 




•2nd 


18,000 


40 ft. 


2 ft. 7 in. 


(50 oz. 


" 6.00 


•24 




3rd 


10,000 


38 ft. 


2 ff 7 in. 


50 oz. 


" 5.00 


" 15 




4th 


7,000 

to 
8,000 


36 ft. 


2 ft. 7 in. 


40 oz. 


'< 4.00 


" 12 



In addition to the looms which manufacture for the trade, 
there is a certain fixed number under official control engaged in 
turning out silk, satin and velvet for the Court. The owners' of 
these looms hold licenses from the Imperial Silk Commissioner, 
which they can, if they please, sublet to others. In times of great 
pressure, such as an approaching Imperial Jubilee creates, work is 
also given out to private looms. The number of license holders 
in Nanking is 294. 

Previous to the rebellion there was said to be 35,000 looms in- 
side the city, and 15,000 in the villages around, employed in the 
manufacture of ordinary black and plum colored satin. At the present 
time an authority informs me that there an; about 3,000 looms in Nan- 
king and some 2,000 outside the city. The annual production is esti- 
mated at 150,000 pieces valued at Gd. $1,800,000, of which the north 
is the largest consumer. 

The manufacture of other varieties of satin piece goods has 
been steadily declining of late years. Before the rebellion over 
2,500 looms were at work weaving "Mo Pen/', a variety made in 
two qualities and in all colors. In 1880 there were but 300 looms 
so employed and the number has now diminished to about 50. The 
annual production is 1,200 pieces valued at Gd. $25,000. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1:904. 171 

The weaving of Chang Hua, gold figured satin, is now confined 
to about 30 looms, compared with 1,000 before the rebellion and 
300 in 1880. The yearly production amounts to about 10,800 feet, 
valued at Gd. $9,000. This variety is almost entirely made to order 
for the north. The pieces vary in length up to 24 yards and are from 
two to three feet in width. The wholesale price is about Gd. $0,85 per 
foot. 

Veda's Gold, a kind of damask interwoven with gold thread, 
is manufactured on the same looms as the "Chuang Hua." Each 
piece is 18 feet long and 2 feet 2 inches wide. The price per foot 
varies from Gd. $0.50 to $1.00. The annual output is about 720 pieces. 

The prevailing fashion of wearing velvet caps, coats, shoes, etc., 
has led to an increase in the number of looms weaving this product 
since 1880. and there are now about 700 at work in and outside the 
city, manufacturing the plain and figured varieties. In the good 
days before the Nanking trade was ruined there were something 
like 7,000 employed. Each piece is 20 feet long by 1 foot 8 inches 
wide, and varies in price from Gd. $0.35 to $0.90 per foot. The local 
manufacture of Pongees has fallen off greatly, not more than 200 
looms being engaged as compared with 700 in 1880. On the other hand 
there is great activity in the silk and satin ribbon trade. , Previous to 
the rebellion this manufacture was hardly known in Nanking, but 
the number of looms has increased from 3.000 in 1880 to 6,000 at the 
time of writing. The ribbon looms give employment to large 
numbers of women and small girls. The ribbons are woven in a great 
variety of colors and patterns, the setting up of which is a distinct trade 
confined to a few skilled workers, and vary in width between 2 inches 
and 3-10 of an inch. 

The ribbons are woven in a great variety of colors and pat- 
terns, the setting up of which is a distinct trade confined to a few 
skilled workers, and vary in width between 2 inches and 3-10 of an 
inch. 

The weaving of cloth from unbleached cotton, at one time an 
"important enough industry in Nanking for the particular kind of 
texture produced to be known over the world as "Nankeen" did not 
survive the rebellion. Very few looms are now at work, and the in- 
dustry has permanently located itself at Tungchow in this prov- 
ince, nearer to the great cotton-growing districts. 

The above is an extract from a very able report upon this 
trade, written by Mr. F. A. Aglen when Commissioner of Cus- 
toms at this port which will appear in the Customs Decennial 
Reports shortly to be published. What T now propose is not to 
tread in his footsteps but merely to give a sketch of such circum- 
stances or peculiarities connected with the manufacture of the silk 
products of Nanking as have come under my immediate notice 
and seem of interest. 

Soon after entering the Northern gate of the city, called I-feng 
men, the number of mulberry plantations on either side of the 



172 Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 

high road suggests that the rearing of silk worms and the production 
of raw silk is a thriving industry. A stroll along one of the many 
footpaths leading from the main road to the wooded hills fringing 
the inner side of the city wall to the northwest brings one within 
hearing of the steady click-clack of the loom, and in a cottage may 
be seen two or three at work; the weavers, a farmer and his sons 
laboring on the family farm by day are adding to the income by 
weaving in the evening stout glossy satin of a black purple hue ;the 
women kind with children of all ages — for several generations 
live together in patriarchial style, sitting or standing around, plying 
their needles, washing, preparing food or idly gossiping — all ready 
for a cheery greeting to the Yang Hsien Sheng or foreign gentleman 
and a chat with him, too, if he can talk their language ; innumerable 
dogs, vociferous but harmless, pigs, chickens, etc., fill up the fore- 
ground; while the surrounding fields and fish ponds backed by 
picturesque grove's of bamboo, hills well timbered with edible chest- 
nut, oak and numerous other forest trees, some strange and of great 
beauty, combine to make a charming sylvan scene. Similar 
scenes may be witnessed in all directions within the city walls, 
about twenty-two miles in circumference and varying from 30 to 50 
feet in height, the battlemented crest of which standing out here 
and there against the sky line with the beautiful background of 
lofty hills which surround Nanking, forms a picturesque feature 
of the naturally pretty scenery. The only populous part of the 
city lies to the south and southwest, where narrow, crowded and 
busv streets are to be found harboring a population variously esti- 
mated at from 270,000 to 400,000. The rest of the vast inclosure 
is mainly devoted to agriculture, maize, beans, sunflowers, ginger, 
vegetables, etc., following each other in rapid succession ; while the 
dense bamboo groves and mulberry plantations on all sides beautify 
the scene and break the monotony of the open country. 

Very little seems to be known of the extent to which houses 
covered the space within the walls in earlier days, but the ruined re- 
mains of buildings are abundant ; substantial bridges in the midst of 
fields indicate the existence at one time of busy thoroughfares, and 
over the whole area broken bricks and tiles strew the fields and 
afford an apparently inexhaustible supply of building material for 
the poorer natives. These are unmistakable signs of a former popu- 
lation very much larger than exists at present, for the dispersion 
of which and the ruthless destruction of homes, the great T'ai-p'ing 
rebellion was mainly responsible. 

Among the narrow streets of the southern part of the city 
are to be found numerous looms at work in dark, low-roofed cot- 
tages, sometimes four or five, more often one or two, for weaving 
the plain satins, brocades of silk or the handsome brocades of 
gold and silver thread mingled with colored silks of which the 
exhibits from this port show some good specimens. These scat- 
tered establishments are mostly in the pay of capitalists who employ 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 173 



in some few cases 50 to 100 looms, most of them, perhaps. 10 or 20. 
There are no large factories. The manufacture of velvets is more 
concentrated and single establishments are to be found with 20 
or 30 looms, the largest being those employed to weave the sup- 
plies for the court in Peking. Government looms exist at the 
establishment of the Imperial Silk Commissioner, but it is found 
more satisfactory to get all weaving of satins, brocades and velvets 
done by contract, and the official looms are idle. 

A walk through the pleasant undulating country outside the 
city wall in an easterly direction brings one amongst villages or 
scattered cottages where whole families are busily engaged in spin- 
ning or reeling silk, the women and girls seated at single spinning 
wheels, the men at the larger machines, working 16 to 20 spindles, 
the driving wheel of which is turned by one man, while another 
tends the spindles on which the silk is reeled from a trough below 
the level of the ground in which are either cocoons of local growth 
or large spindles of roughly reeled silk imported from other places, 
which require re-reeling and cleansing. In some cottages the single 
fibre is being spun into thread of many strands, in others the dyed 
silk is being reeled off into skeins or hanks. Most of the dyeing is 
done in the city, the largest establishments being congregated 
near the south gate, some employing 20 hands, some less. German 
aniline dyes are largely used for the brighter colors. The looms 
for figured satins and variegated brocades are mostly found to the 
north of the populous part of the city, not far from the Drum 
Tower. For the figured satin, called Mo Pen, some 200 looms are 
said to exist, and for the rich gold and silver brocades about SO 
looms ; but the figures given are not the result of careful statistics, 
which are unobtainable. 

The wages for the different branches of the silk industry vary 
very much according to the capacity of the workmen and the quality 
of the work. It is all piece work. Roughly estimated, the women and 
girl spinners make about 20 cents a day, Mexican dollar currency ; ex- 
pert weavers of satin, plain or figured, 70 to 90 cents ; of gold and varie- 
gated brocades for which two men work at each loom, one above and one 
below, about 80 cents a day each ; velvet workers much the same ; spe- 
cial experts required for the flower patterns of figured velvets get 16 
cents a foot. The capitalists are mostly the merchants who buy and 
sell the satins and velvets produced. The loom owners are generally 
working men with little capital beyond the loom or perhaps several 
looms they own, and which they work for the merchants who supply 
the material. The cost of a loom is about $100. These looms are of 
complicated construction of numerous parts, each part being made 
by a specialist some of them costing considerable sums. The elab- 
orate network of cord, for instance, at the top of the model ex- 
hibited, is known as the "Hua Pen" or "Origin of the flower (or pat- 
tern)." Through it the silk threads are passed to form the flower 
pattern of the brocade, and each pattern requires a special "Hua 



174 Catalogue of the Nanking Collection 

Pen'' costing about 13 Gold Dollars. The great difficulty in getting 
the model constructed was to get each workman to make his par- 
ticular part of an unusual size to suit the reduced proportions of the 
machine. 

I am unable to say how the wages of Nanking workmen com- 
pare with those of western countries, but I should imagine they are 
much lower; but, as compared with steam machinery, the manu- 
facturing process is far slower and the price of the Nanking goods 
is, I am informed, considerably above that of the brocades and 
satins of other countries. It can probablv be claimed for the Nanking 
manufactures that they are more durable, the silk fibre being less 
strained by the hand loom than by the steam machinery, and the silk 
being of purer quality. It will be well if the Chinese do not injure 
their trade by yielding to the temptation of adulterating their goods 
in order to make for a time a higher profit. The patterns, though 
perhaps in some respects not so artistic as those of Avestern manu- 
facturers have, nevertheless, a character of their own which is 
very striking and which western manufactures do not succeed in 
imitating to perfection. 

The Nanking weaver sells his goods principally in China for 
Chinese wearers, but there seems no reason why he should not, 
with a little enterprise and encouragement from without, extend 
his field of trade. That he can make goods of a given shape and de- 
sign to order is proven by the fact that his designs are frequently 
changed to suit new fashions. The original design is roughly 
sketched on paper in black and white with a Chinese pen. or pencil 
brush, and is skillfully imitated on the loom. I have seen large 
stocks of these paper patterns and chosen designs from them. As 
it costs a considerable sum to place an entirely new pattern on a 
loom, the weaver naturally wants a large order for that particular 
pattern to repay his outlay. The long figured velvet table centers 
exhibited were especially woven of that shape, also the chair backs 
of the same material. Attention is called to the figured velvet rid- 
ing jacket, shoes, mirror covers, pouches, and sundry small things 
as a suggestion of what might be done if designs suitable for west- 
ern fashions were given to the Nanking weavers. The lady's robe 
in the figured satin may suggest the weaving of similar material 
shaped for the dresses of ladies other than Chinese. 

The ribbons of Nanking are not so attractive as the brocades. 
The exhibit represents a fair sample of numerous patterns. 

In conclusion it may be said that the Nanking exhibit is by 
no means a complete collection of all the materials, patterns or 
colors produced here. Specimens of the best kinds have been 
chosen as likely to make the most attractive show. There are in- 
numerable patterns of equal beauty, many materials of inferior and 
cheaper texture, some with admixture of cotton, some of poorer silk 
or gold thread, and varying proportionately in price. Some textures 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 175 

woven here are made better elsewhere, and it has not been thought 
worth while to exhibit local specimens. Colors are difficult to 
match, and though names are given to each color it is by no means 
certain that an order for that hue will result in goods of the exact 
shade asked for being supplied. This is probably due to the fact 
that the color of the unwoven silk presents a surprisingly different 
appearance after weaving, especially into velvets. 

H. M. HILLIER, 

Commissioner of Customs. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

Kiangnan Provincial Exhibit, 



GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Ivory Casket ; carvings of men, lion's head, etc. 

* 2 Mother-of-pearl (.2) ; carved shells. 

3 Ivory Fan; carved with Chinese characters. 

-i " ' " 

5 Work Box; golden lacquer, lions' feet. 

6 lily flower. 

7 Tea Tray ; . " " 

S Hanging brackets (2) ; engraved lacquer. 

9 Ancient vase; concealed (dark blue). 

GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 



Silv 
1 


erwar< 
1 


Photo Frame 


Dragon and Lion pattern. 


2 


1 


Sugar Bowl, 


Gold Melon 


n 


3 


1 


Tobacco box ; 


Dragon 


n 


4 


1 


Milk Pot; 


Dragon Scale 


" 


5 


12 


Forks. 






6 


1 


Needle Case. 






; 


2 


Coffee Pots; 


Dragon 


« 


8 


2 


Flower Vases; 


White Stork- 




9 


2 


Pepper Pots ; 


Pagoda 


tl 


10 


2 


Sugar Tongs. 






11 


10 


Ash Trays ; 


Dragon 


a 


12 


6 


Salt Cellars 




. < 


13 


24 


Spoons ; 


Fancy 


,( 


14 


1 


Cruet Stand. 






15 


12 


Spoons ; 


Bamboo 


it 


16 


6 


Buckles ; 


Happiness and Lor 


gevity pattern 


17 


1 


Tea Canister 


Melon 


u 


18 


1 


Punch Bowl: 


Dragon and Lion 


a 


19 


2 


Punch Bowls 


: Stork and Bamboo 


a 



Exhibit 
Number. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 177 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 



1 Satin Brocade ; Vermillion ; circular figured, gold and 

silver; length 19 ft. 6 in. 

2 Satin Brocade; black ground; treasury gold; length 

13 ft. 7 in. 

3 Satin Brocade; Superior blue; treasury silver; length 

11 ft. 8 in. 

4 Satin Brocade; five colors; bed cover; length 13 ft. 

5 Satin Brocade ; superior blue ; treasury gold character 

"Wan :" length 7 ft. 7 in. 

6 Satin Brocade ; Vermillion ; gold and silver interwoven ; 

length 13 ft. 6 in. 

7 Figured Satin ; date red ; peach ; length 59 ft. 2 in. 

8 Treasury . " deep green ; interwoven with gold, length 

27 ft. 

9 Treasury Satin ; tea camel ; plain ; length 63 ft. 

10 Treasury Satin; sky black; plain; length 61 ft. 5 in. 

11 Gold Gauze Satin; moonlight snow blue; length 47 

ft. 3 in. 

1 Velvet ; Silver ash ; plain ; length 30 ft. 

2 " Deep black; " " 26 " 4 in. 

3 " Gem blue; " " 33 " 5 " 

4 " Peking sauce ; " " 30 " 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

1 1 Table cover, red satin ground, embroidered with 

parrot; length 2 ft. 5 in. 

2 1 Table cover, embroidered with peacock; length 2 ft. 

3 1 Table cover, embroidered with stork; length 2 ft. 

4 1 Table cover, embroidered with flowers and birds (red 

satin) ; length 2 ft. 4 in. 

5 1 Table cover, grass yellow and colored satin ; length 

3 ft. 6 in. 

6 1 Huchow crepe handkerchief, snow gray color; length 

1 ft. 3 in. 

7 1 Huchow crepe handkerchief, peach red color ; length 

1 ft. 3 in. 

8 1 Huchow crepe handkerchief, lake grav color; length 

1 ft. 3 in. 

9 4 Embroidered pictures, with the four seasons* 

flowers ; length 3 ft. 4 in. 

10 1 Bright yelow embroidery, real gold with dragon and 

clouds ; length 6 ft. 6 in. 

11 1 Vermilion embroidery, real gold with dragon and 

cloud; length 6 ft. 9 in. 



178 Catalogue of the Kiangnan Exhibit 

Exhibit 
Number. 

12 1 Bright yellow scroll, real gold with dragon and 

cloud ; length 6 ft. 4 in. 

13 1 bright yellow embroidery, three circles with flowers ; 

length 2 ft. 4 in. 

14 1 Vermilion brocaded satin, four circles and colored 

clouds ; length 2 ft. 4 in. 

15 1 Vermilion Satin, good wishes, lilies and birthday con- 

gratulations ; length 2 ft. 5 in. 

16 1 Vermilion embroidery, gold and silver interwoven ; 

length 2 ft. 3 in. 

17 2 Fire screens, flowers embroidered in five colors ; 

length 4 ft. 

18 8 Red satin scrolls, embroidered with flowers: length 

■ . 8 ft. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

CHINKIANG COLLECTION. 



GROUP 34. 



BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

Yangchow Lacquer-ware, Black, Inlaid with Mother-of-Pearl. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1-8 4 Pairs Plaques. 

9- 10 2 Plaques. 

11- 13 3 Trays, oblong. 

14 11 Trays, oval. 

15- 20 6 Inkstands, oblong. 

21- 28 8 Picture Frames. 

29- 38 5 Pairs Flower Vases. 

39- 40 2 Confectionery Boxes. 

41- 42 2 Cigar Boxes. 

43 1 Glove Box. 

44- 47 4 Napkin Rings, hexagonal. 

49- 51 4 Napkin Rings, round. 

52- 60 9 Collar Boxes. 

Yangchow Lacquer-ware, — Yellow and Gold. 

61- 62 2 Tea Trays. 

63- 64 1 Pair Flower Vases. 

65- 66 2 Picture Frames. 

67- 68 2 Cigar Boxes. 

69- 70 2 Glove Boxes. 

71- 82 12 Napkin Rings, round. 

Yangchow Lacquer-ware, — Red and Gold. 

83- 86 4 Plaques. 

87- 91 5 Tea Trays. 

92- 93 2 Oblong Boxes. 

94- 95 1 Pair Flower Vases. 

96- 97 2 Confectionery Boxes. 

98- 99 2 Collar Boxes. 



13 



18° Catalogue of the Chinkiang Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

100-101 2 Glove Boxes. 

102-103 2 Cigar Boxes. 

104-107 4 Picture Frames. 

108-119 12 Napkin Rings. 

120-131 12 Trinket Boxes. 

This rough, but characteristically Chinese species of lacquer-ware, 
is produced only at Yang-chou-fu, a large prefectural city on the Grand 
Canal, some twenty miles north of Chinkiang. It is made in no very 
large quantities, and is but little known except in the immediate vicinity 
of Yang-chou-fu and Chinkiang, the articles met with in the latter place, 
however, being chiefly made for sale to foreigners. 

The manufacture of this ware, which is carried on entirely by 
hand, is briefly as follows : A model of framework of the article to be 
made is fashioned of well seasoned wood of common Cypress (Cupres 
sus funebris), a tree which grows in some abundance in the neighbor- 
hood, and this is first covered with a thick coating of glue. Over the 
glued surface a piece of fine hemp cloth is stretched, upon which, when 
saturated, coarsely powdered tile dust is shaken until the glue is ab- 
sorbed. The surface when dry is scraped until all roughness has been re- 
moved, and a layer of fine hemp fibres is applied and affixed with glue. A 
further coating of tile dust, more finely powdered than the first, is then 
laid on the glued fibres, and when thoroughly dry, is rubbed with an 
instrument of horn until the surface has been rendered quite smooth. 
A sheet of thin paper prepared from bamboo fibres, is now glued to it, 
and on this a mixture of very finely powdered tile dust and pigs' blood 
is thickly applied. In this the pieces of mother-of-pearl are imbed- 
ded and the whole is then covered with a second coating of the same 
mixture and allowed to dry completely. Friction is then applied with 
a specially prepared tile until the surface is sufficiently abraded to allow 
of the re-appearance of the shells, which are left flush with the rest of 
the surface and subsequently carved or painted in accordance with the 
design. A coat of varnish completes the process. The length of time 
required to complete the preparation of a piece of lacquer varies, of 
course, with the degree of fineness required, the usual period being from 
thirty to forty days. 

The preparation of the yellow and gold, and the red varieties of. 
Yangchow lacquer is in the main similar to that of the black lacquer, 
described above, no mother-of-pearl, however, being inserted. 

GROUP 57. 

SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

Samples of Chinkiang Silk Piece Goods — Each Piece, 18 ft. x 31 ins. 

132 Figured Silk, Orange. 

133 " " Slate. 

134 " ' Magenta. 

135 " '■ Brown. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 181 



Exhibit 
Number. 

136 Figured Silk. Water Green. 

137 " " ' Dark Red. 

138 Vermillion. 

139 " " Light Blue 

140 " li Ash Gray. 

141 " " Pink. 

142 " " Tea Green. 

143 " " Yellow. 

144 " " Dark Violet. 

145 " " Green. 

146 " " Red. 

14: " " Light Yellow. 

148 Light Tea Green. 

140 " " Light Pink. 

150 " " Mauve. 

151 " Black. 

152 Turquoise. 

153 " " Sapphire Blue. 

154 " " Claret. 

155 " " Blue. 

156 "■ " White. 

157 " •' Dark Gray. 

158 Shot, Green and Blue. 

159 " " Shot, Blue and Red. 

160 •• •• Shot, Purple and Violet. 

161 Shot, Green and Red. 
16? Shot, Green and Blue. 

163 Shot, Purple and Green. 

164 " " Salmon. 

165 " " Red. 

166 Green. 

167 Turquoise. 

168 " " Aniline Red. 

169 " - " Ash Blue. 

170 " " Claret. 

171 " " Heliotrope. 



182 Catalogue of the Chinkiang Collection 

GBOUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of: 

Exhibit 
Number. 

172 Official Junk, used by officials of high rank when travel- 

ing, on transfer or otherwise, on the inland water- 
ways of China. These boats are propelled by poles 
or towed from the bank. The rank and name of 
the official on board are exhibited on the long red 
flag pendant from the mast, while the gong and the 
boards displaying his official titles, which are car- 
ried before him in the procession when he goes 
on shore, are also characteristic of this type of 
vessel. 

The inscription on the stern signifies "Favor- 
able winds and good luck." 
Usual measurements : 

Length, 85 feet; Beam, 14 feet; Draught, 6 
feet. Cost, Mex., $7,500. 

173 Salt Junk. Salt being a government monopoly, the great- 

est precautions are taken by the government to 
insure that the production and transit of this com- 
modity are only conducted in a manner which ad- 
mits of a strict official supervision, while salt smug- 
glers are, when caught, visited with the most 
stringent punishments. 

Salt for distribution in the Yangtze valley is lo- 
cated on the sea board below Shanghai and brought 
up in these vessels which are specially con- 
structed with a view to strength to enable them 
to withstand the rough weather which is often 
met with on the lower reaches of the Yangtze. 

Usual measurements : 

Length, 95 feet; Beam, 15 feet; Draught, 8 
feet. Cost, Mex., $12,000. Capacity, 210 tons. 

174 Grain Junk, used for conveying tribute rice from the 

provinces to the capital. The usual route taken by 
these craft is the Grand Canal, which running 
from the Hangchow Bay in the Chehkiang prov- 
ince, crosses the Yangtze at Chinkiang, and thence 
follows a northward course to Tungchow, some 
thirty miles from Peking, where the grain is un- 
loaded and conveyed to the Imperial granaries. 






to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 183 

Exhibit 
Number. 

The inscription on the yellow flag at the mast head 
signifies "The due tribute to the Heavenly — i. e., 
Imperial — Granaries." 
Usual measurements : 

Length, 73 feet; Beam, 12 feet; Draught, 5 
feet. Capacity, 110 tons. Cost, Mex., $4,700. 

175 Passenger Boat. These boats, the property of private 

individuals, are largely used by Chinese of the 
better class when traveling on the inland water- 
ways. This particular model represents a pass- 
enger boat chartered by a party of students to con- 
vey them to Nanking to compete in the provin- 
cial examinations, as the inscription on the flag 
signifies. 

Usual measurements : 

Length, 75 feet; Beam, 12 feet; Draught, 5 
feet. Cost, Mex., $4,800. 



184 



Catalogue of the Chinkiang Collection 



EXHIBITED BY J. B. De La TOUCHE— CHINKIANG. 



GROUP 121. 

PRODUCT OF HUNTING. 

Birdskins from Fuhkien. 



1 Corvus macrorhynchus. 44 

2 Corvus torquatus. 45 

3 Urocissa sinensis. 46 

4 Dendriocitta " 47 

5 Garrulus 48 

6 Parus Pekinensis. 49 

7 Parus venustulus. 50 

8 Machloiophus ux. 51 

9 Melauschlora sultanea. 52 

10 Acredula concuma. 53 

11 Paradoxotrius guttaticollis. 54 

12 Scseorhynchus gularis. 55 

13 Suttiora davidiana. 56 

14 Suttiora webbiana. 57 

15 Dryonastes perspicillatus. 58 

16 Dryonastes berthemvi. 59 

17 Dryonastes 60 

18 Garrulax picticollis. 61 

19 Janthocinela cinerciceps. 62 

20 Trochalopteron canorum. 63 

21 Trochalopteron milni. 64 

22 Pomatorhimus swinhoi. 65 

23 Pomatorhimus studulus. GG 

24 Stachyridopsis ruficeps. 67 

25 Alcippe hueti. 68 

26 Schceniparus brunnefcis. 69 

27 Proparus guttaticollis. 70 

28 Myiophoneus cceerue.s. 71. 

29 Staphidia torquelo. 72 

30 Yulina pallida. 73 

31 Zosterops simplex. 74 

32 Herpornis tyrannula. 75 

33 Liotterix lutea. 76 

34 Pteruthius seralatus. 77 

35 Allotrius pallidus. 78 

36 Chloropsis lazulina. 79 

37 Hypsipetes leucocephalus. 80 

38 Hemixus canipennis. 81 

39 Spizixos semitorques. 82 

40 Iole holti. 83 

41 Pyenonotus atricapillus. 84 

42 Pyenonotus sinensis. 85 

43 Buchanga atra. 86 



Buchanga leucogenys. 
Chibia hottentotta. 
Locustella certhiola. 
Acrocephalus orientalis. 
Acrocephalus bistrigiceps. 
Orthotomus sutorius. 
Luciniola puscata. 
Phylloscopus sub-appicis. 
Phylloscopus borealis. 
Phylloscopus ruperciliorus. 
Phylloscopus proreguhis. 
Phylloscopus trochiloides. 
Cryptolopha intermedia. 
Cryptolopha ricketti. 
Cryptolopha sinensis. 
Abrorius pulvifacies. 
Cettia sinensis. 
Suva crinigera. 
Prinia sonitaus . 
Prinia inornata. 
Lanius schach. 
Lanius lucionensis. 
Tcphrodomis pelvica. 
Pericrocotus cautonenris. 
Pericrocotus griscigulain. 
Oriolus diffusis. 
Spodiopsar sericeus. 
Sturnia sinensis. 
Acridotheros cristatellus. 
Graculipica nigricollis. 
Muscicopa griscistrcta. 
Hemichelidon sibirica. 
Alseonax latirostris. 
Xamthopygia narcissina. 
Cyanoptila cyanomeloena. 
Poliomyias luteola. 
Terpsiphone inciiped. 
Pratincola maura. 
Oreicola ferrea. 
Henicusus sinensis. 
Henicusus guttalus. 
Henicusus ocbristaceus. 
Mierocichla scouleri. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



185 



37 


Ruticilla aurorea. 


137 


88 


Rhyacornis puliginosa. 


138 


89 


Tarsiger cyanurus. 


139 


90 


Copsychus saularis. 


140 


91 


Merula mandarina. 


141 


92 


Merula chrysolaus. 


142 


93 


Merula obscura. 


143 


94 


Geocichla sibirica. 


144 


95 


Orescincla solitaria. 


145 


97 


Cinclus pallasii. 


146 


98 


Uroloncha acuticanda. 


147 


99 


Mumia topela. 


148 


100 


Chloris sinica. 


149 


101 


Passer rutilaus. 


150 


102 


Eophona melanura. 


151 


103 


Pyrrrusla nipalensis. 


152 


101 


Emberiza fucata. 


153 


105 


Emberiza tristrami. 


154 


106 


Melophus melanicterus. 


155 


107 


Chelidon Kaspmirensis. 


156 


108 


Cotile riparia. 


157 


109 


Hirundo gutturalis. 


158 


110 


Motacilla leucopsis. 


159 


111 


Motacilla lugeus. 


160 


112 


Motacilla ocularis. 


161 


113 


Motacilla taivana. 


162 


114 


Motacilla nulanope. 


163 


115 


Anthus richardi. 




116 


A nth us cervinus. 


164 


117 


Anthus japonicus. 


165 


118 


Anthus maculatus. 


166 


119 


Alauda arvensis. 


167 


120 


Alauda coelivox. 


168 


121 


Acthopyga latonchii 


169 


122 


Dicaeum ignipectus. 


170 


123 


Gecimus guerini. 


171 


124 


Gecimulus vididanus. 


172 


125 


Micropternus fokiensis. 


173 


126 


Deudrocopus cabanin. 


174 


127 


lyngipicus scintilliceps. 


175 


128 


Picumnus chinensis. 


176 


129 


Tynx torquilla. 


177 


130 


Tnegalaema vireus. 


178 


131 


Eurystornus calornye. 


179 


132 


Ceryle guttata. 


180 


133 


Ceryle rudis. 


181 


134 


Alcedo bengalensis. 


182 


135 


Halcyon smyrnensis. 


183 


136 


Halcyon pileatus. 


184 



Cypselus pacificus. 
Caprimulgus jotaka. 
Harpactes yamakanensis. 
Cuculus intermedins. 
Endynamis honorata. 
Asio brachyotus. 
Scops glabripes. 
Glaucidium whitelyi. 
Glaucidium brodici. 
Minox scutulata. 
Circus cyanens. 
Circus spinolotus. 
Circus sesuginorus. 
Euteo plumipes. 
Falso rubbuteo. 
Falso aesalon. 
Cerchneis japonicus. 
Micro hierax nulanolencus. 
Turtur humilis. 
Phasianus torquatus. 
Precrasia darwini. 
Tragopan caboti. 
Bamburicola thoracica. 
Arboricola ricketti. 
Coturnix communis. 
Coturnix japonica. 
Cortunix communis x japon- 
ica. 
Traucolinus chinensis. 
Porzana pusilla. 
Porzana pusca. 
' Amaurornis phoenicura. 
Gallinula chloropus. 
Gallicrex cinerea. 
Glareola orientalis. 
Hydrophasis chirurgus. 
Strepsilas interpres. 
Vanellus cristatus. 
Charadrius fulous. 
Squatarola helvetica. 
Aegialitis veredus. 
Aegialitis geoffroyi. 
Aegialitis placidus. 
Aegialitis minos. 
Aegialitis cantianus. 
Numenius variegatus. 
Numenius minutus. 
Tekkia cinerea. 
Totanus hypoleucus. 



186 



Catalogue of the Chinkiang Collection 



185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 



Totanus glareola. 198 

Totanus ochropus. 199 

Totanus glottis. 200 

Totanus brevipes. 201 

Totanus calidris. - 202 

Totanus fuscus. 203 

Calidris armaria. 204 
Eurynorhynchus pygmasus. 205 

Tringa ruficollis. 206 

Tringa subminuta. 207 

Tringa termmneku. 208 

Tringa platyrhyncha. 209 
Tringa acuminata. 



Tringa cinclus. 
Trringa erassirostus. 
Gallinago megala. 
Gallinago stenura. 
Gallinago coelestis. 
Rhynachaea bengalensis. 
Bulweria bulweri. 
Ardeola bacchus. 
Ardetta sineusis. 
Ardetta cinnamomea. 
Ardetta curythma. 
Dupetor flavicollis. 



Birdskins from Chinkiang. 



Corvus pastinator. 27 

Corvus dauricus. 28 

Corvus neglectus. 29 

Cyanopolius cyanus. 30 

Parus minor. 31 

P. palustris. 32 

Acredula glaucogularis. 33 

Suttiroa webbiana. 34 

Acredula glaucojularis. 35 

Puttiora webbiana. 36 

Paradoxorius hendei. 37 

Lbcustella lauceolata. 38 

Phylloscopus tenellipes. 39 

P. coronatus. 40 

Cisticola curstitans. 41 

Cettia cauturieus. 42 

Lanins tigrinus. 43 

Lanins bucephalus. 44 

Pericrocotus cinereus. 45 

Spodiopsar cineraceus. 46 

Sturnia daurica. 47 

Terpsiphone incii. 48 

Xanthopygia tricolor. 49 

Merula fuscata. 50 

Merula naumanni. 51 

Merula pallida. 52 

Merula hortulorum. 53 
Tringilla montipingilla. 



Chloris rinica. 
Passer montanus. 
Emberiga passerina. 
Emberiga aureola. 
Emberiga rutila. 
Emberiga clegans. 
Emberiga spodocephala. 
E. rustica. 
Emberiza cioides. 
E. pucata. 
E. pusilla. 

Limonidromus indicus. 
Authus japonicus. 
A. blakistoni. 
Alauda arvensis. 
Hirundo nipalensis. 
Gecinus guerini. 
Deudrocopus cabanisi. 
Caprimulgus jotaka. 
Cuculus canorus. 
Phasianus torquatus. 
Turnix blaufordi. 
Hydrophasis chirurgus. 
Microsarcops cinereus. 
Nettopus coromandelianus. 
Cerchneis saturalus. 
Accipiter nisus. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE- 

SHANGHAI COLLECTION. 



GROUP 3. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Life-size figure showing the special silk costume and 

complete dress worn by a "Hsiu Ts'ai" — Licen- 
tiate. In every second year the literary chancellor 
of each province completes a tour of his domain, 
holding examination at the different Prefectural 
cities. Candidates who are successful obtain their 
first degree, and become entitled "Hsiu Ts'ai," 
which may be rendered Licentiate. 

2-4 Life-size figures illustrating the special robes in richly 

embroidered satin, and complete silk and satin 
dress of a "Chin-shih" and a "Chuang-yuan." 
The degree of "Chu-jen" — Provincial Graduate — 
forms the first substantial reward of a student's 
ambition and is conferred at the provincial exam- 
inations, held as a rule triennially in the autumn. 
A "Chin-shih" is a Metropolitan Graduate ; this de- 
gree is obtained at Peking, by triennial (or spe- 
cial) competition among the "Chu-jen" assembled 
from the provinces to the number of six thousand, 
out of whom some 325 to 350 obtain a successful 
result. The provincial graduate after assembling 
at the Capital early in the spring following the 
examinations at which they have severally passed, 
are required to undergo a test examination, which 
qualifies them for admisssion to the Metropolitan 
competition. The graduates who prove success- 
ful at this examination have to go through a final 
one, which takes place within the precincts of the 
Imperial Palace, hence called palace examination. 
The essays on this occasion are scrutinized and 
classified by a special commission of Imperial 
Revisers. According to their order of merit, as 
ascertained by this crowning test, the graduates 

— 187 — 



Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



Exhibit 

Number. 

now receive, usually in the proportion of about 
one in three, admission into the ranks of the 
"Hanlin," or College of Literature; on the most 
approved scholar is conferred the title of "Chuang 
Yuan" — Optimus. This is the highest lliterary 
award, and to have produced such a scholar is 
rejoiced in as a lasting honor by the district 
whence the fortunate candidate came. 

Five pairs scrolls — illustrating the different styles of writing — 
which correspond to black-letter, script, italic, roman, etc., in English. 

Translations of Writings on Above Scrolls: 

5 One Pair. — ''As far beyond the clouds in spring, the 

moon with liquid refulgence shines; (so the lustre 
of) a proper observance of what is right (is re- 
flected upon), our country and our literature 
(causing both to) flourish." 

Written in a style called Liu cJi'ao, or six dynasties. Peculiar 
to the six dynasties preceding the Posterior Liang, A. D. 907. 

6 One Pair. — "A goodly store of riches renders one's days 

happy and (further) gain easy; the collection of 
rare and precious things (at this Exposition) 
causes all who see it to express their delight." 

Written in the Chuan character, called by foreigners the "seal 
character." It is the most ancient style of writing, and came after 
the picture hieroglyphics. Books are not printed in it, its use 
being limited to seals, inscriptions, and ornamental writing. 

7 One Pair. — "The prompt and energetic execution of a 

wise design is known to all nations; its beneficent 
results extend to all, and happiness follows as the 
seasons come round." 

Written in the Li character, or style of official attendants. 
When first introduced, used for engrossing documents; now em- 
ployed occasionally in prefaces and inscriptions. 

8 One Pair. — "The gathering together here of rare things 

will bring about intercourse with foreign nations 
and increase the wealth of China. The result of 
this great Exposition will be immense advantages 
to the black-haired race." 

Written in the ICai character, or pattern style. It is the com- 
mon form of caligraphy, and all public documents are drawn up in 
it. No one can claim scholarship who can not w r rite it neatly and 
correctlv. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



189 



Exhibit 

Number. 

9 



One Paii 



In 



Exhibition where all things of rare- 



ly are brought together, the ingenuity of the work- 
man draws forth the admiration of all behold- 
ers." 
Written in the same form of characters as the preceding, but 
in a more free style. 

GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

The fine arts seem never to have been so highly esteemed 
among the Chinese as literature. Painting is rather behind 
sculpture. Perspective and shading are the two points in which 
they appear to fail, but in spite of this, they excel in the painting 
of insects, birds, fruits, flowers, and ornamental patterns and 
borders. Their coloring is executed with great skill and accuracy. 
Some of their representations of abstract ideas attract notice. The 
symbolism of the Chinese has not attracted the notice of foreigners 
as much as it deserves. It meets us everywhere — on plates and 
crockery, on carpets, rugs, vases, wall pictures, shop signs and 
visiting cards. Certain animals stand for well-understood char- 
acters in the language, and convey their sense without confusion. 
The Chinese ornamental painting consist in w r ater colors on silk 
or paper scrolls. Painting in oil is unknown, except in Canton, 
where foreign methods have been adopted by a few artists. 

12 Scrolls — Landscapes, etc., in ink. 

— Temple of Confucius in water color. 
— Musical and Sacrificial Halls in water color. 
— Religious Ceremonies 
— Nunnery and Buddhist Temple 
— Wedding and Funeral Ceremonies in water 
color. 
2 — Dragon and Lantern Festivals in water color. 

Painted by Artists in the City of Hangchow. 

Paper Scrolls — water color — flowers and birds. 

domestic scenes, 
landscapes and 
scenes. 

views of western lakes 
in Hangchow. 
Silk Scrolls — water color — flowers and insects. 

ancient battle scenes, 
flowers and birds, 
domestic scenes, 
flowers and birds. 
Album of hand-painted water colors — Rice Cultivation. 

Silk Culture. 



5-16 


12 Scr 


17-13 


9 " 


19-20 


2 ' 


21-26 


6 ' 


27-28 


2 ' 


29-30 


2 ' 



1-32 



33a-33b 


16 


34a-34h 


8 


35a-35d 


4 



36a-36h 



37a-37d 


4 


38a-38b 


2 


39a-39e 


5 


40a-40d 


4 


41a-40d 


4 


42 


1 


43 





3 90 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

GROUP 12. 
ARCHITECTURE. 

Model of "Pai-lou," or Monumental Arch. These arches are scattered 
in great numbers over the provinces, and are erected in honor 
of distinguished persons, or by officers to commemorate their 
parents, by special favor from the Emperor. Some are put 
up in honor of women who have distinguished themselves for 
their chastity and filial duty. Permission to erect them is con- 
sidered a high honor. They are placed in conspicious places 
in the outskirts of towns, and in the streets before temples or 
near government edifices. Some of these arches are elaborately 
ornamented with carved work and inscriptions. Those built of 
stone are fastened by mortises and tenons in the same manner as 
the wooden ones ; they seldom exceed twenty or twenty-five feet 
in height. The skill and taste displayed in the symmetry and 
carving upon some of them are verv creditable. 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Panoramic Views of the Settlements and Harbor of 
Shanghai. The largest port in Kiangsu Pro- 
vince and the leading emporia in China, at the 
mouth of the great Yangtze river, its position 
resembles that of New Orleans. The city stands 
in a wide plain of extraordinary fertility, inter- 
sected by numerous waterways and affording 
ample means of navigation and communication. 
Since its opening to foreign commerce in 1843, 
the growth of the city has been rapid in every 
element of prosperity. 

Album of Views of the City of Hangchow and its en- 
virons. 

Album of Views of the Hangchow Western Lake. 

GROUP 17. 

BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Imperial Chinese Customs Publications : 
Foreign Legations in China, 1517-1899. 
Chinese Shan States. 
Two Trips in the Chinese Shan States. 
Trip to Menglien and other Shan States. 
Returns of Trade, 1867. 
Reports on Trade, 1865. 
Decennial Reports, 1882-1891. 
Returns and Reports on Trade, 1901 and 1902. 
Ten Years Statistics, 1863-1872, 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 191 

List of Chinese Lighthouses, 1903. 
Reports on Lights, 1875 and 1901. 
Catalogue of the London Fisheries Exhibition. 
Catalogue of Customs Publications. 
General Customs Tariff and Revised Import Tariff. 
List of Chinese Medicines. 
Service Lists, 1875 and 1902. 
Sycee: Weight, Value, Touch. 
Opium, 1881. 

Medicines, etc., Exported from Hankow and Yangtze Ports. 
Native Opium. 

Opium : Crude and Prepared. 
Tea, 1888. 

Opium : Historical Note ; or The Poppy in China. 
Chinese Jute. 
Ichang to Chungking. 
Chinese Life Boats, etc. 

West River: Report on Trade Conditions, etc. 
The "Tzu Erh Chi" — 3 vols. — Vocabulary and Documentary 
Study of the Chinese Language. 
3 Vols. — Music and Dancing — Chinese Edition. 
1 Vol. • — Chinese Music — English 

3 Vols. — Chinese Weapons — Chinese 
3 Vols.— Archery and Drill 
12 Vols.— The Three Kingdoms " 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Wall Map — Birdseye view of the City of Hangchow. 

Wall Map — Birdseye view of the Hangchow Western Lake, 

Wall Map — Plan of the City of Hangchow. 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Measures of Length. 

The unit of these is the "chih", or Chinese foot. The table be- 
gins with kernels of grain, somewhat like the English table. 

1 Li or grain is 1 Fen. 
10 Fen make 1 Tsun, or inch. 

10 Tsnn " 1 Chih, or foot, 14 1-10 ins. English. 

10 Chih " 1 Chang, or pole, 11' 9" 

In estimating lengths, decimals are used for parts below a fen, 
and the chang is the highest measure for articles. The length of 
the chih has varied between 8 and 10 tsun in different Dvnasties. and 



192 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

not a little during the same Dynasty. The chih differs according 
to the province and the prefecture, the city and the ward, the craft 
and the usage, their extreme differences ranging more than 6 in- 
ches, a result of the wide expanse of the Empire, and the disre- 
gard or ignorance of the laws among its people. Some of these 
are derived from ancient or official chih, but the majority seems 
rather to be the caprice of custom in the region where they are 
found. 

A yard is fixed at 2 chin, 5 tsun. 

The land measures are the "m-u" and the "ching;" the former 
measures 6,000 square "chih," or 808.6 square yards, and a hun- 
dred of them make a "ching;" but the actual area of a'"mu" is less 
in the north ; in Canton, it is about 4.76 "mu" to an acre, and at 
Peking it is six, and even smaller. 

Commercial Weights and Scales. 

The unit of commercial weights is the "Liang" iy$ oz. av. 

16 Liang 1 Chin or Catty, 1*4 lb. 

100 Chin 1 Tan or picul, lBS}/ 3 lbs. 

120 Chin 1 Shih or stone, 160' lbs 

The Chinese use three instruments for weighing, e. g v bal- 
ances, steelyards, and money scales. The Tien ping is made of 
brass of different sizes. The large one will weigh over 200 taels. 
Those of smaller size will detect tenths of a grain. The balance 
is chiefly used in weighing gold, silver, jewelry, pearls, birds' nests, 
mediums, and such like valuable articles. The weights, which are 
made of brass and shaped like a dumb bell, are wrought with great 
accuracy. 

The steelyards or to-cheng are made of wood, and are in gen- 
eral use in the markets, shops, and boats, and can weigh from a tael 
up to eight piculs, according to the length of the beam. The 
weight is made of brass, iron, or stone. There are usually two 
separate hooks for the fulcrum. Each side of the beam is marked 
to correspond, so that it may weigh more or less, according to the 
hook used. 

The money scales are made on the. same principle as the steel- 
yards, but weigh only two or three taels, 2^ or 4 oz. The beam 
is made of ivory, horn, or bone, and graduated to mills, and is 
from 9 to 10 inches long. These scales are put up in portable 
cases, so that persons can verify their exchanges of silver. 

Each trade has its own usages in respect of weights, and 
prices are regulated accordingly. Money is never reckoned above 
taels, and other articles are usually reckoned in decimals when 
under a tael. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 133 

Measures of Capacity. 

The unit is the "Tou" or peck. There are thirteen measures, 
only four of which are in actual use ; the others are now nominal. 
These, four are : 

The Koh 54 pint. 

The Half Sheng y 2 pint. 

The Sheng 1 pint 

The Tou 1 peck. 

The Sheng of rice is commonly reckoned to weigh a catty, or 

lj/3 lb. The "tou" measure is made of wood, having the shape of the 
frustrum of a pyramid, with a handle across the top. One measure 
called the Shih-tou or market peck holds ten catties, or 13.333 lbs. 
of dry, clean rice. The Tsang-tou or granary peck holding QV 2 
catties, or 8.633 lbs., is in common use ; it measures 309.57148 cubic 
inches, or about 1.13 gallons. 

There is also a round tub used, containing 13 catties, or 17.333 
lbs., called the Shuang-tou or double peck. 

For retailing spirits and oil, measures _of 1, 2, 4 and 8 taels, or 
Yz, Vz, l-Vs an d ~% ozs., respectively, are the common sizes. 

Chinese grain measures, weights, linear, long and land meas- 
uree differ throughout China, but as a general rule, they are the 
largest in the Southern provinces. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

87 Large square compass. 

88 Large round compass. 

89 Medium round compass. 

90 Pocket compass. 

91 Junk compass. 

92 Sun dial, with string. 

93 Sun dial, without string. 

94 Junk builders' rule measure. 

95 Customs rule measure. 

96 Tailors' rule measure. 

97 Land measure of Board of Revenue. 

98 Artisan's rule measure. 

99 Carpenter's rule measure. 

100 Mason's rule measure. 

101 The Koh— My pint. 

102 The y 2 Sheng— V 2 pint. 

103 The Sheng— 1 pint. 

104 The J / 2 tou— ^ peck. 

105 The Tsang-tou — granary peck. 

106 The Shih-tou — market peck. 

107 The Shuang-tou — double peck. 

108 Brass liquid measure — 1 cattv. 

109 " " y 2 catty. 



194 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

110 Brass liquid measure — flat — T/ 2 catty. 

111 " " " J4 catty. 

112 " " " 2 taels. 

113 " " " 1 tael. 

114 " " " V 2 tael. 

115 Large funnel, for liquid measure. 

116 Medium " 

117 Small 

118 Steelyard, for weighing gold and silver. 

245-255 The Abacus, called "Suan-pan;" — This Counting Board 
consists of a shallow frame, divided into two 
unequal parts by a bar running lengthwise, 
through which are inserted parallel wires or 
sticks, from 9 to 18, or more, according to its 
uses. On each wire are seven balls, five in the 
lower compartment, and two in the upper. 

The principle on which calculations are made is decimal, and is 
simply this : That a single ball in the lower part being placed against 
the bar and called, unit, is increased towards its left, and decreased on 
its right, by tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. A ball in the upper divi- 
sion denotes a value five times that of a ball opposite to it in the lower, 
and the two equal the single ball in the next higher place below the 
bar. Thus, if opposite to one, it stands for five, and the two balls 
make six ; if opposite to ten, fifty, and the two balls make 51 ; and so, 
also, if opposite to a hundredth part it stands for 50-100ths, and the 
two balls make 51-100ths. The machine is an imperfect assistant in 
making calculations, though practice makes the Chinese very expert; 
it enables them to note the steps in their mental arithmetic, but if the 
result is doubtful or erroneous, the whole must be reckoned over again. 

GROUP 20. 
MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

120 Set of surgical instruments. 

GROUP 21. 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

128 The "Sheng" — (or mouth organ), description of this 

instrument has already been given in the 
Tientsin Catalogue That the "Sheng" is one 
of the most important of Chinese musical in- 
struments is apparent. No other instrument is 
nearly so perfect, either for sweetness of tone 
or delicacy of construction. The principles 
embodied in it are substantially the same as 
those of our grand organs, Indeed, according 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 195 

Exhibit 

Number. 

to various writers, the introduction of the 
"Sheng" into Europe led to the invention of the 
accordion and the harmonium. 

129 The Chinese Ocarina, called "Hsuan." It was of ab- 

solute necessity that earth, the common mother 
of all things, should occupy a respectable place 
in music, and the "hsuan" was invented. It 
is a reddish-yellow cone of baked clay or porce- 
lain, ornamented with designs of dragons, 
clouds, etc., and pierced with six holes ; one 
at the apex to blow through, three in front, and 
two behind ; when played, it is held firmly with 
both hands and it is the same music as the 
"hsiao," flute. 

130 The "Pai-hsiao" or Pandean Pipes. The Chinese 

were a long time in discovering that a tube 
pierced at different places may be made to pro- 
duce as many sounds as there are holes by 
merely stopping these holes one after the 
other. In order to get the various sounds the 
ancient Chinese used as many tubes as there 
were sounds ; these tubes fastened together 
produced the "Pai-hsiao." The first instru- 
ment of this kind had a collection of 10 tubes, 
gradually decreasing in length and connected 
together in a rough manner by silk cord. Sub- 
sequently the number of tubes was increased 
to 12, then to 16, and to 24; at present it has 
invariably 16 tubes. These tubes are arranged 
upon a frame more or less carved and orna- 
mented, and emit the same notes as the bell 
and stone chimes. The sounds of this instru- 
ment, which is used only in ritual music, repre- 
sent the voice of the phoenix; and the form of 
the frame typifies this bird with its wings 
spread. 

131 The "Lung-ti" or Dragon Flute. Formerly all kinds 

of flutes blown transversely were called "ti." 
Some had four holes, some five and some seven. 
Nowadays the form and number of holes are in 
all cases much the same. The only difference 
between the popular instruments and the flutes 
used in ritual music is that the latter are embel- 
lished with a dragon's head and a dragon's tail, 
an addition not permitted in the case of or- 
dinal instruments. 

14 



196 



Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

132-138 Collection of seven flutes. The sounds emited by 
Chinese flutes can not properly be rendered 
in foreign notation, some being sharper and 
others flatter than the sounds represented by 
the foreign instrument, but this may be due as 
much to the ignorance of instrument-makers 
as to the irregularity of the Chinese scale. Be- 
sides, the Chinese are not verv particular in re- 
gard to pitch and any deficiency in justness of 
tone, they manage to remedy by blowing 
harder or softer. The "Hsiao" (exhibit No. 
134) is said to have been invented during the 
Han dynasty. This flute is a tube of dark 
bamboo of about 1' 8" in length. It has five 
holes above, one below, and one at the end, 
through which it is played. Flutes of this 
kind were formerly made of copper, of jade- 
stone, or of marble, such materials being 
thought less liable than wood to be affected by 
temperature. They were introduced into ritual 
music during the Yuan dynasty (A. D. 1300), 
and confined to such music under the present 
dvnastv. 

The "Ti-tzu" (exhibit No. 137) is the flute 
ordinarily met with in China. It is a tube 
bound round with waxed silk and sometimes 
ornamented with tassels. It has eight holes ; 
one to blow through, one covered with a thin 
ready membrane, and six to be played upon by 
the fingers. There are several other holes at 
the end, but these are. of no practical use except 
to attach silk tassels and other ornaments. 
The notation is the same as that of the "hsiao." 

121 Dragon Trumpet, called "Kang-t'ung" — used only by 

the Lamas. 

122-123 The "Hao-t'ung" is a long cylindrical instrument 
having a sliding tube, which can be drawn out 
when wanted for use. In arrangement and form 
it is not unlike a telescope, but of much larger 
diameter. There are two distinct varieties. 
The first comprises instruments of different 
sizes made of wood and covered on the outside 
with copper; they are exclusively used at 
funeral processions, and emit only one long 
grave note, which is heard at a long distance. 
The second variety includes instruments made 
of copper only; they are of a less diameter than 
the first and are used for military purposes. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 197 

Exhibit 
Number. 

124 The " La-pa" is a long- trumpet with a sliding tube.. 

similar to that of the "hao-t'ung." It gives 
four notes, C, G, C, E, and is properly a mili- 
tary instrument. 

125 The Cha-chiao" is another variety of the "la-pa," but 

is crooked, is of various sizes and is used at 
wedding processions. 

1.26-127 The "So-na" — known to foreigners as the "Chinese 
Clarionet'' — is the most shrieking instrument 
used in China, and yet none is in more general 
use. When heard in the morning its sounds 
unmistakably announce a funeral cortege ; in the 
afternoon, a nuptial procession. It consists of 
a wooden pipe fitted with a copper bell. It has 
seven holes on the upper side and one on the 
lower for the thumb. The mouth piece is a 
small reed Hike that of the oboe) affixed to 
the upper end. There are two varieties, differ- 
ing only in size ; the smaller kind is called 
K'ai-ti. The tunes played on this instrument 
at processions are in themselves very pretty and 
original. 

139-147 Collection of eleven Gongs: The "Lo" or Gong, is 

160a-160b cast in the shape of a platter or a Chinese straw 

hat with large brim ; it is of various sizes, vary- 
ing- from 2 inches to 2 feet in diameter. It is sus- 
pended by a string and struck with a mallet. The 
use of the gong is very general. At the gates of 
official residences it announces the arrival of visit- 
" ors ; in the army it gives the signal to retreat ; in 
processions it frightens and drives away evil 
spirits ;. on board ship it announces departure ; dur- 
ing eclipses "it frightens the heavenly dog when 
about to devour the moon ; in songs it marks the 
tune ; in the streets n small gong- is the sign of 
the candy merchant, and a large one may an- 
nounce the approach of an official with his retinue. 
in Buddhist temples it is beaten to call the atten- 
tion of the idols. Native description rarely men- 
tion the gong, perhaps because it is popular, 
merely and is not required for imperial worship. 

148 Gong chimes, called "Yuan-lo," is an instrument com- 

posed of ten little gongs suspended upon a frame 
by fine silk cord. The gongs are all of the same 
diameter, but they differ in thickness. It is used 
at court, mainly on joyful occasions ; at the Con- 



198 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

fucian worship it is required only in the "Guid- 
ing March." It is sometimes seen at wedding and 
funeral processions. 

149-154 6 Hand bells used by Buddhist and Taoist Priests. The 
"To" or "tongued bell" is an ordinary bell having 
either a metal or a wooden tongue, and a handle 
at the apex. Formerly there were four different 
kinds of tongued bells in use in the aimy. The 
ringing of the "To" conveyed to the soldiers the 
injunction to stand still and be quiet in the ranks. 
Hence, this bell came to be associated with the 
idea of respect and veneration ; and when music 
was performed to illustrate the meritorious actions 
of warriors, faithful ministers, etc., the "To" was 
employed to symbolize obedience; each military 
dancer had a bell with a metal tongue and each 
civil dancer a bell with a wooden tongue; it was 
used at the end of the dance. At present the "To" 
is used only by the Bonzes to mark the rhythm 
of their prayers. 
155 The "Shun." This is the literary appellation of an in- 

strument shaped like a mortar. The popular 
name is "ch'ing." It is struck with a wooden 
hammer and when used at the religious cere- 
monies is put into a kind of silk purse, richly or- 
namented. 
1 56-102 Seven drums. From the remotest ages the Chinese seem 
to have been acquainted with instruments of per- 
cussion, of which the tanned skin of animals was 
the vibrating medium. Drums made of baked 
clay, filled with bran and covered with skin, were 
the first in use of all the Chinese drums ; none are 
braced by cords ; the skin is fastened on with nails. 
The drums in use at the Confucian temple are 
richly painted and ornamented with birds, dragons, 
flowers, etc., in gold and vermilion. The "Pang- 
ku" (exhibit No. 157) is a small flat drum, with 
a body of wood ; the top is covered with skin and 
the bottom is hollow. The diameter of the head 
is about 6 inches. It rests on a wooden tripod. 
Is chiefly used in popular orchestras to beat time 
and accompany songs and ballads. The "T'ao- 
ku" (exhibits Nos. 158-157) has a handle passing 
through the barrel. Two balls are suspended by 
strings from the barrel, and when the drum is 
twirled they strike against the head ; they are 
sounded three times at the end of each verse. 
Ancientlv the "Tao-ku" used in ritual music was 



to the Louisiana ^Purchase Exposition, 1904 199 

Exhibit 
Number, 

composed of two or more drums transfixed by 
handle. This is also the special instrument by 
means of which the itinerant vendor of millinery 
goods makes known his whereabouts; but his 
drum is smaller and has generally a small gong 
on the upper side (see exhibit No. 147). The 
"Po-fu" (exhibit No. 160) is a small drum rest- 
ing on a table and is used only in religious cere- 
monies giving three notes at the end of each verse ; 
the performer holds the drum on his knees and 
beats it with his hands. 

The Chinese possess 'several kinds of drums, 
varying from 5 inches to several feet in diameter, 
some are richly ornamented with silk embroider- 
ies, .some very simple and unadorned, but it would 
take too much space to describe them all. 

163 Castanets, called "Shou-pan" are three small slabs of 

wood attached together with silk cord. These are 
in common use in popular orchestras, but are also 
used at religious ceremonies. 

164-165 Cymbals, called "Po," are made on exactly the same 
principle as our instrument. The use of them 
is most conspicuous at theatrical performances. 
After a quotation, a command, a verse, etc., the 
cymbals give 10 or 15 notes in rapid succession. 

166 The "Mu-yii" or "wooden fish" is made of a block of 

wood, hollowed out and shaped somewhat like a 

• skull. It is painted red all over, and is of all 

sizes, up to 1 foot in diameter. It is used by 

priests to mark time in the recitation of prayers. 

168-169 Two Sonorous Stones. The use of the Sonorous Stone 
to make musical instruments may be said to be 
peculiar to China. The Chinese were the first 
to give stone a place in music; their classics fre- 
quently mention the stone-chime as being known 
by the ancient Emperors and held in great esteem. 
The best stone for chime is said to be Jade, but 
another kind of black calcareous stone is general- 
ly preferred, because it is easier to work and com- 
paratively much cheaper. The Sonorous Stones 
are used to give one single note at the end of each 
verse, in order to "receive the sound ;" and they 
are employed only at the religious and court cere- 
monies. 



200 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

GROUP 24. 
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

China has the credit of being the first in the field in the manu- 
facture of paper, preceding Europe, not by years, but by centuries. 
The Chinese have given the credit of the discovery of paper to one 
Tsai Lun, during the Han dynasty, but it was not till the year 153 
of our era that its use spread over the Empire. 

Paper is made chiefly from bamboo, but also from rice straw, 
wheat straw, cotton, hemp, mulberry, hibiscus, the barks of the 
Aiianthus Bronssonetia, the Ailanthus Glandulosa, the stalks of reeds, 
the refuse of silk cocoons. 

The chief centers of the paper industry are situated in the 
Southern and Yangtze provinces. An important factor in the 
manufacture of papers from the bamboo and other plants, is the 
choice of a site for a mill in proximity to a clear stream, in which 
the materials may be soaked and softened. The bamboo is cut 
in the spring, freed from leaves, and split into sizes from 3 to 4 
feet long, which are then packed in bundles and put in large water 
tanks. To produce the better qualities the bark is removed before 
splitting; but this is not done in the manufacture of the ordinary 
kinds of paper. In the tanks each layer of bamboo is covered with 
a layer of lime, the whole fully immersed in water, and is allowed 
to remain for about four months, when the bamboo becomes quite 
rotten. It is then taken out, pounded to pulp in a mortar, and 
well cleansed and mixed with clear water. This liquid matter is 
then poured in quantities necessary for the sizes and thickness 
of the sheets to be manufactured, on square sieve-like moulds, 
which are very carefully, but not less quickly handled, to cause 
the liquid' to spread evenly over the whole surface. The sheets 
so formed allowed to dry, and then taken from the mould. Thus 
six sheets of paper are made by a single, person in a minute. The 
skillfulness of the workmen and the quickness with which these 
sheets become sufficiently hardened to allow of being piled with- 
in so short intervals, upon one another, seem very remarkable. 
The sheets are thereafter placed against a moderately heated wall, 
and finally exposed to the sun to thoroughly dry. 

The best quality of paper is made from the shoots of the 
bamboo, adding a little alum to the water used for liquifying the 
pulp; the second as above described, and the third, of coarse is 
made of grass or bark and leaves of trees of bamboo. 

The above is the method of preparation in the Prefecture of 
Tingchow, situated in the province of Fukien, near the border of 
the Kuangtung province, where a kind of bamboo exclusively used 
in the manufacture of paper would seem to be grown in large 
quantities. The industry is carried on in almost all the villages 
and hamlets in that prefecture, whence it is distributed in all direc 
tions, considerable quantities being sent in specially built boats 
to the Port of Swatow for shipment coastwise. 






to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 201 



Paper-making is also a great and increasing industry in the 
Kiangsi province, where the materials chiefly used are bamboo, the 
bark of a* species of mulberry, the Bronssonetia papyrifera vart. 
This bark is called K'ou-pi, and it comes principally from the 
neighboring province of Hupeh. The process of manufacture 
somewhat differs from that related above. 

The stem of whatever plant is being used having been well 
softened by lying in the water for some days, the bark is removed 
from it either by treading under foot, or by cutting. It is then 
tied up in bundles and boiled in large kettles to separate out the 
woody fibre. After this it is mixed with lime and pounded to a 
pulp in mortars by means of a hammer with a long handle. A 
month later it is boiled again, after which it is put into bags and 
steeped in running water to cleanse it from the lime. As soon 
as this is effected it is exposed to the sun until it is thoroughly 
bleached. It is then pounded in a wooden mortar, mixed with the 
ashes of the husk of the nut of the Eloeococca sinensis, and wood 
ashes in equal parts, mingled with warm water. The whole is 
beaten together till it becomes a thick viscous liquor, which, after 
being reduced by a further admixture of water, is transferred to a 
large vat. Near this large vat, in the better mills at least, is a dry- 
ing stove of the shape of a house ridge, with smooth sides. In 
poorer mills, and for the commoner qualities of paper, drying pur- 
poses are met sufficiently by a smooth table. The workman dips 
his mould or sieve, which is sometimes made only of bulrushes cut 
in narrow strips and mounted in a frame, into the vat and then lifts 
it out again. The water passing through the mould leaves the 
pulpy paper-stuff remaining in it. The frame of the mould is 
removed and the bottom pressed against the side of the stove, or 
placed upon the table. The sheet of paper adheres to the surface 
when the sieve is removed. Before the paper is dry it is brushed 
over on the outer surface with a size made of rice. It is then 
stripped off in a finished condition. It has thus only one smooth 
surface, the Chinese custom being to use only one side of the 
paper for writing or printing. 

The consumption of paper in China is very large ; its cheap- 
ness rendering its use universal for a variety of purposes. For 
instance, it is used in window panes and in lanterns in the plaCe of 
glass : in the making of boot-soles ; their umbrellas are made 
of oiled paper ; their pictures are not glazed and framed, but pasted 
upon paper scrolls. Paper articles of every description are burnt 
in religious ceremonies and sacrifices. There are also countless 
forms of paper for stationery, wrapping, and packing purposes. 

Pith Paper. The so-called rice-paper is made of the pith of the 
Aralia papyrifera. The pith is soaked before cutting; the work- 
man then applies the blade to the cylinders of pith, and, turning 
them round dexteriously, pares them from the circumference to 
the center, making a rolled layer of equal thickness throughout. 
The best pieces are used for painting; the smaller for artificial 



202 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

flowers, for which purpose, owing to the manner in which it takes 
color, and the appearance of "bloom" it gives to the flowers, it is 
superior to the materials usually employed in other countries. 

GROUP 28. 

STATIONERY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

179 1 Lacquered box, Chinese Ink for presentation. 

180-181 2 Round boxes, " " " 

182-183 2 Round boxes, Colored " " 

184 1 Lacquered box, " " " 

185-190 40 Sticks Chinese Ink — A composition of lamp black 
and glue obtained from different substances, or 
isinglass, and scented with musk or other per- 
fume, according to the quality of the ink. 
Lamp black is collected by burning pine, fir, 
and other substances under a movable thatch, 
so arranged as to intercept the smoke as it 
rises. 

The finest ink is manufactured from the pro- 
duct of oil, slowly burnt in earthen jars and col- 
lecting the soot in the upper one. Boiling glue, 
scented, is poured on it, and the whole stirred 
together until properly mixed. When cooled 
a little, it is pressed into carved wooden moulds 
of various shapes and designs, inscribed with 
the maker's name. The cakes are then taken 
out and dried, after which they are put up into 
boxes in a very tasteful manner (see exhibits 
Nos. 179-184.) 

When used the ink is rubbed with water up- 
on argillite, marble, or other stones (see ex- 
hibits Nos. 202-207), some of which are cut and 
ground with some designs. 

The finest ink comes from Huichow fu, in the 
Province of Anhui; its fracture is shining, and 
' no grittiness can be perceived when rubbed on 
the nails. 

191 Ink for printing — is a mixture of lamp black with 

glutinous rice, and when the paste is properly 
dried it is kneaded on a slab, and cut into 
strips, shaped like wrought-nails. The printers 
dilute it in oil when needed, laying it on the 
blocks with a brush made from the bark of the 
coir palm. 

171 fi Goat's hair Pencils for large letters. 

172 6 " " " writing on scrolls. 

173 14 " " " writing on scrolls. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 203 

Exhibit 
Number. 

173a 13 Raccoon and Weasel hair Pencils (called water- 

pens) for ordinary writing. 

li)3b 6 Goat's hair pencils for w r ater-color painting. 

17-1 1 Box. Colors for water-color painting". 

175 1 Box. Color Powders for water-color paintings. 

K<i Set of Pens in presentation boxes. 

The best pencils are made of the bristly hair of the sable and 
fox, and cheaper ones from the deer, cat, wolf, goat and rabbit. 
A combination of softness and' elasticity is required in the pencils, 
and those who are skilled in their use discern a difference and an 
excellence altogether imperceptible to a novice. The hairs are 
laid in a regular manner, and when tied up are brought to a deli- 
cate tip; the handle is made of the twigs of a bamboo cultivated for 
the purpose. 

177 Collection of fancy note and letter paper. 

178 " " " " envelopes. 
192 1 Stamping box with seals. 

193-194 2 pairs Bamboo Paper Knives. 

195 2 Task Scorers — used by students for 

checking their tasks. 

196 2 Bamboo Hand Rests — for resting the wrists on while 





writing. 


197 


2 Bamboo Pencil Rests. 


198-199 


2 " Ink 


200 


1 Tray for pencils, etc, 


201 


4 Vases for pencils. 


202-207 


6 Ink Stones (or Inkstands). 




GROUP 29. 




CUTLERY. 



208 Cutlery used in various trades : 

1 — 2 Water melon knives. 

2 — 5 Kitchen knives and choppers used by men. 

3 — 5 " women. 

4 — 4 Butcher's choppers. 

5 — 1 Tobacco knife. 

6 — 2 Knives for cutting leather. 

7 — 2 " used bv fruit dealers. 
. 8—2 " " "tailors. 

9 — 2 paper merchants. 

10 — 2 " " chemists. 

11 — 1 Opium knife. 
12 — 5 Pipe cleaners. 
13 — 3 "Wood choppers. 
14 — 1 Knife for cutting rattan. 
15 — 2 Cucumber scrapers. 
16 — 1 Set Nippers for betel nuts. 



^° 4 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



Exhibit 












Number. 












209 


Collection 


of 


scissors : 




1-2— 


13 


Scissors 


used by "women. 


% 


o 

o — 


3 




" 


" tailors. 




4_ 


4 




(C 


silk dealers. 




5— 


4 




" 


for cutting silk thread. 




0— 


2 




" 


iron sheets. 




ry 


G 




" 


silver " 




8— 


2 




a 


horse hair. 




9— 


2 




(i 


opium. 




lO- 


2 




a 


used for gardeners. 




ll— 


1 




"•' 


umbrella makers. 




IS- 


1 




" 


for cutting sheep's wool. 




IS— 


1 




a 


pig's bristles. 




14— 


] 




(i 


and needle for hemp bag dealers. 




15— 


1 




a 


used for cutting Lungngan. 




16— 


1 




li 


Gingseng beard. 




17— 


1 


Ni 


ppers 


used for pig's bristles. 




18— 


1 




(i 


duck feathers. 


211 


Barber's 


; Set- 


-Razors, etc. 


212 


Set of Instruments 


used by Chiropodists. 



GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

213 4 Silver Enameled Napkin Rings. 

214 1 " " Ash Tray. 

215 1 " Cigarette Case. 
21() 2 i: Liquor Glasses. 

217 2 " " Walking Stick Knobs. 

2.18 2 " " Paper Knives. 

GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 

219 2 Silver Earrings. 

220 1 " Hair pin. 

221 6 " Enameled Hair pins. 

222 One set of Buttons and Girdle Clasps of the nine grades 

of Official Ranks : 

1st Grade — Plain Red Coral button — Gold and Jade clasp, ornament- 
ed with rubies. 

2nd " Plain Red Coral button — Engraved Gold clasp, ornament- 
ed with rubies with two characters "shou" longevity, 
engraved upon it. 

3rd " Transparent blue. Sapphire button — worked gold clasp 
(square). 

4th " Opaque blue, lapis lazuli, button — worked gold clasp, 
(round). 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



205 



5th Grade— Transparent white crystal button— Plain gold clasp, Set 

in Silver. 
6th " Opaque white button— Mother-of-pearl clasp. Set in 

Silver. 
7th " Plain gilt button — Silver clasp. 
8th " Worked gilt button— Transparent horn clasp, Set in 

Silver. 
9th " Worked Silver button— Opaque horn clasp, Set in Silver. 



BRUSHES, 

Exhibit 
Number. 
223 

224 



225-234 

235-248 

2-19-252 

253 

257 

260-261 

2(52 



263 

264-265. 
266-267 
268-269 

270-273 



GROUP 34. 

FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 
BASKET WORK. 

One set of Combmaker's Tools (also used by ivory and 

wood carvers.) 
Collection of brushes : 

1 — 3 Bamboo brushes for cotton cloth. 
2 — 1 " horse brush. 
3_1 " clothes " 
4 — 4 shoe brushes. 

5 — 1 Coir brush for polishing wood. 
6 — 5 " paste brushes. 
7 — 4 Goat hair paste brushes. 
8 — 1 Coir bed brush. 
9 — 3 Bristles comb-cleaning brushes. 
10 — 2 bristles hair brushes. 
11 — 1 Coir printing brush. 
12 — 1 Bristle fancy brush. 
13 — 2 Bamboo comb brushes. 
14 — 1 Bamboo washing brush. 
11 White metal smoking water pipes — various de- 
signs. 
14 Bamboo tobacco pipes — various length. 
4 Sets Game of Domino. 
1 Set Game of Chess. 

Collection of 32 Wooden and Bamboo Combs. 
3 Bamboo Feather Cases used for peacock's feathers, 

the insignia of official hats. 
1 Box Bamboo Forfeit Tablets used at drinking bouts. 
On each tablet a few words are written, denot- 
ing peculiarities in individuals ; these are drawn, 
and the unlucky or lucky one whose case it 
meets pays the penalty by drinking either one 
or as many cups of wine as have been previous- 
ly agreed upon. 

2 Bamboo Tea pot cases. 
4 " Hat stands. 

3 Carved Bamboo Ornaments — Boats. 

4 " " Snuff Bottles. 

4 Ornaments — Figures and Animals. 



206 



Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

274 • 

275-277 

278 

279 

280 - 

281 

282 

283 

284 

285-286 

287 



12 Carved Peach Stone Ornaments. 

11 " Olive 

1 Pair Bamboo Spectacle Cases. 
1 " Needle case. 

10 Carved Cocoanut Wine Cups. 

7 with saucers. 

6 " " inlaid with silver. 

1 Ivory Powder Box. 

1 " " Jewel Case. 

8 Cash Ornaments — Swords. • 

12 " " —Baskets. 



GROUP 35. 
ARTICLES FOR TRAVELING AND FOR CAMPING. 

288-301 14 Leather trunks and boxes, with locks. 

302 1 Pillow traveling case, with locks. 

303-304 2 " Hat boxes with locks. 



305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 



GROUP 36. 
TOYS. 

6 Kites — Centioede shape. 

6 " —Hawk 

6 " —Butterfly 

6 " —Dragon fly " 

6 " — Man figure. 

6 " — Woman's figure. 



311 
312 
313 
314 
315 



258 
259 
316 
317 
318 
319 



GROUP 41. 

HARDWARE. 

Set of Shoemaker's tools. 

Set of Carpenter's tools. 

Set of Mason's tools. 

Set of Stone-carver's tools. 

Set of appliances used by crockery mender. 

GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERS' DECORATIONS. 



engraved flowers. 

letters. 



1 Pair Bamboo Scrolls 

1 U (I it •• 

12 Bunting Chinese Flags. 
12 Silk Chinese Flags with Shields. 
12 Silk American Flags with shields. 
7 Pairs Soochow Curtains. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. ^07 











GROUP 45. 










CERAMICS. 


Exhibit 












Number. 












321-364 


46 


I-hsing 


terra 


cotta 


teapots. 


365-367 


3 


" 


n 


<; 


oil pots. 


368-369 


3 


a 


K 


it 


wine warmers. 


370 


1 


" 


(I 


a 


gingseng bowler 


371-372 


4 


« 


<%• 


(( 


water holders. 


373-374 


4 


a 


(i 


a 


vases. 


375 


1 


a 


a 


a 


incense-burner. 



GROUP 49. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS, NOT ELECTRICAL, FOR LIGHTING. 

376 3 Pairs Fancy bead lanterns. 

377 3 Pairs Horn lanterns. 

378 1 Pair Basket shaped bead lantern. 

379 1 Pair Peach shaped bead lantern. 

380 1 Pair "Moving horse" fancv lantern. 

381 1 Pair Fancy bead octagonal lantern. 

GROUP 53. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN SEWING AND MAKING 
WEARING APPAREL. 

382-387 7 Charcoal tailor's flatirons. 

GROUP 54. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

Notes on the Cultivation and Manufacture of Cotton in China. 

An inquiry into the circumstances of the introduction of cotton 
into China leads to the conclusion that it was very gradual and pro- 
ceeded by two distinct routes, viz., from India and the South into 
Kwangtung and Fukien by trading vessels; and from the West 
through the border provinces, principally Shensi and Shansi. But long 
before cotton was a product of China, cotton thread and cotton fabrics 
were brought hither, either as tribute from the people of tributary 
regions or as an article of commerce. Some passages in the "Shu; 
Ching" make mention of weaving-cotton being brought into China as 
tribute 2,200 years before Christ. Yet it must have been brought, or 
at any rate regarded by the Chinese, rather as a curiosity than a com- 
modity in the production of which they might themselves engage; for 
2,000 years later it appears not to have been planted in the Empire, 
unless we may believe that its introduction into the border provinces, 
so remote from the centers of government and civilization, was not 
known or was not deemed of sufficient importance to justify the classi- 



208 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

fying of the cotton industry amongst the industries of the country for 
purposes of taxation. It seems to have got its first strong foothold in 
Kwangtung and to have spread thence into Fukien. The history of 
its introduction into the Kiangsu province is more definite. 
In A. D. 1364 an officer was appointed to encourage th,e 
cultivation of cotton in the provinces of Chekiang, Kiang- 
nan, Kiangsi, Hupeh, Hunan, and Fukien, It was about 
this time that the cotton plant was first grown in the dis- 
trict of Wu-ni-ching, near Shanghai. The people of the district were 
deeply indebted to a certain old lady named Huang, who, if she did not 
actually initiate the practice of cotton planting there, at least taught 
them how to make their crop most profitable, by insructing them in 
the use of the flocking bow and the loom, and showing them how to 
weave fancy cloths and work colored threads into patterns. These arts 
she had brought with her from the cotton-producing regions of Kwang- 
tung. So highly were her services appreciated that after her death 
a temple was erected to her memory and the people worshipped before 
her image. Although we know so little of the history of the introduc- 
tion of cotton, it is certain that it is now grown over a wider field 
than any other crop in China. The most important cotton-producing 
regions, however, are in Chekiang, and Kiarfgsu provinces. Kiangsu 
is most celebrated both for the quantity and quality of the product. It 
forms the principal crop of the country in the neighborhood of Shang- 
hai, where the soil is a sandy alluvial and the land for miles around 
is perfectly flat. 

Sowing takes place about the end of April, the ground having 
previously been broken up and manured. The tilling is done either 
with the three-pronged hoe or with a buffalo and plough. The plough 
is of the rudest and simplest construction, being little more than a 
crooked branch with a thin iron plate attached, which turns up the 
soil only 5 or inches deep. These methods are rude and toilsome, 
and would not answer in any country where land is held in large tracts 
and where human labor is less plentiful. But here the soil is culti- 
vated in small patches by petty farmers, who devote their own labor 
and that of all the availiaDle members of their families to the little 
spot which they can call their own, and which is seldom large enough 
to require hired labor to work it. By patient toil and incessant care 
they manage, even with their rude implements, to raise enough from 
an acre or two to supply the necessaries of life; luxuries and even 
comforts are almost unknown to them. The constant drain on the 
land makes liberal manuring a necessity. The manures used for cot- 
ton are beancake (the residue of beans from which the oil has been 
pressed), night-soil, ashes, and a kind of compost, dredged from the 
bottoms of creeks and ponds, composed of the decayed roots of reeds 
and grass mixed with the soil washed down by the streams. It is 
common to plant a crop of rye or beans after the ripening of the cot- 
ton, and the stubble from this winter crop is turned into the ground 
and helps to fertilize it. The sowing of the cotton seed is generally 
done broadcast, but sometimes it is planted in regular rows. Four 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 209 



men, or rather four persons (for men, women, and children all work 
in the fields), can sow a man — about one-sixth of an acre — a day, 
treading the seed well in with their feet. xAiter the plants have sprung 
up they are carefully hoed and weeded, and if the seed has been sown 
broadcast, they are thinned out until they stand at intervals of about 
15 inches. When the plants have reached the height of 18 inches the 
main stalk is often nipped off to strengthen the branches. Trouble- 
some insects are destroyed and the plants carefully tended until they 
begin to flower, which takes place in August. There seems to be 
no insect peculiar to the cotton plant, but the same worm which de- 
stroys the beans also attacks the leaves of the cotton, and commits 
great ravages if not destroyed in time. The plantations are so small, 
however, that these pests are more easily destroyed than they could 
be were the farms on a larger scale. The flowers quickly drop off and 
the formation of the pod begins ; but the plant goes on producing 
flowers and pods until the latter part of October. The pods are 
pendent, and the cotton is thus better protected from the rain than 
it is where they grow upright. They are gathered as fast as they 
burst (beginning about the end of August), all hands turning out 
for this ,work. A moderately wet summer and a dry autumn are the 
most favorable conditions for the production of a. good crop. After 
the pods have opened, rains and high winds are much dreaded, as they 
cause the pods to fall off and become ruined by the wet and mud. The 
cotton, as it is gathered, is spread daily in the sun on a platform of 
reeds raised a few feet from the ground, until thoroughly dried, 
when the process of separating the seeds begins. For this purpose a 
very cheap and simple, but. effective contrivance is employed. This 
consists of two horizontal rollers — one of wood, about 1*4 inch in 
diameter below and almost, touching one of iron, -J inch in diameter, 
and each about 18 inches long. The iron roller is made, to revolve by a 
crank which a woman turns with one hand while she works the wooden 
roller with a treadle, and with the other hands feeds the cotton be- 
tween the revolving rollrs. The cotton passes through and the seeds 
drop out on the near side. 

The farmers distinguish two kinds of white cotton and one of 
what we should term yellow, but which is called broAvn or purple by 
them, in contradistinction to the inferior qualities of white, viz. . that 
damaged by rain or other causes and known on the market as yel- 
low. The two kinds of white cotton are known as the White Seed and 
the Black Seed ; the fibre of the latter is hard and tough, and although 
the percentage ginned from the black seed is 'somewhat greater than 
from the white seed, this advantage does not compensate for its un- 
suitableness to the primitive appliances used in China for its manu- 
facture ; nor, furthermore, does the black seed yield so much oil as 
the white. The yellow species (i. c. the "brown" or "purple," as the 
Chinese call it) is for the most part exported to the South, and is woven 
into yellow "Nankeens," where this material finds general favor.. The 
yellow cotton is usually far inferior to the white varieties, *so that its 
use is restricted to cloths which are to be dyed. " The seeds of the 



210 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

yellow cotton are large, and the proportion of clean fibre yielded is 
only about 4 parts in 20, while other varieties yield 8 in 20. The pods 
of the Chinese cotton are smaller and the staple shorter than in Ameri- 
can cotton. 

The seeds, save such as are kept for next year's planting, are sold 
to the oil maker, who expresses the oil between two mill-stones, the 
upper one of which is turned by a bullock or a buffalo. This oil is 
used for lighting purposes and for the manufacture of Chinese — of- 
ten called India — ink,which is made from its thick black smoke. The 
called India — ink, which is made from its thick black smoke. The 
residue of the cotton seeds, after the oil has been extracted, is used 
as fodder for cattle, and makes a good manure. The stalks of the 
cotton plant keep the farmer's family supplied with fuel for some time, 
and the ashes from them are also used for manuring the land. 

The cotton thus cleaned of its seeds is ready for market. If 
the farmer has been moderately successful, he has gathered about l 1 /* 
piculs — or 2001bs. — of seed cotton from each mou, or one-sixth of 
an acre of land, yielding about 50 catties, or 67 lbs. of clean cotton. 
This cotton, if sold, will fetch on an average about, American gold, $13 
per picul. A fair-sized plantation contains about 8 mou, so that gold, 
$72.00 may be taken to represent the annual return to the average 
petty farmer for the labor of himself and his household, and for his 
outlay for manure, etc. What he may add to this as the income 
from spinning and weaving does not properly belong to the profit of 
farming. He is often obliged to obtain an advance on his crop for 
living expenses, and for this he must pay 2 or 3 per cent a month, 
which is not regarded as extravagant interest in China. His net re- 
turn has to support perhaps a dozen persons, for there will be children 
and grandchildren, one or more of the married sons remaining on the 
farm. As we shall see. however, the farmer in most cases adds to 
the profits of farming the product of the labor of his household in 
spinning and weaving, and the joint return enables him to live very 
comfortably. The cleaned cotton, such as is not prepared and woven 
at home, is carried to market in baskets and bags and sold to the 
"flockers," or to dealers in raw cotton. 

The dealers pack it tightly into hemp bags for transportation inland 
or exportation. No compressing machinery is used in packing. The 
weight of the bags or bales varies, but is on the average about 160 
lbs. Although the production of cotton is common to all the pro- 
vinces, it is only in two or three that the amount produced is more 
than sufficient for local consumption. Kiangsu and Chekiang are the 
only provinces where the cotton raised is so greatly in excess of local 
requirements as to form an important article of export. 

The fabrics produced from cotton alone are not of very many dif- 
ferent kinds, the differences in the native cloths being generally in 
texture and dimensions rather than the result of separate and distinct 
processes of manufacture. The use of different colored threads, the 
mixing of colors, and the working of different patterns all assist in in- 
creasing the variety. There is, too, a kind of diagonal cloth, and a 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 211 

kind which is scraped with a knife to give it a fuzzy appearance. The 
weaving machinery is on the same primitive scale as that used in 
all the other processes. It is entirely of wood, and roughly dressed 
wood at that. The batten is of delicate strips of bamboo, which is 
tough enough to serve its purpose very well. The shuttle is thrown 
back and forth by hand and caught in the hand at each end as it 
comes out. A skilled and active worker can weave as much as 16 yards 
of cloth in a day, but the average product is not more than 10 or 12 
yards a da}' for each hand employed. The cloth is generally woven 
in lengths of 20, 23, and 25 feet, and is 1(5 inches in width; but differ- 
ent lengths and widths can be made if necessary. It is sold for from 
2 to 5 cents per foot, according to fineness of texture. 

The cloth which is made at the farm-houses is either taken to 
town and sold or is bought up by traveling traders, who pay for it 
either with money or fancy wares. Some of the cloth is made up 
into garments just as it comes from the loom, but most of it goes to the 
dye-houses; and it is here that we first see the cotton in the hands of 
craftsmen who do their work in establishments of some size. In some 
of the dye-houses as many as 40 men are employed. There are some 
establishments devoted to dyeing red, some to dyeing blue, and others 
again to bleaching white. Perhaps nine-tenths of the cloth is dyed 
blue, this being the cheapest color. The cloth having been first sized 
with paste is soaked in vats 5 or 6 feet deep, containing the dyeing 
substance, being passed from vat to vat into stronger and 'stronger 
solutions. It is afterwards put into a wooden tub over a fire and 
heated, to fix the color. Figure-dyeing is done by tracing the figures 
on the cloth and covering the parts of the" cloth which are within the 
figures with a paste made of ashes and flour mixed with glue and alum. 
The piece is then steeped in the dye without affecting the parts covered 
with the paste, which is afterwards scraped off. Cloth is printed from 
wooden blocks on which have been cut figures of men and women, 
birds and beasts, landscapes, etc. Stencil plates are also used, and the 
dye applied with a brush. The substances most used in dyeing are 
indigo blue; nutgall and a species of cone-shaped fruit called the 
hua kiio, or flower fruit, for black; saffiower and sapanwood for red; 
turmeric for yellow. 

Besides the manufacture of cloth, bed quilts and waded clothing, 
there are many smaller industries in which cotton is employed. Such 
are the making of pouches, girdles, handkerchiefs, tape, string, braid, 
cords of all sizes, lampwick, bed canopies, table-cloths, cash bags, 
artificial flowers, sashes, felt (from old rags), and various fancy ar- 
ticles, which, taken in the aggregate, furnish employment to many 
hands. The cash bags are woven from very large and strong threads 
and resemble canvas. 

Among the forms in which cotton is imported into China, that of 
yarn demands some attention. It is imported for the purpose of be- 
ing woven into cloth by Chinese looms, and the first query that sug- 
gests itself would seem to be, why should foreign yarn be imported 
instead of cloth, when the latter can be had for so little, and when. 



212 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

with all the abundance and cheapness of labor in China, weaving by 
hand, the only mode as yet practiced to any appreciable extent in the 
country, must be a more expensive process than weaving by machinery ? 
To answer this a comparison must be drawn between the native cloth, 
which the Chinese weave from their own material, and the cloth which 
they so largely import from abroad. The former excels in point of 
durability, while the latter possesses the advantage of cheapness and 
finish ; in other words, the one is expensive and good, and the other 
cheap and inferior, while better looking. Bearing this difference in 
mind it becomes easy enough to understand that the Chinese should 
wish to have a fabric which partakes of the good qualities of their 
own and the foreign cloth combined. As a matter of fact, neither 
foreign nor native cotton yarn is woven by itself to any great extent 
in this province, the former being used as w r arp and the latter as weft, 
the outcome being a fabric which is more durable than foreign-made 
cloth and of better texture than that made entirely from native material, 
though it may not possess the very fine appearance of the one nor yet 
the great durability of the other, while as regards cost it holds a posi- 
tion between the two. 

As regards the wearing properties of the half-native half-foreign 
cloth, it is said that it will wear twice as long as the pure foreign 
material ; the difference between the two is, in fact, quite similar to 
that which used to cause discussion in days gone by when the primi- 
tive spinning-wheel was giving way before modern machinery. But 
in all countries what finds favor with the masses is that which looks 
well and is cheap, though it may not prove half as good in the end 
as something else which presents a plain appearance and costs more to 
begin with. This is the reason why cheap cotton goods, both yarn and 
cloth, enjoy such a good market in China; for it must be remembered 
that cotton clothing is chiefly worn by the poorer classes of Chinese, 
the rich generally wearing silk or grasscloth, at least in so far as outer 
garments are concerned. A suit of purely native cotton costs more 
than very many of the poorer Chinese can well afford to pay at one 
time, while the two, or it may be three, suits of foreign stuff which 
it takes to last as long as the other are a more convenient invest- 
ment, as only requiring the payment of small sums, though at frequent 
intervals. It is here that the foreign and native mixture steps in and 
offers itself as an alternative, and those who are not very poor gen- 
erally adopt the middle course. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

453-455 White Cotton— 3 qualities. 

456-457 Yellow " 2 

458-459 White " flocked— 2 qualities. 

460 Yellow " 

461-462 White " prepared for spinning. 

463 Yellow " 

464-465 Cotton yarn, white and yellow, hand spun. 

466-467 " thread, " . " " made. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



213 



Exhibit 


•• 








Number. 










388 


1 


Piece Cotton Cloth, 


bleached, native yarn. 


389-390 


2 


Pieces 


a 1 




unbleached, 


391 


1 


Piece 


a < 




bleached, foreign yarn. 


392 


1 


a 


a < 




unbleached " 


393-403 


11 


Pieces 


tt ( 




dyed, various colors. 


404-409 


6 


ct 


a i 




" and glazed. 


410 


1 


Piece 


a ( 




bleached. 


411-412 


2 


Pieces 


a i 




unbleached. 


413-426 


14 


a 


a t 




dyed. 


427 


.1 


Piece 


a 1 




white, glazed. 


428-429 


2 


Pieces 


a { 




dyed and glazed. 


' 430 


1 


Piece 


a ( 




white, figured. 


431-440 


10 


Pieces 


" * 




dyed. 


441-444 


4 


a 


Fancy Cotton Cloth. 


445-447 


3 


a 


Stamped ' 


1 <t 


448-452 


5 


a 


Fancy " 


Towels. 


468 




Cotton 


Cords, various colors. 


469-471 




tt 


Tape, white. 


472-479 




Fancy 


Cotton Tape 










GROUP 55. 



THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 



480 



Specimens of Cordage : Hemp, Rope, twine and string. 



497 
501 



GROUP 57. 

SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

Specimens of Silk Threads. 
" " Ribbons. 



GROUP 59. 

INDUSTRIES PRODUCING WEARING APPAREL FOR MEN, 
WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 



502 



Life-size figure showing complete costume of a woman in 
embroidered silk. 



GROUP 60. 
LEATHER, BOOTS AND SHOES. 



565 


1 Pair Satin Boots. 


566 


1 " " Rain Boots. 


567 


1 Leather with hob nails 


568 


1 " " Rain Shoes. 


569 


1 " 


570 


1 Satin Shoes, wadded. 


571-572 


2 Pairs Velvet Shoes. 



214 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




573 


1 Pair Satin 


574 


1 " Cotton Mourning Shoes. 


575-577 


3 Pairs Children's Satin, Embroidered Shoes and Boots. 


578 


2 " Women's 


579-580 


2 " Rain Shoes. 



581 1 Pair " " with hob uails. 

GROUP 61. 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

Satin, Velvet and Fur Caps for men. 

Caps for boys. 
Fancy " " " 

" " Girls. 
Silk and Satin fancy head bands for women. 
Fancy wedding head ornament. 
Artificial flower hair ornaments, manufactured with 

foreign beads. 
Artificial flower hair ornaments, manufactured with 

mother-of -pearls. 
Bamboo singlets, made from the finest or smallest 
branches of the bamboo, worn in summer next 
to the skin to keep the light cotton overshirt 
from irritating the flesh when moist from 
perspiration. 
582-583 2 Carved bamboo canes. 
584-590 7 Oiled paper umbrellas. 
591 Specimens of various kinds of cap buttons. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of: 



503-510 


8 


511-515 


5 


516-518 


3 


519-521 


3 


522-527 


5 


528 


1 


530-551 


22 


552-562 


11 


563-564 


2 



592 


Five-masted Sea-going Junk. 


593 


Three- " 


594 


Ferry-boat called "Sampan." 


595 


House-boat used by officials. 


596 


wealthy class, 


597 


small. 


598 


River Junk. 


599 


Guard-boat. 


600 


Foreign House-boat. 


601 


Cargo-boat — Foreign type. 


602 


Native '" 


603 


Ballast boat. 


604 


Chinese Light-house Chart. 


605 


Chart of Shanghai Harbor. 


606 


Woosung Anchorage. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 215 

GROUP 76. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT OF NAVAL SERVICES: NAVAL 

WARFARE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
607 Model of War Junk. 

GROUP 83. 
THEORY OF AGRICULTURE— AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

608a 24 Vols. Encyclopedia of Agriculture. This is one of 

the most exhaustive works on agriculture in the 
Chinese language; it is divided into 60 chapters 
is illustrated with wood etchings and each chap- 
ter treats of a particular subject. 

608b Album illustrating Rice Cultivation. 

GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

609 Specimen of White Millet. 

610 " Red 

611 " Paddy. 

612 "■ Barley in husk. 

613 " Wheat. 

Market value 

per picul 

Mex. dollars. 

613a Rice (new crop), 1st qualitv 6.60 

613b " " " 2nd " 6.40 

613c " ". " 3rd " 6.20 

613d " " (old crop) 6.80 

613e " Glutinous Rice, 1st quality 6.60 

613g " " " 2nd " 6.20 

613h " Red Rice 7.60 

613i " Scented Rice 7.80 

The method adopted for the cultivation of rice is as follows : 
About the month of April, the seed is placed in vats or tubs hav- 
ing perforated bottoms, on these seeds water is daily thrown un- 
til they sprout. This operation occupies a month, and, as soon as 
the sprouts show vigor, the seed is sown very thickly in a small 
plat containing liquid manure and just covered with water, where 
it remains until blades of from three to five inches in height have 
grown. They are then transplanted into the fields, which from 
being an unsightly marsh, are in a few days transformed to fields 
clothed with living green. Holding the seedlings in one hand, the 
laborer wades through the mud, at every step sticking into it five or 
six sprouts, which take root without further care and except that 
the fields have to be kept flooded, the crop requires from this time 
until September but little attention beyond an occasional weeding; 



2 1 6 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

it is then gathered, threshed and sifted, the grain being laid upon 
mats in the sun to dry and further ripened. Two crops are planted 
one of which ripens after the other. For this second crop the 
sprouts from the same plat (or nursery) are transplanted about a 
month later than those for the first crop and in the same field. 
The amount of grain required to sow a Chinese "rau" in this way 
is thirty-seven and one-half catties, or 330 lbs., about 2-J bushels 
to an English acre. The produce is on an average tenfold. In 
districts where it is produced in abundance the daily consumption 
by an able-bodied man averages about 1-J lbs. 



Exhibit 






Number. 






614 


Yellow Beans. 


615 


Green 


large. 


616 


a ii 


small. 


617 


Black 


large. 


618 


a ii 


small. 


619 


Red 




620. 


White flat b< 


sans. 


621 


" rourn 


i beans. 


622' 


Broad beans 




623 


Cabbage See 


:d Cakes — fo 


624 


Cotton 


GROUP 85 



f odder for cattle. 



Animal Food Products. 

625 Duck Eggs, preserved in coating of lime, clay, spices, 

and rice-husk mixed together, which excludes 
the air. In course of time the yolk becomes 
deep green or nearly black. The longer the 
eggs are kept in this covering the darker be- 
comes the color of the yolk and the greater 
delicacy they are considered. 

626 Duck Eggs, salted. 

627 " preserved in Samshu. 

GROUP 88. 

BREAD AND PASTRY. 

628-659 32 Specimens Fancy Cakes — Rice flour and fruit mixed. 

GROUP 89. 
PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

660 Bamboo Shoots, fresh. 

661 " " dried and sliced. 

662 " Sprouts, " " salted. 

663 " Shoots, sliced " 

664 " " . pickled. 

665 "■ " sweetened with rose. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 21 



Fruit Preserved in Honey: 


Exhibit 




Number. 




666 


Pumpkin. 


667 


Flowered Green plums. 


668 


Oranges. 


669 


Mixed fruit. 


670 


Rose yam. 


671 


Ginger. 


672 


Small Green plums. 


673 


Apricot peel. 


674 


Crab apples. 


675 


Small black olives. 


676 


Large 


677 


Loquots. 


678 


Strawberries. 


679 


Yellow plums, cut. 


680 


whole. 


681 


Citron. 


682 


Plums with rose flowers. 


683 


Lemons. 


684 


Orange peel. 


685 


Kumquats (golden oranges.) 


686 


Cherries. 


687 


Black plums. 


688 


Carrots. 


689 


Flower yam. 


690 


Plums. 




GROUP 90. 


SUGAR 


AND CONFECTIONERY— CONDIMENTS AND RELISHES. 


692 


Candied Lungngans and hazelnuts, mixed. 


693 


Mixed fruit. 


694 


" Hazel nut. 


695 


" Rose. 


696 


" Orange. 


697 


"Trapa Bicorius" (aquatic plant.) 


698 


" Lilv Root. 


699 


'■' Walnut. 


700 


Brinjal. 


701 


"Lotus nut." 


702 


" "Olea Fragrans." 


703 


Walnut and Almonds, mixed. 


704 


" Hazelnut. 


705 


" Peppermint. 


706 


" Groundnut. 


707 


Sesamum and hazelnut, mixed. 


708 


Dates. 


709 


"Fei-tzu" — species of Pistachio-nut. 



218 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

GROUP 93. 

SYRUPS AND LIQUORS— DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL 

ALCOHOL. 

Exhibit 

Number. 
710-751 42 Kinds Samshu, plain, and flavored with fruit, flow- 
ers and aromatic plants. Distilled from rice, 
millet, barley and other fermented grain. The 
grain is first boiled and, after cooling, yeast 
cakes are added and the whole pressed into 
baskets placed over tubs and left for eight days ; 
the liquor which flows off is distilled and then 
mixed with molasses and toddy and all left to 
ferment for a week in large vats ; after the fer- 
mentation is over, the spirit is distilled several 
times according to the strength required. The 
word Samshu is derived from the two charact- 
ers meaning "thrice fired." 

GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 



752 


Cotton 


Pods. 


753 


" 


opened. 


754 


'• 


Seed. White. 


755 


" 


" Yellow. 


750 


" 


" Black. 


757 


Yellow 


Cotton with Yellow 


758 


White 


" White 


759 


" 


Yellow 



Seeds 



GROUP 96. 
USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 



'60 Honev. 



GROUP 105. 



APPLIANCES AND METHODS OF POMOLOGY, VITICULTURE, 
FLORICULTURE AND ARBORICULTURE. 

768 1 pair Bamboo Scissors for cutting fresh flowers. 

GROUP HO. 
SEEDS AND PLANTS FOR GARDENS AND NURSERIES. 

780 Sesamum Seeds, white. 

781 " " black. 

782 Cabbage Seeds. 

783-785 Millet Seeds, "Panicum miliaceum." 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 219 



GROUP 122. 

FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS, SCIENTIFIC COLLEC- 
TIONS AND LITERATURE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
266 Buddha Shells, or Shells with Pearls and Images inside. 

These curious shells deserve a special mention. In the XIII cen- 
tury, one Yu Chun Yang, who lived near Hangchow, in the Province 
of Chehkiang, having discovered that by the irritation of the membrane 
of the mollusk by the presence of foreign bodies, it resulted in the for- 
mation of nacre over such bodies, conceived the idea of forcing the 
fresh-water mussel to produce pearls. For this purpose he selected the 
largest size known as the Dipsas plieatus. By thrusting into the living 
shell fish pebbles of clay or of metal, these in the course of time became 
covered with nacre, thus producing pearls. It is said that in two vil- 
lages near the city of Huchow, some four or five thousand people find 
their means of livelihood in this industry of forced culture of fresh 
water pearls. 

The shell fish is brought from the Great Lake Tahu, near Soochow 
to the west of Shanghai, and placed in reservoirs or canals in bamboo 
baskets. After a few days' rest the shells are carefully opened with a 
spatula made of nacre and beads, and small figures of Buddha made of 
clay or of metal are thrust between the body and the shell. (When it 
is desired to obtain a superior kind of pearls, these pebbles and figures 
are made of mother-of-pearl imported from Ceylon.) After thrusting 
these foreign bodies into the shell fish, and at the same time pouring 
a spoonful of gruel made with the scales of a kind of fresh-water fish, 
the mussels are then replaced in the reservoirs for one or two years, 
during which time they are fed on excrete matter. The longer they are 
kept in the water, the thicker will be the nacre over the pebbles or 
images. The shells are then sold with the pearls and figures in them, 
or these are detached and sold separately. 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

The Wan-Ming-San, or ''Umbrella of Myriad Names." 

This umbrella is one of high appreciation and esteem, presented at 
times to an outgoing official, by the people of the district over which 
he has held authority. It is circular in shape, with a diameter of about 
four Chinese feet (a Chinese foot equals 14 inches), supported upon a 
frame, the pole being some nine feet high with a gilt top. It is flat 
at the top with a hanging curtain all around about two and a half feet 
in depth. Generally it is made of red satin, having an ornamentation 
of clouds with the donors' names, either painted in gold upon three 
tiers of satin tags of various colors, or in the same color upon the body 
of the umbrella. But where the donors are poor and unable to afford 
such expensive material, the umbrella is also made of cotton cloth, and 



220 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



their names are written upon it in red ink. On the umbrella exhibited 
appear the names of the Provinces and Prefectures of the Empire, illus- 
trating the manner in which the donors' names are placed. 

Another form which such a testimonial to high merit takes at times 
is the Wan-ming-i, or "Robe of myriad names." A subscription is 
raised for the purchase of a P'ao-tze, or long outer garment, upon which 
are written in gold the subscribers' names. The departing officer is 
escorted to the boundary of the district he is leaving, by the inhabitants 
of the town in which he has resided, their numbers being increased by 
frequent additions from the population en route. Before he passes into 
the next district, the people prostrate themselves before the officer's 
chair and pray him to alight. H is then robed with the garment sub- 
scribed for, and, amid lamentations and regrets on both sides, one of his 
boots is removed and taken back to the town to be nailed upon the gate 
by which he left, to stand in evidence, according to popular belief, that 
though gone he is still among them. 

Officials greatly value such marks of esteem, and at their death 
the Wan-Ming-San and the Wan-Ming-J are given a place of honor 
in the funeral procession. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 221 

EXHIBITED BY VYVYAN DENT— SHANGHAI. 
GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 
Art Work in Porcelain. 

The following- articles are from the private collection of a mem- 
ber of a family connected with China from the earliest commence- 
ment of the trade with that country, and himself a resident of old 
standing in the East. Thanks to his forbearance, and also to the 
numerous places he himself has visited, the objects sent are very 
unique of their kind. 

No. 1 — "Regent's Porcelain" Urn with cover. 

No. 2 — "Regent's" Porcelain Vase. 

These two pieces are of a nature that is now-a-days rarely seen 
in any private collection. They were picked up in Macao, where 
they had been part of a family's collection for over two centuries. 
In fact it is more than probable that they were originally intended 
for the Imperial Palace at Peking, but "failed to reach" their destin- 
ation. They show the earliest Jesuit influence on the Porcelain of 
China. The pate bears the marks of the potter's thumb; the out- 
lines are clearly after the French, but the paintings are clearly Chi- 
nese. When these two pieces were once exhibited in Shanghai, 
the experts at once noted their specialities, and one French con- 
noisseur expressed great surprise at the possession of these two 
by a private individual, since he stated that the French Government 
had obtained most of the existing specimens which were kept under 
glass at the Louvre and valued at extraordinary figures. As might 
be expected these vases have not entirely escaped scathless during 
their long existence, but the little damage each has received is im- 
perceptible without very close inspection. The experts when de- 
scribing them for the "Loan Exhibition" above referred to estimated 
the period of these vases as "between 1600 and 1650 A. D.," and one 
of the newspapers referred to them as "doubtless the most curious 
exhibit in the whole exhibition." 

It is right in this connection to add that although the Experts 
on the Committee of the Shanghai Loan Exhibition, referred to 
above, mentioned these vases as being specially interesting as 
"showing the influence of the early Jesuits on the Porcelain of 
China," there is another opinion on the subject. This is held by 
an expert who was quite unconnected with that Exhibition, but 
whose opinion is entitled to carry great weight. This gentleman 
holds a view diametrically the converse of that of the Committee, 
viz., that, so far from "showing the influence of the Jesuits on Chi- 
nese Porcelain," these vases are, actually of Sevres manufacture, 
fashioned after designs to Europe by the Jesuits at Peking. Conse- 
quently these vases with* the indisputably Chinese medallions upon 
them, were actually ordered by the Regent. (The Duke of Or- 
leans, date, about A. D. 1750), to be produced at the Royal Ceramic 



222 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

Works, possibly as a present from the French Court to the Chi- 
nese Court, through the Jesuits. This view was concurred in by 
the French connoisseur previously mentioned, and would go far to 
explain the presence of most of the known pieces in the Louvre, 
once the point is conceded that this ware is, or may be, early Sevres 
after the Chinese, and not Chinese porcelain modified by European 
influences. Native collectors in China have shown considerable 
anxiety to acquire these two specimens ; and offered high prices for 
them. Thus the debated point as to the real origin of these vases 
is one that can be settled only by the very highest authorities on 
the subject. So far, the experts consulted are unanimous in admit- 
ting the exceptional rarity and value of the two vases, but seem 
to have agreed to differ on all other details submitted for their de- 
cision. 

3. Green and Gold five-claw Dragon Vase. 

This is a very rare specimen of coloring. In striking contrast 
to the former two, this vase, made for the Palace, as evidenced by 
the five-clawed dragon, is the product of the great Kin Te Cheng 
factory near Kiukiang, and is not twenty years old. 

4. Marine Crustaceous Vase. 

This is a very ancient specimen of most curious design, show- 
ing the Chinese idea of submarine life. It was accidentally dis- 
covered at Macao. Experts have deemed it of great commendation. 

5. Old pottery Incense Burner. Silver Cover and Stand. 

At first sight all would imagine that the exhibit was merely 
a somewhat common bronze object. Close inspection, however, 
would show that it is a perfectly preserved piece of the oldest Chi- 
nese pottery, which is more valued by the natives than their rarest 
porcelain. Owing to its mean appearance the present owner 
caused the silver cover and stand to be made for it, which con- 
siderably enhance its beauty to the European eye. These accessor- 
ies, although in the best modern Chinese silversmith's work, would 
be terrible anachronioms to a native collector. 

6. "Kien Lung" Cloisonne Vase. 

This perfect specimen of the best Chinese Cloisonne of the 
"Tsing" Dynasty, 1736-1795, was among the treasures of the "Yuan 
Ming Yuan'' or Summer Palace in the early sixties. The shape is 
very original, and all the coloring most harmonious. 

7. Cloisonne Plate. 

This specimen is in absolute contrast. It is in the newest type 
of raised cloisonne, executed by the well known firm of Te Cheng 
at Peking. 

8. One Pair Bronze Vases. 

These two vases were also obtained from the Summer Palace. 
Their delicate outlines, chaste design, smooth surface, and perfect 
match render them of great interest. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 223 

, 

9. Bronze "Joss." 

This heavy bronze statuette of a War God "Kuan Lao-yeh," is 
worthy of particular notice. Superficial observers have at first, set 
it down as Japanese. As, however, the Japanese took their designs 
originally from the Chinese, and this statuette undoubtedly anti- 
dates that period, it is interesting to observe the points of re- 
semblance, style of raiment, etc. 

10. Old Embroidery. 5 Ages. 

This is a silk embroidery of very ancient date. It shows the 
five generations : Great Grandfather, Grandfather, Father, Son 
and Grandson. The stitch is one not found in embroideries of the 
present day, being probably too laborious for the effect produced. 
Although remounted for the present exhibition, the embroidery is 
absolutely in its original condition, and its curious beauties in- 
variably been promptly discovered by experts. 

11. Large Chinese Painting. The Saint Controlling Chained 
Lion. 

This painting will prove of special interest to many beside col- 
lectors of Chinese Curios. Apart from its perfect execution, the 
subject matter calls for notice on innumerable points. To the stu- 
dent of comparative Religion the representation of the "chained 
lion" will at once recall the chained dragon of the apocalypse. The 
"lion" of "matter" invites reflection from the Kabbalist and Occult- 
ist, which thought is further continued when we see the Ascetic 
Saint with the fire of inspiration on his head invoking the personi- 
fied Demiergos' aid by vigrations created on a couch. Americans, 
too, will note the absolute parallel between the "lion" of the Chi- 
nese and the Similar mythical figure given in Sacred Mysteries of 
the Mayas and Quiches as illustrated in le Plongeon's book on that 
subject. 



^4 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

EXHIBITED BY A. E. BLANCO— SHANGHAI. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Art Work in Metal. — Bronze Idols. 

^o. 1 — Buddha the meditative. Gold plated, originally from 
Peking, represents Buddha in meditation, was some three hundred 
and fifty years ago, and. with the exception of a small place in the 
front of the pedestal, where the gold plating was scraped off, is in a 
perfect state of preservation. The gold plating is put on by hand 
with the aid of mercury as an amalgum, and polished by being rub- 
bed with Jade stone. The bronze of this figure contains gold 
offered by the faithful in the form of jewelry, which is melted down 
when making the figure. 

No. 2 — Buddha on Lotus flower — Heavily gold plated. The 
figure is represented holding a weaver's shuttle in his hand, symbol- 
ical of his passing backwards and forwards from life to life, guided 
by the weaver's hand. The eye of wisdom, or third eye, is shown in 
this figure. 

No. 3 — Gold plate figure of Buddha, on carved blackwood stand. 

No. 4 — Goddess of Fertility on Lotus, gold plated. In this fig- 
ure Buddha is represented as a woman holding a pot of earth in 
the left hand, and a germinating grain of rice in the right. Buddha 
in this form is the g-od of fertility on earth. 

No. 5 — Kwan Yin and child, or the Goddess of Mercy. Kwan 
Yin is represented holding in her arm the figure of an interceding 
child, and in her right hand praying beads. This figure, formerly 
gold plated, was scraped of its gold during the Taiping rebellion. 

No. 6 — Buddha, the meditative. Gold plated figure from which 
the gold has been partly removed. 

No. 7 — Mi-tti, old bronze figure, representing a deified priest. 
Placed near the entrance of temples welcoming the faithful. Usual- 
ly referred to as the God of Happiness. 

No. 8 — Figure representing a penitent disciple of Buddha in a 
contemplative attitude. 

No. 9 — Bronze and brass figure of the feminine incarnation of 
Buddha, the Giver of Life. This figure is probably of Burhmese 
origin and is intact, the pedestal still containing the sacred prayers 
in Sanscrit. 

No. 10 — Buddha with the Eye of Wisdom. From the closed 
hands of this figure emanates the symbols of learning (book) and 
courage (spear head). This figure is a perfect specimen of fine 
casting. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. --5 

No. 11 — Kwan Yin, The Goddess of Mercy. 

No. 12 — Disciple of Buddha on sacred elephant, holding in his 
Hands a scroll on which are engraved the symbols of Heaven and 
Earth. This brass figure dates back to the early part of the six- 
teenth century. 

No. 13 — Deified Lama with the symbols of courage and learn- 
ing, holding in his hand a holy book. 

No. 14 — Kuan-ti, or God of War, famous general who, during 
the Hang Dynasty successfully lead a rebellion against the reigning 
Emperor. 



EXHIBITED BY P. L. RAEBURN— SHANGHAI. 

GROUP 13. 

LOAN COLLECTION. 

33 Complete collection of Imperial Chinese Postage 

Stamps from the first issue to date. 



226 Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 

EXHIBITED BY SHU LIEN CHI— HANGCHOW. 

Important Collection of 4,000 Fans — Folding and Non-folding — 
Ivory, Ebony, Bamboo, Sandalwood, Coir and Bone Frames 
and Handles— Water-color Paintings — Landscapes, Flowers, 
Insects, Birds, Figures and Animals. 

The fan enters very largely into Chinese life and manners. 
High and low, rich and poor, a Chinaman would not feel at ease 
without his fan in the proper season. There are two categories 
of fans, the ''non-folding" and the "folding," the first of which owes 
its origin to the leaves of a palm and dates back to the fourth 
century A. D., when, during the Tsin dynasty, the barbarian tribes 
in the South are stated to have made fans with the leaves of a palm 
tree, the identity of which with the Chamarops cxcelsa still remains 
to be confirmed. 

The most extensive plantations of this palm are in the Kuangtung 
province, district of Hsinhui, but specimens are found in other parts 
of the province, some near Canton. According to a native writer, in 
the preparation of leaves for fans, the finest are selected, soaked in 
water for a fortnight, and then re-dried by fire heat. This process 
renders them stiff, gives them a white color with a smooth polish. 
They are then bordered with silk or rattan fibres and fastened at 
the junction, with the stalk by brass rivets having plates of shell or 
other material as washers. 

Non-folding fans are now manufactured in various provinces from 
the feathers of the Argus and other pheasants, heron, egret, goose, 
cock, etc., and other sea-birds ; also in straw, silk, and gauze, with 
frames of bamboo or ivory, which are generally of elegant shape and 
beautifully painted. 

The folding fan is of a later date, and is said to have been copied 
from the Japanese in the seventh century From a purely utilitarian 
point of view the folding fan is undoubtedly the better article, and it 
has a further merit in the eyes of fashionable Chinese, in that it can be 
put away and worn in a fan case, itself often a work of much artistic 
merit. (A few specimens of fan cases are included in the exhibit.) 

As there is fashion in all things, so fashion has decreed that women 
are to use one sort of fan, and men another. It lies principally in 
the number of ribs in the fans. A man's fan may contain 9, 16, a verv 
f avorite number 20 or 24 ribs, but a woman's fan must not contain less 
than 30 ribs. Feminine figures maybe freely introduced in the decor- 
ation of fans for women, but it would be considered in bad taste 
for an adult male to be seen with a fan with such decoration. 

Similar to the custom in vogue in Europe of writing poetry into 
one's friend's album as a memento, or of making a present speciallv 
chosen to communicate the donor's feelings towards the receiver, is 
the Chinese habit of presenting or receiving mementoes by means of 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 227 

fans, with the poetry or citations from ancient poets or from history 
written or painted upon them. 

Whilst fans are manufactured everywhere in China, each place 
appears more or less to produce special kinds. Those manufactured 
at Hangchow, the capital of the Chekiang province, have gained much 
reputation for the skill with which they are painted. The collection of 
4,000 fans, whether folding or open now shown, will give the visitor 
a fair idea of what is considered as "high art" in a Chinese fan. The 
painting is mostly done by the artists in their own homes. The 
paints used are made from fresh persimmons. (Dyespyros Kaki.) — 
D. Percebois. 



16 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

Tea and Porcelain Co.'s Exhibit. 



GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

100 Foochow Lacquered tea-caddies, (gilt decorated) 

8 Canton Lacquered tea-caddies, (gilt decorated) 

10 Hankow Engraved, silver tea-caddies. - 
50 Swatow Engraved, bronze tea-caddies. 

GROUP 45. 

CERAMICS. 

Various Porcelain: 

239 Small Green Vases. 

117 Small Green Rose Jars. 

63 Small Green Bottle Shaped Vases. 

60 Small Green Beakers. 

11 Small Green Olive Shaped Vases. 
49 Decorated Flower Vases. 

158 Small Blue Plates. 

70 Large Blue Plates. 

233 Decorated Blue Plates. 

751 Decorated Plates. 

399 Decorated Plaques. 

4 Decorated Jardinieres.' 

28 Blue Jardinieres. 

8 Hanging Flower Pots. 

8 Porcelain Lions. 

20 Blue and White Fruit Jars. 

17 Blue and White Nut Jars. 

4 Decorated Jars. 

33 Light Blue Vases. 

11 Light Blue Jardinieres. 

6 Light Yellow Vases. 

2 Light Blue Bottles. 

2 Black Vases. 

3 Black Bottles. 

— 228- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 229 



Exhibit 
Number. 




4 


Brown Bottles. 


2 


Brown Vases. 


4 


Red Bottles. 


1 


Tinted Bottle. 


3 


Black tinted Bottle. 


3 


Tinted Brown Bottles. 


2 


Dark Blue Bottles. 


2 


Red Bottles. 


1 


Brown Bottle. 


4 


Shaded Red Bottles. 


6 


Tinted Vases. 


11 


Blue Vases. 


19 


Decorated Blue Vases. 


7 


Blue Beakers 


10 


Decorated Yellow Vases. 


1 


Large Green Vase. 


7 


Vases (landscape). 


2 


Porcelain Chickens. 


2 


Porcelain Peacocks. 


11 


Decorated Vases. 


2 


Dark Yellow Square Vases. 


11 


Large Decorated Vases. 


3 


Decorated Beakers. 


2 


Yellow Vases. 


9 


Decorated Vases. 


11 


Blue Cuspidors. 


3 


Large Blue Bottles. 


4 


Decorated Vases. 


16 


Decorated Butter Dishes. 


99 


Cups, all Colors. 


7 


Cups with Cover and Saucer, 


2 


Decorated Coffee Pots. 


7 


Square Vegetable Dishes. 


7 


Oval Vegetable Dishes. 


1 


Decorated Bowl. 


20 


Plates, 5 Shapes. 


4 


Platters. 


4 


Sugar Bowls. 


2 


Decorated Tea-pots. 


3 


Soup Bowls. 


3 


Meat Dishes. 


8 


Gravy Bowls 


11 


Vegetable Dishes with covers. 


6 


Heating Plates. 


57 


Egg Cups. 


23 


Decorated Platters. 


39 


Blue Trays. 


8 


Blue Fruit Plates. 


26 


Yellow Snuff Bottles. 



230 


Tea and Porcelain Co.'s Exhibit 


Exhibit 




Number. 




30 


Blue Tea Cups and Saucers. 


117 


Decorated Blue and White Cups and Saucers. 


406 


Blue Bowls. 


517 


Decorated Blue Bowls. 


30 


Decorated Blue Cups and Saucers. 


2 


Jardinieres, Decorated. 


3 


Sets of Ornaments. 


55 


Small Jars with Covers. 


197 


Mugs (Dragons and Phoenix.) 


126 


Blue Cups (Landscape.) 


234 


Small Blue Plates (Landscape.) 


8 


Decorated Yellow Vases. 


11 


Tinted Red Vases. 


'2 


Red Tinted Bottles. 


5 


Decorated Blue Vases. 


1 


Large Blue Vase. 


1 


Large Green Bottle. 


1 


Vase with Small stand. 


2 


Brown Vases. 


1 


Red Tinted Bottle Shaped Vase. 


2 


Decorated Yellow Jars. 


2 


Yellow Square Vases. 


1 


Decorated Blue Vase. 


2 


Decorated Light Green Hat Stand. 


2 


Decorated Yellow Hat Stand. 


3 


Red Tinted Vases. 


3 


Red Vases. 


1 


Red Bottle. 


10 


Small Decorated Yellow Vases. 


2 


Engraved Pen Holders. 


5 


Yellow Vases. 


2 


Black Square Vases. 


1 


Peacock Blue Vase. 


4 


Engraved Black Vases. 


4 


Small Colored Vases. 


2 


Red Wine Jars. 


8 


Small Red Tinted Vases. 


2 


Engraved Yellow Bottle Shaped Vases. 


9 


Green Beakers. 


2 


Large Decorated Yellow Vases. 


4 


Red Tinted Vases. 


1 


Lavender Vase. 


2 


Blue Beakers. 


16 


Decorated Square Vases. 


4 


Engraved Yellow Vases. 


o 
O 


Light Blue Bottle Shaped Vases. 


1 


Tea Colored Vase. 


6 


Yellow Fruit Bowls. 


2 


Decorated Brown Vases. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. -31 



Exhibit 
Number. 

3 Red Tinted Bottles. 

Engraved Yellow Vases. 



o 



1 Plain Vase. 

2 Decorated Yellow Vases. 

3 Light Green Vases with covers. 
2 Light Green Hat Stands. 

6 Large Jars with cover. 

10 Large Vases, 36 in. High (Decorated.) 
20 Blue Rose Jars with Cover. 

6 Diagrams, Engraved. 

14 Flower Dishes with Saucer. 

4 Small Peacock Blue Diagrams. 
4 Calf Water Stands. 

2 Double Drawing Cups. 

3 Drawing Cups. 
2 Small Vases. 

8 Bird Cups. 

14 Water Stands. 

1 Ancient Card Receiver. 
271 Ancient Decorated Vases. 

42 Ancient Decorated Plates. 

20 Decorated Stationaries. 

20 Decorated Ornaments. 

20 Ancient Decorated Jars. 

4 Ancient Decorated Lions. 

2 Ancient Decorated Garden Seats. 

5 Ancient Decorated Large Bowls. 

2 Ancient Decorated Black Jardinieres. 

11 Ancient Porcelain Vases. 
1 Engraved Buddha. 

15 Screens with Rose Wood Stands 
1 Eight Piece Folding Screen. 

1 Six Piece Folding Screen. 

1 Eight Piece, Small Folding Screen. 



GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

38 Rolls Brocaded Silk from Hangchow District. 

57 Rolls Brocaded Crape Hoochow 

48 Rolls Plain Crape " 

39 Rolls White Pongee " Hangchow 

7 Rolls Gilt Striped Satin " Soochow 

G Rolls Gilt Brocaded Satin " 

9 Rolls Brocaded Satin " 

17 Rolls Brocaded Satin Plain Colors" . " 
7 Rolls Brocaded Gauze, 1st quality " 



232 Tea and Porcelain Co.'s Exhibit 



Exhibit 
Number. 

8 Rolls Brocaded Gauze, 2nd quality from Soochow District. 

10 Rolls Weaved Satin " 

8 Rolls Wash Silk " 

6 Rolls Changeable Satin 



GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

14 pairs Portieres, Floral and Figured Design. 

10 Bed Spreads, Dragon, Floral and Fruit Design. 

10 Large Table Covers, Floral and Fruit Design, Dragon 

and Phoenix. 

10 Medium Sized Table Covers, Floral, Fruit and Dragon 

Design. 

10 Small Table Covers, Dragon, Phoenix and Floral Design. 

5 Long Table Covers, Chrysanthemum, and Bamboo Design 
10 Piano Covers, Landscape Design. 

10 Lambrequin, Floral and Bird Design. 

10 Fire Screens with Rose Wood Stands (carved). 

6 Pillow Covers, Dragon and Phoenix Design. 

15 Cushion Covers, Round Gilded Dragon Design. 
90 Cushion Covers, Floral and Figured Design. 

6 Wall Pockets, Silk Braided. . 

5 Necktie Bag, Silk Lined. 

8 Glove Cases, Floral Design. 

5 Paper Bags, Silk Lined. 

5 Letter Cases, Floral Design. 

20 Handkerchief Cases, Floral Design. 

5 Handkerchief Cases (Double.) 

30 Opera Bags, Chrysanthemum Design. 

15 Tea Cosies, Silk Braided. 

5 Flat Tea Cosies, Silk Lined. 

10 Pin Cushions, Braided with Silk Braid. 

10 Pin Cushions, with Puffed Silk Corners. 

20 pairs Slippers, Floral Design. 

15 pairs Sandals, Floral Design. 

150 pairs Baby Slippers, Floral Design. 

15 Handkerchief Boxes, Silk Braided. 

12 Chinese Flags, satin. 

10 Chinese Flags, silk. 

24 Shoulder Scarfs with fringe. 

20 Neckties, with fringe. 

20 Small Crape Scarfs. 

30 Chefoo Pongee Tidies with fringe. 

30 Chefoo Pongee Tidies, Double. 

8 Square Screens with Rose Wood Frame. 

2 Panels, for Screens. 

1 Mandarin Coat, (5 Dragons Embroidered.) 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



23; 



Exhibit 

Number. 

8 

100 

120 

120 

240 

24 

24 

36 
96 



Folding Screens, Carved Rose Wood Frame. 
Pieces of Braided Silk. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 24 in. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 21 in. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 18 in. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 18 in 

ners. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 13 in 

Corner. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, 13 in. Embroidered Edge. 

White Pongee Handkerchiefs, Embroidered Edge and 

Corners. 



Embroidered Cor- 
One Embroidered 



GROUP 84. 

VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURE SEEDS. 

Green Tea. 

Gunpowder, Hsia Mo, Extra Superior. . .from Mo Yuen District. 

Gunpowder, Hsia Mo, Superior 

Gunpowder, Hsia Mo, 1st quality 

Gunpowder, Mali Chun, Superior 

Gunpowder, Pao Chu, Superior 

Hyson, Extra Superior 

Hyson, Superior 

Young Hyson, best Siu Mei 

Young Hyson, Chen Mei, Extra Superior 

Young Hyson, Chen Mei, Superior 

Young Hyson, Chen Mei, 1st quality .... 
Young Hyson, Chen Mei, 2nd quality.... 
Young Hyson, Feng Mei, Extra Superior. 

Young Hyson, Feng Mei, Superior 

Young Hyson, Feng Mei, 1st quality .... 
Young Hyson, Yun Oo, Extra Superior . . . 

Young Hyson, Mon Ting /. 

Young Hyson, Lien Jui 

Young Hyson, Pi Lo 

Young Hyson, Imperial 

Young Hyson, Ming Chien 

Young Hyson, Yu Chien 

Young Hyson, Ya Cha 

Flowery Pekoe 

Mau Foong _ 

Young Hyson, Yu Chien 

Black Tea: 
Hsun Pin from Ichans - District. 



Hangchow 

Huchow 

Hangchow 

Soochow 

Hangchow 



Cheong-wha 
Huchow 
Kee Mun 



Mee-fa 

Seen Cheong 



On-fa 
Kee- mum 



234 



Tea and Porcelain Co.'s Exhibit 



Foo Cheong from Ningchow District. 

Teen Hing " 

Sun Kee . . . " On-fa 

Hoev Yueh - " Kee-mum 

Ming Yar " 

Kee Hsing " Ningchow 

Tien Hing .*. " 

I T'sang " Ichang 

Black Shou Mei " Rangchow 

Oo Long " Kee-mum 

Sheen Ya " Fu Liang 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. A. R. BURKILL AND SONS- 
SHANGHAI. 





GROUP 55. 


rHREAE 


S AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIB 




COTTON. 


Exhibit 




760 


China grass, raw, A quality. 


761 


washed, A 


762 


raw, B 


763 


washed, B 


764 


raw, C 


765 


washed, C 




GROUP 57. 




SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK 


481 


Fine white gum waste. 


482 


Coarse " " 


483 


Fine yellow " 


484 


Coarse " " 


485 


Suoer " " 


486 


China curlies. 


487 


Szechuen Frisonetes. 


488 


Cocoon flosses. 


489 


Tussah waste No. 1. 


490 


a a a 9 


491 


Macerated black cocoons. 


492 


bassinets. 


493 


pelettes. 


767 


Pierced cocoons. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. -35 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. JARDINE, MATHESON & CO. 

SHANGHAI. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

494 Waste Silk., raw and boiler! off. 

495 Tussah waste, raw and combed. 

496 Combed waste silk. 

498 Silk Noil yarn. 

499 " Spun " 

500 Tussah and Spun Silk Yarn. 
766 Waste cocoons and boiled off. 



EXHIBITED BY THE PEKING SYNDICATE, LIMITED. 
CHINA AND LONDON. 

GROUP 11G. 
MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

Anthracite Coal from the province of Shansi. 
" "■ " ■ " Honan. 



EXHIBITED BY THE HUA SHENG CHEONG COTTON, 
CLOTH AND YARN COMPANY OF SHANGHAI. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

Cotton Yarns. 
Cotton Shirtings. 



236 



Catalogue of the Shanghai Collection 



EXHIBITED BY F. W. STYAN— SHANGHAI. 





GROUP 12 l. 




PRODUCTS 


OF ] 


4U 




Bird Skins. 


1 


2 Urocissa crythroshyncha. 


44 


2 


2 


1 Dendrocetta sinensis. 


45 


2 


3 


2 Parus minor. 


46 


1 


4 


2 Machlolophus rex. 


47 


1 


5 


1 Acredula eoncinna 


48 


1 


6 


2 Suthora suflusa. 


49 


2 


7 


1 Suthora davidiana. 


50 


2 


8 


2 Dryonastes perspicillatus. 


51 


2 


9 


Z D. sannio. 


52 


1 


10 


1 D. berthernyi 




1 


11 


1 Garrulax picticollis. 


53 


1 


12 


1 Ianthocincla cinereiceps. 


54 


1 


13 


1 Troehalopterum ellioti. 


55 


2 


14 


1 Pomatorhinus swinhoei. 


56 


2 


15 


1 P. ruficoliis. 


57 


2 


16 


2 Stachyridopsis ruficeps. 


58 


1 


17 


1 Alcippo huei. 


59 


2 


18 


1 Schoeniparus brunneus. 


60 


2 


19 


1 Myiophoneus coeruleus. 


61 


1 


20 


2 Staphidia torqueda. 


62 


1 


21 


2 Yuhina pallida. 


63 


1 


22 


1 Y. dademata. 


64 


1 


23 


2 Zosterops simplex 


65 


2 


24 


1 Leiothus tuteus. 


66 


1 


25 


2 Pycnonotus sinensis. 


67 


1 


26 


2 P. xanthorhous. 


68 


2 


27 


1 Molpastesatricapellus. 


69 


2 


28 


1 Otocompsa emeria. 


70 


2 


29 


2 Hemiscus campennis. 


71 


2 


30 


1 lole hotti. 


72 


2 


31 


2 Spozixus semitorgues. 


73 


2 


32 


1 Hypsipetes leucoecphalus 


74 


2 


33 


2 Buchamga atra. 


75 


1 


34 


2 B. leucogenys. 


76 


2 


35 


3 Chibia hotentetia. 


77 


1 


36 


2 Lannius schach. 


78 


2 


37 


1 L. lucienensis. 


79 


1 


38 


1 L. tigrmius. 


80 


1 


39 


1 Pericrocotus brevoiostris 


81 


1 


40 


2 Oriolus diflusus. 


82 


1 


41 


1 Graculipica nigricellis. 


83 


1 


42 


2 Acridotheres cristatellus. 


84 


1 


43 


2 Spodiopsar sericeus. 


85 


1 



S. cineraceus. 
Phylloscopus proregulus. 
Cettia sinensis. 
Urosphena squamiceps. 
Suya crinigesa. 
Pratnicola maura. 
Oreicola ferrea. 
Henicuru? sinensis 
Chirumarhornis leucocep- 
hala 
Rhyachornis fuligniosa. 
Ruticilla aurorea. 
Calliope camtschatkensis. 
Ianthia cyanura. 
Copoychus saulasis. 
Merula mandarnia. 
M. pahida. 
M. fuscata. 
Geocichla sibirica. 
Oreocinela varia. 
Xanthopygia narcissina. 
Stoparda melanops. 
Cyanoptila bel!a. 
Culicicapa ceylo^ieusis. 
Terpsiphone princeps. 
Carpodacus crythorinus. 
Chloris siniea. 
Fringilla montifringilla. 
Passer rutilens. 
Emberiza aureola. 
E. elegans. 
E. cioides. 
E. spodocephala. 
E. pusilla. 

Melophus melanicterus. 
Anthus maculatus. 
Othopyga dabryi. 
Dicoeum cruentatum. 
Gecines guerini. 
Dendiocopus cabanisi. 
Iyngipicus scintilliceps. 
Megaloema vireus. 
Eurystomus calonyx. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



23" 



86 


2 Ceryle varia. 


97 


2 Ithagines sinensis. 


87 


1 Halcyen pileatus. 


98 


1 Lobevanellus cinereus. 


88 


1 Upupa epops. 


99 


1 Vanellus cristatus. 


89 


1 Cypselm pekniensis. 


100 


1 Numenius minutus. 


90 


1 Cuculus canorus. 


101 


1 Totanus ochropus. 


91 


1 Hierococcyx sparverioidesl02 


1 Inuga crassirostris. 


92 


1 Coccystes coromandus. 


103 


1 T. pacifica. 


93 


2 Buteo plumipes. 


104 


1 Butorides iavanicus. 


94 


1 Turtur rupicola. 


105 


2 Aix galenculata. 


95 


1 T. sinensis. 


106 


1 Spatula clypeata. 


96 


1 Chryselophus pictus. 







ADDENDA. 



92a 1 Asio accipitunus. 

93a 1 Butastur indicus. 

97a 1 Bambasicola thoracica. 



97b 1 Amauromis phoenicura. 
99a 1 Squatosala helvetica. 
100a 1 Numenius vanegatu^. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

NINGPO COLLECTION. 



GROUP 1. 
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. 



Exhibit 

Number. 

1 


Model of School. 




GROUP 3. 




HIGHER EDUCATION. 


2 


Model of Examination hall. 



. GROUP 12. 
ARCHITECTURE. 

3 Models of an Official's Yamen (office and residence). 

4 Model of the Cheng Wang Miao, the chief temple of 

Ningpo City. 

5 Model of city gate and guard house. 

6 Model of house with rice, tea, hat and shoe shops. 

7 Model of the Altar of Confucius as seen in all Chinese 

cities. 

8 Models of three Pailous (commemorative arches). 

9 Model of a lime kiln. 
10 Model of a salt factory. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

12 Mounted Chinese map of Ningpo City and settlement. 

GROUP 23. 
CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 
12a Three jars Ningpo varnish. 

— 238 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Y904. 239 

GROUP 26. 
MODELS, PLANS AND DESIGNS KOR PUBLIC WORKS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

13 Model of bridge. 

14 Model of bridge, (small). 

15 Modelof a Haul-over. The haul-over is a mud slide 

used for dragging boats by means of windlasses 
worked by hand power, from the brackish water 
of the tide-affected Ningpo river into the higher 
level fresh water canals, and vice versa. The 
slide is of stone, and mud is laid on to make the 
boats move easily. The usual fee for hauling 
a boat over is 10 cents (silver) and the services 
of the haulers are available at all hours. 
15a Panoramic view of the port and settlement of Ningpo. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

16-20 Five carved photograph frames. 

21-22 Two carved wall brackets. 

23 Carved wood panel. 

23a Inlaid boxes to contain dishes, cakes. 

23b Metal mirror on frame and inlaid dressing stand box. 

24 Bamboo round fancy work basket, 
round picnic basket (2 compartments), 
basket work comb tray for women, 
luncheon basket, 
waste paper basket. 



24a 
25 

26 

27 
28 



GROUP 37. 



DECORATION AND FIXED FURNITURE OF BUILDINGS AND 

DWELLINGS. 

28a Carved panels for square room. 

GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

One of the most successful of Ningpo industries is furniture mak- 
ing. It is from Ningpo that the carved wood furniture, inlaid with de- 
signs in bone of white wood, comes. There are two absolutely different 
varieties of furniture. 

1. Furniture carved and inlaid in Chinese style, designed solely 
for Chinese use, made cheaply in large quantities of a hard white wood 
which comes from the West and South of Chekiang Province. More 



240 Catalogue of the Ningpo Collection 

expensive furniture of this class is made by some 20 carpentering es- 
tablishments who keep a considerable supply in stock with, however, 
very little variety of design. 

Many rich Chinese have their furniture made to order according 
to their own taste or fancy and these beautiful articles which one sees 
in a rich man's house are generally the work of independent workmen. 
The wood used for this class of work is hard rose-wood procured in 
the South of China and Singapore. The Ningpo exhibit comprises 
only articles on sale in the shops. The manufacturer of red varnished 
furniture with gilded edges is now almost unknown except for decora- 
tion of altars and idols in temples and it is now almost impossible to 
obtain these much-prized articles. 

2. Inlaid carved furniture of European design made only by a few 
establishments in Ningpo itself, though several years ago the industry 
spread to Shanghai, is solely for sale to Europeans. The wood used for 
this work is usually the hard rose-wood referred to above. When com- 
pleted the furniture is varnished with the beautiful dark grown Ningpo 
varnish, which is so solid and acquires such a bright, glossy polish that 
it resembles lacquer. 

The hard white wood which is tender and resisting at the same 
time, is used for making the pretty models for which Ningpo is re- 
nowned. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

29 Chinese bedstead, complete with two ante-chambers. 

30 Carved square bedstead (foreign style). 

31 4-leaf screen. 

32 Whatnot (corner). 

33 Chinese Dressing Table. 

34 W r ardrobe. 

35-16 Two square inlaid tea-poys. 

37 Clothes stand. 

38 Carved inlaid table. 

39 Carved inlaid table. 

40 Whatnot (4 shelves). 

41 Carved cabinet. 

42 Carved book-case. 

43 Sofa. 

44 Carved cabinet. 

45 Carved writing desk. 

46 Desk chair (octagonal seat). 
47-48 Two arm chairs. 

49 Desk chair (octagonal seat). 

50 Desk chair (round seat). 

51 Small round table. 
52-53 Two square stools. 
54-55 Two round stools. 

56 One small square table. 

57 Desk chair (round seat). 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 241 



Exhibit 
Number. 

58 Carved inlaid revolving desk chair. 

59-60 Two chairs (dragon back). 

61 Inlaid octagonal table. 

62 Curio cabinet. 

63 Curio cabinet. 

64 Easel. 

65 Inlaid table. 

65a Puzzle table, 7 pieces, (form the square.) 

66-73 Eight single-roofed show cases, carved — Pagoda shape. 

74-76 Three double-roofed show cases, carved — Pagoda 

shape. 

77-80 Four wall show cases — carved and inlaid. 

81-86 Six flat show cases — carved and inlaid. 

87-88 Two cash show cases — carved and inlaid. 

GROUP 40. 
MORTUARY MONUMENTS, ETC. 

89 Model of ordinary grave. 

90 " grave of an official. 

GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

91 Loom for making matting. 

92 Samples of matting. (Exhibited by A. Ehlers & Co.) 

GROUP 48. 

APPARATUS AND PROCESSES FOR HEATING AND 
VENTILATION. 

92a Model of Chinese cooking range. 

92b Model of Itinerant Huckster's Kitchen. 

GROUP 50. 

TEXTILES. 
Models of : 

93 Cotton ginning machine. 

94 Cotton beater. 

94a Cotton spinning machine. 

94b Cotton spinning machine (Shanghai method). 

95 Silk spinning machine. 

96 Reeling machine. 

97 Machine for preparing cotton for spinning. 

98 Machine for packing cotton. 

99 Rope making machine. 



242 Catalogue of the Ningpo Collection 

GROUP 51. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

100 Loom for cotton cloth. (2 pieces.) 

GROUP 52. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN BLEACHING, DYEING, 

PRINTING AND FINISHING TEXTILES IN THEIR 

VARIOUS STAGES. 

101 Glazing apparatus. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

102-125 24 pieces Fancy Cotton Cloth. 

GROUP 59. 

INDUSTRIES PRODUCING WEARING APPAREL FOR MEN, 
WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

125a Two bamboo shirts used in summer. 

GROUP 01. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

(Exhibited by Messrs. A. Ehlers & Co.) 
12G Samples of Wenchow straw hats, woodshaving hats, 

woodshaving and rush hats, fancy hats, rush 
hats ; plain, colored and fancy. 

GROUP 72. 

CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHTS' WORK— AUTOMOBILES 

AND CYCLES. 

127 Model of wheelbarrow. 

128 Model of single sedan chair. 

129 Model of official sedan chair. 

In the provinces all officials when paying official visits or go- 
ing on public business, are carried in chairs by four bearers, a 
shoulder-piece for two bearers being attached crosswise to the 
bar joining the poles in front and at the back of the sedan, and 
are preceded and followed by a large number of attendants, bear- 
ing tablets showing the officer's ranks and titles, flags, umbrellas, 
etc., etc., and if the officer be of high rank he is accompanied^ also, 
by a body-guard of soldiers. Those belonging to the first three 
grades have a green cloth covering to their chairs ; those of lower 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, X904. 243 



rank a covering of blue cloth. In the capital, however, owing to 
the large number of officers of the highest rank who are attached to 
the several state departments, the use of a chair has become re- 
stricted to princes and to those who have the brevet or substantive 
rank of president of a department. Hie covering of the chair 
is green, blue not being used in Peking, except at times, in the 
case of princes, when a red cover is occasionally used, officers be- 
low this rank using carts. None of the pomp of the provincial 
authorities is seen in the capital, and, with the exception of the 
captain-general of the gates, officers there, even of the highest 
rank, are seldom accompanied by a mounted escort of more than 
six. 

Gentlemen of good position are carried in chairs with two 
bearers only, and are accompanied by a servant on foot carrying 
the visiting cards of his master. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of : 

Exhibit 
Number. 

130 Lorcha. A Lorcha is a vessel of about 100 tons 

burden, having a hull of European build, but 
rigged with Chinese masts and manned by 
Chinese. The word "Lorcha" is said to have 
been introduced from South America by the 
Portuguese. 

131 Ningpo-Shantung trading junk. 

132 Ningpo-Shaohsing river passenger boat. 

133 Pole carrying junk. 

133a Pole carrying junk with poles. 

134 Lutai lime boat. 

135 Fenghua district, river passenger boat. 

136 Foot boat. Used for rapid travel by river and canal. 

This kind of boat conveys but one passenger, or 
in rare instances two ; it is very comfortable, be- 
ing warm in winter and perfectly dry. The 
boatman propels it by means of a single wide- 
bladed oar, worked on one side only, by his feet 
and legs, while he steers with a paddle held 
under the arm. He often rows for 18 or 24 hours 
at a stretch, only pausing occasionally for a few 
moments to cook his food, an operation which 
is very simply performed in the boat by means 
of a small portable clay furnace close beside him. 

136a Fishing boat flag signals. 

17 



244 Catalogue of the Ningpo Collection 

GROUP 76. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT OF NAVAL SERVICES; NAVAL 

WARFARE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

137 War Junk. These boats, famed for their swift sailing, 

are used for the protaection of small fishing 
craft, for prevention of salt smuggling and oc- 
casionally for attacking piratical craft. They 
usually carry 6 guns, 3 on each side and a salut- 
ing gun in the bows. 

GROUP 79. 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, ETC. 

Models of: 

138 Hoe. 

139 Pick hoe. 

140 Plow. (Generally drawn by an ox.) 

141 Harrow. 

142 Husking mill. 

143 Winnowing machine. 

144 Husking mortar. 

144a Husking mortar. (Shanghai method.) 

145 Irrigating Machine. Worked by buffalo, to be seen on 

all canals in Mid-China, for watering crops in 
dry weather, flooding rice fields, etc. The 
buffalo is often blind-folded and walks round 
and round for hours at a stretch. 

146 Irrigating machine, worked by foot. 

147 Machine for grinding grain into flour. 

GROUP 86. 

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN THE PREPARA- 
TION OF FOODS. 

148 Model of an Ice house. The construction of an ice 

house is most simple. It consists simply of a 
reservoir about 65 feet long and 46 feet broad 
composed of four solid stone-and-mud walls 
about 20 feet high. A high thick thatched roof 
is constructed on bamboo rafters in which a 
door is made, closed by a curtain of straw mak- 
ing, and used for filling the ice house. The 
door is reached by inclined steps. For with- 
drawing the ice a smaller door on ground level 
is used. The ice is packed between layers of 
straw matting and small gutters run off the 
water which accumulates from melting ice. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 245 

Exhibit 

Number. 

A special law obliges the owners to have a 
3-years' supply to make up for mild winters. 
The capacity of an ice house varies from 2,000 
to 13,000 piculs (1 picul equals 133 1-3 lbs.). 
The price of ice varies from 6 to 10 cash a catty 
(1 1-3 lbs.) roughly one cent (silver) a pound. 

GROUP 90. 
SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY— CONDIMENTS, ETC. 

149 Tea, green, Imperial, 1st quality. 

150 Tea, green, Imperial, 2nd quality. 

151 Tea, green, Hyson, No. 1. 

152 Tea, green, Hyson, No. 2. 

153 ' Tea, green, Young Hyson, No. 1 

154 Tea, green, Young Hyson, No. 2. 

155 Tea, green, Gunpowder, No. 1. 

156 Tea, green, Gunpowder, No. 2. 

157 Tea leaf. 

158 Tea Dust. 

Ningpo teas are cultivated on. the hill sides. The bushes reach a 
height of 3 to 4 feet. The young leaves are gathered twice a year, gen- 
erally in the spring and are then lightly steeped in water and dried. 
Once sold, the leaves are dried and fired by the local purchaser and a 
coloring mixture is added to improve the appearance of the tea. The 
bulk of these teas find a ready sale in the United States. 

GROUP 122. 
FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 
Models of: 

159 Cuttlefish Boat. These boats are usually about 55f 

feet long with 8^ feet beam and have a double 
keel, a peculiarity of nearly all Chinese sailing 
craft. The deck consists of moveable planks, 
allowing access to the hold, which is divided 
into compartments for storing the fish. The 
sails are dyed with mangrove bark to prevent 
rotting, and when wind fails two or more 
yulohs (large sculling oars) propel the boat. 
The anchor is made of hardwood, the net hangs 
over the side, the masts can be unshipped and 
stowed on deck, eyes are painted on either side 
of the bows, which, according to superstition, 
serve to guide the boat and preserve her from 
mishap. Fishing for cuttlefish is carried on by 
night with a flare to attract the fish, as well as 
by day. 



246 Catalogue of the Ningpo Collection 

• Exhibit 
Number. 

160 Ice Boat. The ice boat is larger than the cuttlefish 

boat, but very similar to it. A hatchet-shaped 
rudder, deeper than the keel enables the boat 
to turn quickly. The iee boat goes out to the 
fishing boats and brings back their loads of fish 
packed in ice. The usual size is 624 by 13 feet. 

161 Night Fishing Boat. These boats are 29|xlJ feet with 

a very light draught. All along one side of 
the boat is a board 1 foot wide which projects 
like a shelf but slopes a little towards the water 
and along side the other side a net 
is erected perpendicularly. The "shelf" 
is painted white., and on bright clear 
nights ■ the fish attracted by the light of the 
moon falling on the board leap on or over it into 
the boat and are captured. The net prevents 
their leaping out on the further side. 

162 Cormorant Fishing Boat. These boats are very light ; 

18 x 2J feet in size and draw very little water. 
They are only used on lakes, rivers and canals — 
where there is no tide. The birds sit on the rail 
and are urged into the water by the boatman 
with a pole. Cormorants usually have a hempen 
cord around their necks to prevent their swal- 
lowing the fish. Fenghua and Shaosing are 
noted for excellent, well-trained birds. 

163 Bamboo Raft for shallow water. These craft render 

the shallowest streams available for the trans- 
port of heavy loads of merchandise. 

164 Boat with flat net. The net is made of hemp string 

and varies in size. The smaller nets have finer 
meshes and their use is confined to lake, river 
and canal fishing. The net is attached at its 
corners to the ends of four bamboo poles, the 
other ends of which are gathered together and 
tied to the extremity of a long pole which pro- 
jects over the water from the front of the boat 
(or from the bank of a canal), a rope fastened 
to the upper end of this pole glides over a small 
wheel by the aid of which the net can be easily 
raised. From the third to the ninth Chinese 
moon the large flat net is greatly used in sea 
fishing. 

165 Shrimp Boat. Dimensions : Length, 13 metres ; beam, 

2 metres. This boat differs very little from the 
Ningpo fishing boat (catalogue No. 166) it has 
the same shape, but does not rise so high out of 
the water. The hull instead of being decked 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 247 

over is left open and the boat is simply roofed 
over with mats made of bamboo and quite rain- 
proof. Two compartments serve as reservoirs 
for the shrimps caught. 

166 Xingpo Fishing Boat. There is a single mast in the 

fore part of the boat. The deck is made of 
movable planks and the hull is divided into 
compartments like the cuttle-fish boat. The in- 
mates live on deck sheltered by mats. 

167 Chinkiamen Fishing Boat. This boat has a flat bot- 

tom and is generally 17 metres long and has a 
wide beam. There are two masts. The hull 
is divided into holds closed by strong hatches. 
Unlike the ordinary fishing craft the deck planks 
are not moveable, this being a sea-going craft. 
Two compartments are reserved for the use of 
the crew. 

168 Mud Sledge. In the middle of the sledge are two up- 

rights supporting a horizontal bar. The fisher- 
man kneeling with one foot in the sledge, and 
resting his hands on the bar, pushes his way 
along with the other foot. 

168 Mud Sledge for Crab Catching. "Very similar to the 

above. The occupant is provided with a net 
to catch the crabs as he skims over the mud. 

GROUP 127. 

ETHNOLOGY. 
Models of: 

169 Marriage procession. 

170 Funeral procession. 

171 Buddhist Priest ready for cremation. 

172 God of literature. 

173 God of fire. 

174 God of wealth (two models). 

GROUP 128. 
ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Life-size Figures illustrating costumes of : 

175 An official. 

176 A o-entleman. 

177 A lady. 

178 A bride. 

179 AYoman attendant on bride. 

180 Widow in full mourning. 

181 A girl. 

18-1 Soldier with Jingall. 

185 Buddhist Priest. 

186 Coolie carrying tea chests. 





CATALOGUE 




—OF THE— 


WENCHOW COLLECTION. 1 




GROUP 11. 


Exhibit 

Number. 

1-11 

12-14 

15-18 


SCULPTURE. 

11 Carved Soapstone Ornaments. 

3 Rose-wood tablets, inlaid with soapstone. 

4 Soapstone mounted on stands. 




GROUP 16. 




PHOTOGRAPHY. 


19-23 


5 Views of Wenchow. 




GROUP 18. 


MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 


24 
25 


Chart of Harbor of Wenchow. 
Map of City of Wenchow. 


* 


GROUP 38. 




OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 


26 

27 
28 
29-30 


1 Carved wood Screen, bamboo inlaid figures. 
1 " " Desk, 

1 " " Table, 

2 " " Stools, 




GROUP 44. 




UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 


31-34 
35-38 


4 Picture frames, inlaid bamboo figures. 
4 Panels 




- 248- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 249 



GROUP 57. 

SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

39-48 10 pieces Taichow Silk, various colors, 20 yds. each. 

49-70 22 " Shot Silk, 

71-82 12 " Silk Ribbons," " 12 " 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

83-84 2 Models of River Boats. 

85 1 Model of Sea-going Junk. 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

90-91 2 Samples of Soapstones from the Chingtien Quarries. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

FOOCHOW COLLECTION. 



GROUP 11. 

SCULPTURE. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

Carved Root Figures : 

1 Old Fisherman. 

2-3 2 pairs, Emblems of Happiness and Longevity. 

1-81 The Eight Genii: The Eight Immortals of Taoism. 

12 King of the Dragon. 

" 13 Buddhist Priest/ 

14-15 Two of the four Gods disposing of evil spirits. 

16 Old Priest with staff. 

17 "Liu Hai" — fishing by throwing cash into the water. 
18-19 Two Buffalos. 

Carved Soapstone Ornaments: 

4-4 Pagoda in Red soap stone. 

45 % < " Black " 

46 Memorial Arch (Pailow) in Black soap stone. 

47 " " " ' " Red 

48 Mandarin's Grave " Black 
49-50 Tables, Octagonal " " 
51-52 " Square " " 
53-54 " Round " " 
55-56 Tea cups " Red 

57 Ink Bottle " Black 

58 Collection of Monkeys " Green 

59 Sample of Red soap stone. 

60 " A Black 

61 " " Green 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

62 Album with 50 views of Foochow and vicinity. 

63 Panoramic view of Foochow, in Lacquered Frame. 

64 Kushan Monastery 

— 250 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 251 

Exhibit 
Number. 

(>5a Foreign settlement and stone Bridge, in Lacquered 

Frame. 

65b Military Parade ground, in Lacquered Frame. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

66 Map of Nantai and suburbs of city. 

67 " " City of Foochow. 

GROUP 30 

SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Brassware Ornaments: 

Large Incense Burner with Brass Stand. 
Medium Size Incense Burners with Brass Stand, 
pair of Vases with flowers in Relief. 
Large Warming Pan with Carving. 
Small 

Square Incense Burner with black wood Stand, 
pair of Vases Engraved 
Incense Burner with Arms on 
Incense Burners 
pair of Vases Elephant Heads on 

" " " ' Engraved, large " 

" " " " small " 

Incense Burner Engraved, 

GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 
Silver and Kingfisher feather Hair Ornaments: 

84 A pair Large Halfmoon Shaped, Pearls attached. 

85 A " Crescent ." 

86 A Phoenix Pearls attached. 

87 One Halfmoon Pearl in Centre. 

88 One " " Pearls attached. 

89 A pair with Sprays. 

90 One Square Shaped. 

91 A pair Halfmoon Shaped, Large. 

92 One with Ruby in Centre. 

93 A pair with Sprays. 

94 A " Halfmoon Shaped, Small. 

95 A " Dragon " 
90 7 Small Different patterns. 



GS 


1 


69-70 


2 


71 


1 


72 


1 


73 


1 


74 


1 


75 


1 


76 


1 


77-79 


3 


80 


1 


81 


1 


82 


1 


83 


1 



252 Catalogue of the Foochow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

97 A pair Ear Drops. 

98 A pair Ear Drops. 

99 A Square Shaped. 

100 A pair Halfmoon Shaped. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

Lacquered Ware, 1st quality : 

Brown Colored Handkerchief Box, decorated. 

pair Blue Flower Vases, decorated. 

Peacock Blue Colored Handkerchief Box, decorated. 

pair Strawberry Colored Flower Vases, plain. 

Oval Boxes, Light Brown Color, decorated. 

Double Butterfly pattern, Jewel Box, Gold Color. 

Peach 

Fruit pattern (Lychee) " 

Peacock Blue Color Handkerchief Box, decorated. 

Strawberry 

Citron pattern Tewel Box. Gold Color. 

Fan 

Peach 

Citron 

Strawberry Color Handkerchief Box, decorated. 

Green Color Handkerchief Box, decorated with 

Shells, etc. 
Double Butterfly pattern Tewel Box, Gold Color. 
Peach " " " 

Gilt Crested Paper Weights. 
Lotus leaf Card Tray. 
Citron pattern Jewel Box, Gold Color. 
Peacock Blue Color Glove Box, decorated. 
Citron pattern Jewel Box, Gold Color. 
Double Butterfly pattern Jewel Box, Gold Color, 

Large. 
Light Brown Color Glove Box, decorated. 
Double Butterfly pattern Jewel Box, Gold Color, 

Large. 
Citron pattern Jewel Box in gold. 
Fruit pattern (Lychee) Jewel Box, Gold Color. 
Zinc lined Box Peacock Blue Color, decorated. 
Double Butterfly pattern Jewel Box, Gold Color. 
Green color Handkerchief Box, decorated (Sea 

Shells.) 
134 1 Strawberry color glove Box, decorated birds and 

flowers. 



101 


1 


102 


1 


103 


1 


104 


1 


105-106 


2 


107 


1 


108 


1 


109 


1 


110 


1 


111 


1 


112 


1 


113 


1 


114 


1 


115 


1 


116 


1 


117 


1 


118 


1 


119 


1 


120-121 


2 


122 


1 


123 


1 


124 


1 


125 


1 


126 


1 


127 


1 


128 


1 


129 


1 


130 


1 


131 


1 


132 


1 


133 


1 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. -">• 

Exhibit 
Number. 

135 1 Fawn color Handkerchief Box. decorated flowers. 

136 1 Model of coffin, Black and Gold. 

137 1 pair Fawn color Vases, decorated. 

138 1 Glove Box Strawberry color decorated. 

139 1 Box green color 

140 1 Zinc lined Box Blue color 

141 1 Xest of 5 Boxes, different colors, decorated. 

142 1 Set " 2 " 

143-4 2 Gentleman's Card Cases, Bamboo Root pattern. 

145-62 2 Lady's 

147 1 Set of 2 Tewel Boxes. 

148 1 Cigar Box. 

149 1 Set Card Case. 

150 1 Cigarette " 

151 1 pair Vases. 
152-3 2 Vases. 

154 1 pair Vases. 

155 1 Cigar Case. 

156 1 pair Wall Vases. 

157 1 Set of 5 Boxes. 

158 1 Round Jewel Box. 

Lacquered Ware, 2nd quality: 

159 1 Tablet. 

160 1 Square Tea Tray. 

161 1 Letter Holder. 

162 2 Small Wall Vases. 

163 2 Round Pen Stands. 

164 1 Chit Book Case. 

165 1 pair Brackets. 

166 1 Picture Frame. 

167 1 Box for Photographs. 

168 1 Picture Frame. 

169 1 pair Oval Tea Travs. 

170 1 Card Tray. 

171 1 pair Photograph Frames. 
172-173 2 Paper Weights. 
174-177 4 Card Travs. 

178-179 2 pairs Brackets. 

180-182 3 Tea Travs, Green, with Dragons. 

183 1 Tea Tray Brown 

184-187 4 Fancy Boxes, Brown, decorated. 

188-191 4 Fawn colored Zinc-lined Boxes. 

192 1 cigar Box, zinc-lined. 

193-198 6 Round Tea Travs, Green, Dragon pattern. 

199-200 2 Oval 



254 


Catalogue of the Foochow Collection 




GROUP 38. 




OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 


Lacquered Ware Furniture: 


Exhibit 




Number. 




201 


1 Set of 4 Tea Poys Green with Dragon pattern. - 


202 


1 " 4 Brown " Bamboo " 


203 


1 " 4 " Brown " 


204 


1 " 4 " " " Dragon 


205 


1 Black Folding Tea Table, plain. 


206 


1 Green 


207 


1 ..•"' " " " Dragons. 


208 


1 Small Round Table Green, Bamboo pattern. 


209 


1 " " " Brown, 


210 


1 Set of 4 Tea Poys Green Avith Figures. 


211 


1 " 4 Brown " Dragons. 


212 


1 " 4 


213 


1 " 4 " Green "' Figures. 


214 


1 " 4 4 different colors. 


215 


1 Green Folding Tea Table Dragon pattern. 


216 


1 Green . " 


217 


1 " " " " Flower 


218 


1 Green " 


219 


2 Black " " - Plain. 


220 


1 Red 


221 


1 Small Round Table, Brown, Dragons. 


222 


1 " " " Green 


223 


1 Music Cabinet decorated. 


224 


1 Music Cabinet, Brown, decorated. - . 


225 


1 Fancy Whatnot in 3 Tiers. 


226 


-j a u (( 


227 


1 Round Table, Black, decorated. 


228 


1 " " Green. 


229 


1 " " Fawn. 


230 


1 Fancv " 


231 


1 li " Green 


232 


1 " " Black 


233 


1 " Whatnot Fawn " 


234 


1 Lady's Writing Desk. Green decorated. 


The 


varnish used in making this lacquered ware is the resinous 


sap of one or more species of Sumac (Rhus or Vernix Vernicia and 


the Agius sinensis of Tour). The sap is drawn from the tree in sum- 


mer nights.. exuding slowly into shells, and is brought to market 


in a semi-fluid state or dried into cakes of a whitish color. When 


prepared for use 7 lbs. of lacquer, 14 of spring water, 5 oz. of vinegar 


are mixe 


d together until they form a pastv mass of a lustrous black. 


The wood to be covered should be well seasoned and planed and the 


grooves 


covered with tough paper or the lint of hemp, rubbing 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. -55 

it on with a size made of pig's gall pure or mixed with fine red 
sand as a priming until the wood is uniformly coated. The article 
is then placed in a dark room and a coating of the prepared lacquer 
laid on with a brush and put by to dry. These coatings are to be 
repeated from three to fifteen or twenty times according to the 
fineness of the ware. When perfectly dry the articles to be gilded 
are sent to the proper workmen whose first operation is to rub pow- 
dered chalk or white lead on a paper which is pricked full of pin- 
holes, and then the design is transferred to the plain surface so that 
it can be filled out. It is then painted with lacquer mixed with ver- 
milion, repeating the layers when a raised surface is required. The 
gold in powder is put on with a cotton bat, the gold leaf with a 
brush, the most delicate strokes being made on it with charcoal 
smoke floating in oil, with fine hair pencils. Sometimes camphor 
is used in the red priming to set the gilding. The art of making 
the finest qualities is kept a secret. 

GROUP 44. 

UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

24 1 Carved wood Screen — bamboo pattern. 

25-2? 3 Pagodas — 7 stories. 

28 2 Easels — Phoenix pattern. 

29-43 15 Picture Frames — various shapes and 

designs. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of: 

Fvhihit • Cost of ful1 

JixniDit s j z e Craft 

-Number. Mex. Dollars 

235 Foochow Passenger Boat: 25 feet long, 5 

feet wide, carries 10 passengers 50 00 

236 Three Boats lashed together for up coun- 

try :20 feet long, 4 feet wide each : 

carries 300 lbs. each, cost $10 30 00 

237 Boat for carrying Tea, etc., from the coun- 

trv : 40 ft. long, 6 ft. wide ; carries 

2,000 lbs 80 00 

238 Boat for carrying straw: 25 ft. long, 5 ft. 

wide ; carries 1,500 lbs 30 00 

239 Dragon Boat : 60 ft. long, 4 ft. wide ; car- 

ries 29 men 100 00 

240 Large Foochow Passenger Boat: 35 ft.. 

long. 9 ft. wide ; carries 30 passengers 140 00 

241 Foochow Licensed Cargo Boat: 80 ft. 

long, 16 ft. wide; carries 12,000 lbs. . 1,000 00 

242 Boat for carrying Firewood : TO ft. long. 

16 ft. wide : carries 9,000 lbs 700 00 



256 Catalogue of the Foochow Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

243 Boat for Ascending Rapids : 65 ft. long, 9 

ft. wide ; carries 1,000 lbs 350 00 

244 Boat for Ascending Rapids : 65 ft. long, 15 

ft. wide ; carries 1,100 lbs 400 00 

245 Boat for Ascending Rapids : 65 ft. long, 10 

ft. wide ; carries 1,500 lbs , 200 00 

246 Boat for Small Creeks : 30 ft. long, 5 ft. 

wide ; carries 900 lbs 20 00 

247 Small Ferry Boat:. .15 ft. long, 5 ft. wide; 

carries 5 or 6 passengers 20 00 

248 Tender for Junk: 15 ft. long, 5 ft. wide; 

carries 5 or 6 passengers 20 00 

249 Up Country Boat : 30 ft. long, 10 ft. wide ; 

carries 900 lbs 40 00 

250 Up Country Boat for Passengers : 30 ft. 

long, 7 ft. wide; carries 20 men. .... 100 00 

251 Boat for Ascending Rapids: 45 ft. long, 7 

ft. wide ; carries 900 lbs 100 00 

252 Small Boat used in Creeks : 15 ft. long, 5 

ft. wide; carries 500 lbs 20 00 

253 Boat for carrying Cargo or Passengers : 25 

ft. long, 5 ft. wide ; carries 800 lbs. or 

7 or 8 passengers 40 00 

254 Boat for carrying Stones: 45 ft. long, 10 

ft. wide ; carries 1,500 lbs 200 00 

255 Chinese Cargo Boat : 45 ft. long, 8 ft. wide ; 

carries 1,200 lbs 200 00 

256 Boat for carrying poles and timber: 30 ft. 

long, 6 ft. wide ; carries 1,200 lbs 80 00 

257 Salt carrying Junk : Trades to Anam : 90 

ft. long, 25 ft. wide; 9 ft. depth of 

hold ; carries 150,000 lbs 12,000 00 

258 Coats Trading lunk to Wenchow and Ning- 

po : 90 *ft. long, 20 ft. wide, 9 ft. 

depth of hold ; carries 140,000 lbs 10,000 00 

259 Shanghai Trading Junk: 110 ft. long, 25 ft. 

wide; 15 ft. depth of hold, carries 

300,000 lbs 18,000 00 

260 Shantung Trading Junk: 120 ft. long, 30 

ft. wide ; 20 ft. depth of hold ; carries 

400,000 lbs 25,000 00 

261 Mandarin House Boat: 70 ft. long, 15 ft. 

wide; 4 ft. depth of hold; accomo- 
dates 10 passengers 1,200 00 

262 Full sized Flag used by Viceroy. 

263 " " " " " Tartar General. 

264 " " " " " Tartar General or any High 

Official. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



257 



GROUP 90. 

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY— CONDIMENTS AND RELISHES. 

Samples of Tea: 

Exhibit 
Number. 

265-6 Flowery Pekeo market value Tls. 260 per picul 

267 Souchong " " "55 

268 Scented Orange Pekoe. " " " 60 

269 Oolong " " "45 

270 " " " "32 

271 Congou " " "40 

272 " " " "34 

273 " " " "28 

274 " " " "30 

275 " " " "32 



GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FOREST AND OF 
FOREST INDUSTRIES. 

Specimens of Timber: 







Cost Mex. 


276 


Tung Mu The bastard banvan 


0.40 per sq. 


277 


T'n " A fine hard pine 


1.50 " " 


278 


Nan A yellowish hard wood 


1.00 " " 


279 


Hsieh " A kind of j-uniper 


0.80 " " 


280 


Tsao •" Date wood 


0.60 " " 


281 


Pai-li " A white wild pear tree 


1.00 " " 


282 


Lung Yen Mu The Lungngan wood. . 


0.90 " " 


283 


Shan-chii A kind of willow 


0.80 " " 


284 


Hung-Kuai " Inferior Red wood 


0.50 " " 


285 


Huang-li A yellow wild pear tree 


0.80 " " 


286 


Hung Red wood 


3.20 " " 


287 


Pai-Kuo Wild white nut tree. . . 


0.50 " " 


288 


Wu-Tung Dryandra cordifolia. . . . 


,0.50 " " 


289 


Pai-nan Mu A yellowish hard wood. . 


0.90 " " 


290 


Sh'an - ' Softwood pine 


0.50 " " 


291 


Hsiu Pumelo wood 


0.50 " " 


292 


Li-chih " Lvchee " 


1.00 " 


293 


Chang Camphor " 


1.00 " " 


294 


Ch'i Shan 


0.60 " " 


295 


Chia lung Mu 


0.30 " " 


296 


Fen Kuai " 


0.40 " " 


297 


Kuei 


0.80 " 


298 


Huang t'u " 


1.50 •' 


299 


Sang chih " . . 


0.70 " 


300 


Chiao chen " 


1.30 " " 


301 


Tang ' 


0.70 " " 


302 


Ta 


0.70 " " 



ft. 



258 Catalogue of the Foochow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

303 Tsu hein Mu 0.90 per sq. ft. 

304 Pien " 0.60 " "- 

305 Shan clu " : 0.40 " " 



GROUP 120. 
HUNTING EQUIPMENT. 
Ancient Weapons consisting of: 



306 


A set of 2 Long handled spears. 


307 


" " " 2 " knife shaped swords 


308 


1 Medium length sword. 


309 


1 Short handled " 


310 


1 Executioner's " 


311 


1 Jingall. 


312 


1 Trident. 


313-ab 


1 Bow and. 13 Arrows. 




GROUP 121. 



PRODUCTS OF HUNTING. 
Collection of Birds : 

314 Crested Pied Kingfisher. 

315 Hair Crested Drongo. 

316 White Winged Black Tern (Wings Spread.) 

317 Falcated Teal. 

318 Pallas Dipper. 

319 White Crested Kingfisher. 

320 Chinese Green Barbet. 

321 " Pond Heron. 

822 White Crested Kingfisher. 

323 Broad Billed Roller. 

324 White Crested Water Hen. 

325 Chinese Green Wood Pecker. 

326 Monticola Solitaria. 

327 White Crested Kingfisher. 

328 " Winged Black Tern. 

329 Bare footed Scops Owl. 

330 Indian Oriole. 

331 Fokien Bay Wood Pecker. 

332 Eastern Ruddy Dove. 

333 " " ' " 

334 Sturna Sinensis. 

335 Meadow Hen. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 259 

GROUP 122. 
FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 
Models of: 

■c> i,;t-:<. Cost of full 

Exhibit size Craft 

Number. Mex. Dollars 

336 Cockle and other Shell Fishing Boat, 15 ft. long, 

4 ft. wide, carries 3 Fishermen 15 

337 River Fishing Boat, 24 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, carries 

4 Fishermen 40 

338 Sea Fishing Boat, 25 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, carries 4 

Fishermen 40 

339 River Fishing Boat with Fishing Net in Frame, 30 

ft. long, 6 ft. wide, carries 4 Fishermen. . . . 120 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

20 Model showing Sedan chair and retinue of 60 figures of 

a High" Official. 

Life-size figures showing full costumes of: 

21 Bride. 

22 Young Lady. 

23 Peasant woman carrying baskets. 



18 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

FUKIEN EXHIBIT. 



GROUP 11. 

SCULPTURE. 

Carved Root Figures: 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1-2 Old Men. 

3 Idol "Ma Ku." 

4 Imitation of a Rock. 

5-6 Figures of 8 Genii — Immortals of Taoism. 

GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

7 2 Brass Vases. 

8 1 " Urn. 

9 2 Vases, Plum blossom in relief. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 



Lacquered Ware Fancy Articles: 



10 


1 Cigar Box decorated. 




11 


1 Brown Vase. 




12 


1 Pair Fawn Colored Vases decorated. 


13 


1 " Peacock Blue Colored Vases 


decorated. 


14 


1 " Dark Green 


a 


15 


1 " Brown 


a 


16 


1 " 


small. 


17 


1 " " Wall Vases 


" 


18-20 


10 Paper Weights, Gilt crested. 




28-33 


6 Card Trays, Lotus pattern. 




34-35 


2 Easels, Phoenix 




36-37 


2 " Deer 




38-42 


6 Wine Bottle Stands. 





— 260 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 261 



Exhibit 




Number. 




44-45 


2 Cigar Holders, Brown color, decorated. 


46-47 


2 " " Fawn 


48-51 


4 " Bamboo pattern. 


52-55 


4 " Plum blossom pattern. 


56-57 


2 Handkerchief Boxes, Brown and decorated. 


58-61 


4 Pen stands, Gold crested. 


62-63 


2 Small Mirrors on Stands. 


64 


Nest of 6 Boxes different color decorated. 


65 


Pair of Brackets. Deer Pattern. 


66 


1 Table. 


67 


Pair of Brackets. Fruit Pattern. 


68 


1 Card Tray. 


69 


Pair Fawn Colored Vases decorated. 


70 


" Green 


71 


1 Vase Imitation old Bronze. 


72-73 


2 Urns 


74 


1 Pair Vases, Light Blue, decorated. 


75 


1 " " Dark Green, 


76 


Nest of 5 Boxes different color, decorated. 


77 


Zinc lined Cigar Box. 


78-79 


2 Easels Phoenix pattern. 


80-82 


2 Card Trays Leaf pattern. 


82 


2 " " Flower 


83 


1 " " Chrysanthemum " 


84-85 


2 " " Lotus _" • 


86 


1 " " Citron 


87 


1 " " Flower 


88 


1 Cigarette Case. 


89 


1 Cigar Box. 


90-91 


2 Easels Stork pattern. 


92 


Nest of 6 Boxes. 


93-94 


Card Trays Lotus and apple blossom pattern. 


95 


2 Vases, Citron patterns. 



GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

96 50 pieces Grasscloth — each 35 ft. long by 13 inches wide. 

A fabric which is peculiar to China and in the hot season is used 
very largely in preference to cotton cloth. This is the (hsia pu), or 
summer cloth, known in English as grasscloth. It is woven from the 
fibres of several different plants having the general characteristics of 
hemp. The one most commonly used is the Urtica nivea. The cloths 
woven from these plants are of all degrees of fineness, but are divided 
into the two general classes of coarse and fine grasscloth. The coarser 
kinds are cheap, and are much used by the poor people in the sum- 
mer, being of very open texture and exceedingly durable. The 



262 



Catalogue of the Fukien Exhibit 



finer qualities make the long white summer gowns of the well-to-do 
classes. They resemble fine muslin, but are much stronger and 
more durable. Some of the finest samples contain 100 threads to 
the inch. 



GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 



Artificial Flowers: 



Exhibit 




Number. 




97 


Peach Blossoms. 


98 


Narcissus. 


99 


Magnolia. 


100-101 


Peony. 


103-106 


Various. 


107-115 


Chrysanthemums. 


116-118 


Roses. 


119-122 


Wreaths of Asters. 


123 


Bouquet of Flowers. 


124-125 


Pyramid of Flowers. 


126-128 


Sprays of Roses. 


129-133 


" Chrysanthemums. 


134 


" Mangolds. 


135 


' Various Flowers. 


136 


" - ' Forget-me-nots. 


137 


" Camelias. 




GROUP 90. 



SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY— CONDIMENTS AND RELISHES. 
Tea: 



138 


Souchong 


20 Caddies 


@ 


4 lbs. each. 


139 


a 


4 


a 


ii 


1 ' 






140 


" 


20 


(i 


(( 


2 ( 






141 


" 


1 


t( 


" 


2 ' 






142 


{( 


10 


a 


" 


4 ' 






143 


Young Hyson 


10 


a 


Li 


4 ' 






144 


a u 


34 


" 


It 


2 ' 






145 


a a 


4 


" 


(I 


1 ' 






146 


a a 


1 


a 


li 


2 ' 






147 


(( u 


10 


" 


" 


4 ' 






148 


Pouchong 


20 


u 


" 


4 ' 






149 


(< 


34 


C( 


it 


2 ' 






150 


" 


2 


(I 


" 


1 ( 






151 


" 


1 


u 


a 


2 ' 






152 


Paklum 


1 


" 


" 


2 ' 






153 


a 


4 


u 


ct 


2 ' 







to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



263 



1,54 


Pakliang 




1C 


addies 


(a 2 lbs. each. 


155 






4 




« 2 " 


15G 


Gunpowder 




1 




"2 " 


157 






4 




"2 " 


158 


Lin Sum 




1 


" 


" 2 " " 


159 


it 




5 




"' 2 " 


160 


Yellow Flower 


Pekoe 


1 




" 2 " 


161 


" 


" 


2 




" 2 - 


162 


ii ii 


a 


5 




" 2 " " 


163 


It it 


a 


2 




u 1 M 


164 


Ooloong 




1 




« « « 


165 






5 




" 2 " " 


166 


a 




4 


" 


" 2 " " 


167 


Loongsu 




1 




"2 " " 


168 


a 




2 


" 


" 2 " " 


169 


a 








'- 


a g « « 


170 


" 




2 


a 


" 1 " - 


171 


Keechong 




1 


a 


> >' -| '>' 1 1 


172 


" 








a 


a -< (< ^' 


173 


Flower Pekoe 




1 




" 1 " 


174 


a a 




2 




.. 2 " 


175 


1 Brick Black Tea @ 


2 I / 2 


lbs. 





176 



1 " Green " " 2^ 



GROUP 113. 



PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FORESTS AND OF 
FOREST INDUSTRIES. 

14 Specimens of Wood for Cabinet Work: 













Market valu 
Mex. dollars 




177 


Huang Yang Mu, 


5 


inch< 


ts square. . 


. . . 0.30 per 


pound. 


178 


Hung Vang Mu, 


1 


foot 


< i 


. . 5.00 " 


piece. 


179 


Hsieh Mu, 


1 


inch 


it 


... 8.00 " 


10 feet square. 


180 


Chi-shan Mu, 


iy? 


i( 


thick 


... 8.00 " 


K (( 


181 


Hung Sang Chih, 


1% 


" 


" 


... 9.00 " 


a ii 


182 


Ta Mu, 


i* 


<( 


d 


. ... 9.50 " 


a cc 


183 


Hung Chang Mu, 


iu 


i i 


1 i 


... 13.00 " 


a a 


184 


Wu-li Mu, 








.... 0.15 " 


5 inches square 


185 


Shao-tao Mu, 


\% 


' < 


<■<■ 


. ... 16,00 " 


10 feet square. 


186 


Huali-li Mu, 


IV* 


a 


. " 


.... 18.00 " 


a ii 


187 


Shan-Chii Mu, 


IV? 


1 1 


i 1 


8.50 " 


a a 


188 
189 


Peh li Mu, 
Tsao Mu, 


1# 


i i 




.... 8.50 " 
.... 8.00 " 


a ii 


190 


Nan Mu, 


i# 


a 


1 1 


. ... 13.00 « 


U il 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

AMOY -COLLECTION. 



EDUCATION. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 5 Views of the Chinese-American College, teachers and 

pupils. 

The "Tung Wen" Institute was founded in 1898 by the American 
Consul and six of the most prominent Native merchants of Amoy. It 
included two schools. The Anglo-Chinese College, on the Island of 
Kulangsu, and the "Tung Wen" Institute at Amoy. Both have devel- 
oped and have built up two strong agencies of progress and enlight- 
enment. 

The organization of the "Tung Wen" Institute is peculiar in China, 
in that it unites both foreign and native elements in its control. The 
constitution making each dependent upon the other and rendering it 
impossible for either to usurp the other's privileges. 

The American Consul at Amoy, and the Commissioner of Imperial 
Maritime Customs at Amoy are, Ex-OfUcio, Chairman and Vice-Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees ; and these two with the Treasurer, elected 
from among the Chinese trustees, form the Executive Committee, who 
have control of all the external affairs of the school, and without the 
unanimous approval of whom, no school funds can be disbursed. The 
foreign members of the Board elect a foreign Superintendent, who has 
complete control over internal affairs, and with them appoints all for- 
eign instructors. Native employes of all classes are selected by the 
Superintendent and are responsible to him alone. Funds for the sup- 
port of the institution have been raised entirely by subscription from 
the Chinese. The building was erected in 1902 at a cost of Mex. 
$25,000. 

The location is high and healthful and accommodation is available 
for 800 pupils. 

Courses of study are modeled upon the usual plan of those of pre- 
paratory schools in America, but modified to meet special local needs. 
Since the primary object is to teach the English language, that the 
student may have access to the literature of the world, the work in prac- 
tical grammar and composition is given the most important place in 
the curriculum. There is no fixed time to complete the course, but the 

— 264 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 265 

work is purely by standards. Examinations are held twice each year, 
in March and September; and fourteen of these must be passed to ob- 
tain a diploma, or ten for a certificate. 

In addition to the English language, Chinese, both in the local 
dialect and Pekinese, is taught. The school opened on 12th March, 
1898, with forty pupils and three teachers, the increase has been steady, 
in 1903 there were three hundred thirty pupils and fifteen teachers. 
During that period three diplomas and twelve certificates have been 
issued, and upwards of seventy pupils have been sent out to positions 
in business houses or offices or as teachers. 

GROUP 26. 

MODELS, PLANS AND DESIGNS FOR PUBLIC WORKS, SEA 
PORTS, GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS. 

2 A Panoramic View of the Port of Amoy. 

Amoy was one of the five ports open to foreign trade before the 
ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin. It is situated upon the island 
of Haimun, at the mouth of the Luchiang or Egret River, in lat. 24 deg. 
40 min N., and long. 118 deg. E. The island is about forty miles in 
circumference, and contains scores of large villages besides the city. 
The scenery within the bay is picturesque, caused partly by the num- 
erous islands which define it, surmounted by pagodas or temples, and 
partly by the high barren hills behind the city. There is an outer and 
inner city, as one approaches it seaward, divided by a high ridge of 
rocky hills having a fortified wall- running along the top. A paved road 
connects the two. The entire circuit of the city and suburbs is about 
eight miles, containing a population of 300,000, while that of the island 
is estimated at 100,000 more. The harbor is one of the best on the coast ; 
there is good holding ground in the outer harbor, and vessels can anchor 
in the inner harbor within a short distance of the beach, and be per- 
fectly secure; the tide rises and falls from fourteen to sixteen feet. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES 

BASKET WORK. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

3 40 Carved Olive Stones, used as ornaments. 



GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

3 pieces Changchow Velvet, Red, Yellow and blue. 



266 



Catalogue of the Amoy Collection 



Exhibit 

Number. 

5 

6 

7 



GROUP 58. 
LACE, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

Album of Samples of Lace, manufactured by the Yohan 

Lace Factory — Amoy. 
Album of Samples of Lace, manufactured by the Women 

Lace Guild — Amoy. 
Group of Amoy Lace Makers. 



GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

8 Collection of Artificial flowers. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

9 Model of Sampan (Ferry boat.) 

GROUP 81. 

TOBACCO. 

Tobacco is extensively cultivated in the Amoy region. The seeds 
are planted at the beginning of the Winter, which is very mild, and the 
beginning of the spring is the time for transplanting the young plants. 
Summer and Autumn are the season for gathering the leaves which only 
require exposure in the sun for 3 or 4 days to make them ready for 
the market. 

To make Prepared Tobacco the leaves are stripped of their stalks 
and ribs, which operation leaves only 70 per cent of the original weight 
of the leaves. To every 100 pounds of stripped leaves there is added 
24 pounds of Groundnut oil of good quality and a quantity of Fresh 
water. The addition of water ensures an equal proportion of oil being 
absorbed by each leaf. The leaves are then piled up in a frame and 
pressed as closely as possible. Finally they are cut, after which opera- 
tion they constitute Prepared Tobacco which is used exclusively by 
Chinese and is exported to Java, Singapore, and other countries where 
Fohkien Chinese are found in great numbers. The leaves are of good 
quality and could, no doubt, be prepared for the use of non-Chinese 
people. 

The amount of Tobacco Prepared exported from Amoy has at times 
exceeded 2,700,000 lbs., but of recent years it has barely reached 
930,000 lbs. 

10 Tobacco prepared, Market Value, Mex $40 per picul. 



11 


c <c 


" 


" 


(i 


40 " "- 


12 


( (t 


a 


(( 


" 


80 " " 


13 


leaf, 


u 


" 


a 


20 " " 


14 


i <( 


<( 


(( 


a 


15 " " 


15 


( a 


" 


tt 


a 


15 " " 


16 


i a 


a 


(( 


{( 


20 " " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 267 

GROUP 84. 
MISCELLANEOUS PLANTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

Tea. 

Oolong Teas (and also Congous) are staple products of the Amoy 
District, and in the Seventies they used to be exported to America to 
the extent of eight to ten million pounds a year. But Foreign compe- 
tition, much more than deterioration of products, has nearly killed the 
trade, and today very little tea (not more than 400,000 lbs., a year) is 
exported, and it is almost exclusively for the use of Chinese emigrants. 

Many of the tea plantations up-country have been abandoned, 
and the tea bushes, left to themselves, have grown into large trees 
which produce seeds from which oil is manufactured. This oil 
brings the farmer larger profits than did the leaves in former times. 
It would not be difficult, however to induce the growers to renovate 
their plants and again win favor in Foreign Countries. 

The time for sowing Tea seeds is about the month of September. 
Holes are dug, each hole being about 3 feet square and 9 or 10 seeds 
are planted in each hole. When the seedling has grown to the 
height of a few inches the planter clears away any grass that may 
be growing round it. The bush must be three years old, before the 
leaves can be gathered without danger of killing the plant. 

When the leaves are gathered they are first dried in the sun and 
then rolled by hand, dried over a fire and re-rolled; next they are dried 
over a fire again, cleaned of all dust and dirt, and finally scented with 
flowers, after which they are placed on the market. 

The best tea generally grows on high mountain Peaks, where fogs 
and snow prevail, which gives a better flavor to the leaves. The tea 
grown on lower levels, seldom visited by fogs is of an inferior quality. 
The weather has a marked influence on the plants and may change the 
quality of the tea leaves. 

The teas now exhibited are of the very best quality and probably 
could not be procured in very large quantities. 

Low qualities can be had for 7 to 20 Mex. Dollars per picul, 
(133J4 lbs.) 

17 Oolong Tea, market value, Mex. 

18 " " ' " 

-J Q ft tt it it it 

20 - 

21 

22 

24 " " " " . " 

25 ". " ." . " 

26 

27 

no " " "' " il 

29 



$112 00 ] 


per picul 


80 00 


tt 


80 00 


a 


80 00 


ti 


69 00 


tt 


60 00 


tt 


60 00 


it 


52 00 


a 


52 60 


" 


46 00 


a 


30 00 


a 


32 00 


" 


50 00 


" 



268 Catalogue of the Amoy Collection 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 
Chinese Idols. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

30 ''Kuan Ti," — God of War. 

31 "Chou Ts'ang." 

32 "Kuan P'ing." 

33 "Shan Hsi" Fu tzu. 

Emperor Kuan is one of the most popular of the Chinese Idols, 
and is worshipped in every house. Temples dedicated to him are founc 
all over the country. He is sometimes called the "Sage of Shansi/' 
his native province. This famous god was a general of the Hou Han 
dynasty over 2,000 years ago. He was one of the younger of the three 
"United Brethren" who raised an army and suppressed a rebellion. 
Kuan Yii's elder brother became Emperor and he served him with 
great valor and fidelity. 

Of the two Knights who attend him, the one is his son Kuan P'ing 
and the other his faithful follower Chou Ts'ang, all three died together 
fighting bravely for their country. Even after his death, Kuan Ti is 
supposed to have exerted a powerful influence for the good of the na- 
tion, and the protection of the country; and, in recognition of these 
services, he has been awarded the> posthumous rank and title of 
Emperor. 

34 "Kuang Tse Tsun Wang." 

The 'Honorable King of Benevolence" was originally a cowherd 
named Kuo in the Fuhkien province. It is related that on one occasion 
Kuo's master wished to find an auspicious site for" his tomb. He, there- 
fore, engaged a geomancer to undertake the quest. The latter, while 
thus engaged, was fed by his employer on the flesh of a goat which 
had been killed by falling down a sewer. Kuo, indignant at his master's 
behavior, informed the geomancer of the nature of his food, and the 
latter abandoned his search in disgust. Some years later Kuo himself 
desired to secure a lucky position for his own interment, and he called 
the same geomancer to his assistance. Now the latter felt grateful 
to Kuo for his earlier kindness and offered to secure him either a site 
which would immediately transform him into a god for all times, or 
else a site which would make him a marquis for one century. Kuo pre- 
ferred the former alternative. He proceeded to the spot pointed out 
to him by the geomancer, and sat down to await his transformation. 
He died retaining a sitting posture. This god is supposed to have given 
frequent manifestations of his anxiety for the welfare of the people. 
In the reign of Chia Ch'ing of the present dynasty, he is credited with 
having saved the Imperial Palace from destruction by fire, and was 
consequently granted the title of "Honorable King of Benevolence." 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 261) 

Exhibit 
Number. 

35 "Kuan Yin Fu-tsu," Goddess of Mercy. 

3G 

37 

Those who seek relief from pains and misfortunes turn to the 
"Goddess of Mercy." Her name was Miao Shan, and she was the 
daughter of an Indian Prince. It is related that she was a pious fol- 
lower of Buddha. In order to convert her blind father, she visited 
him transfigured as a stranger, and informed him that were he to swal- 
low an eyeball of one of his children, his sight would be restored. His 
children would not consent to the necessary sacrifice, whereupon the 
future goddess created an eye which her parent swallowed and he re- 
gained his sight. She then persuaded her father to join the Buddhist 
priesthood by pointing out the folly and vanity of a world in which 
children would not even sacrifice an eye! for the sake of a parent. 
There are temples all over China dedicated to this goddess, and she is 
worshipped in every family. 

38 "Ti'en Shang Sheng Mu," Goddess of the Sea. 

39 "Ch'ien Li Yen." 

40 "Shun Feng erh." 

The "Goddess of the Sea" was the daughter of a Fuhkien Fisher- 
man. She was ever filial in her bearing and daily chanted long prayers 
calling down blessings on the heads of her parents. On one occasion 
she fell into a trance while her parents were out fishing. In her dream 
she learned that they were in danger of being swamped by the high 
seas. She thereupon ran to the seashore and fixedly pointed to the 
parental boat which, alone of the whole fishing fleet came safely back to 
shore. Since her deification she is credited with having cured an Em- 
press of a disease which had defied the skill of the best physicians. 

Her attendants "Thousand Mile Eyes" and "Fair Wind Ears" are 
credited with the possession of abnormally sensitive ocular and auri- 
cular perceptions. 

41 "Tsao Chun Kung," God of the Kitchen. 

The "Stove King" is the patron god of the kitchen. He notes the 
virtues and vices of the household and reports the same to heaven at 
the end of each year. 

42 "Fu Te Yeli," God of Earth. 

The "God of Happiness and Virtue" sometimes called the "spirit 
of the Earth" controls the good fortune and harmony of human life. 
His shrine is found in almost every house and street throughout China. 



270 Catalogue of the Amoy Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

43 "Hsuan Tien Shang Ti," God of the arctic pole. 

The "God of the Dark Heavens" or the "North Pole God" was a 
Taoist priest, who, after practicing Taoism in the solitudes of a moun- 
tain top for 42 years, attained immortality and ascended to heaven. He 
has the power of subduing all demons and evil spirits and of removing 
harmful influences. 

44 "Chin Tien Hsuan," — Goddess of Heaven. 

45 "Chin T'ung Hsuan." 

46 "Chin Chia Huan." 

The Goddess of the 9th Heaven is the daughter of the famous 
"Goddess of the Jade Pond." 



CATALOGUE 



—OF THE— 



SWATOW COLLECTION 







GROUP 21. 




MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 


Exhibit 






Number. 






153 


4 Flutes used at funeral processions. 


154 


2 Trumpets. 




155 


1 Gong. 




156 


6 Violins. 


GROUP 24. 




MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 



133 Model illustrating process of manufacture of paper. 

This model is of a very rude description, but it 
may be fairly assumed that for this very reason 
it is more likely to give an accurate repre- 
sentation of the method of manufacture. 

158 Samples of paper — six "qualities. 

GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 



43 


1 Altar set of ornaments, consisting of 1 Incense 




burner, 2 Candle sticks and 2 Vases. 


44-46 


3 Teapots. 


47-48 


6 Mugs (large size). 


49-50 


2 Samshu (wine) jugs. 


51 


1 Wine tray. 


52 


1 Tea canister. 


53 


1 Tobacco box. 


54 


1 Cigar box. 


55 


1 Cigarette box. 


56 


1 Mosquito lamp. 


57 


3 Mugs( small size). 


58 


6 Tea and Wine cups. 


59 


1 Toilet case. 



-271— 



272 Catalogue of the Swatow Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

60 1 Jewel box. 

61 1 Bowl with tray. 

62 1 Chinese Dinner Set, complete, consisting- of 139 

pieces. 

Swatow possesses some reputation for the 
manufacture of pewter ware articles such as 
vases, candlesticks, lamps, teapots, trays, mugs, 
cigar and cigarette boxes, and a variety of other 
articles too numerous to mention, in which 
there is a large trade. Native metal was used, 
which came from Kuangsi province, but since 
the establishment of foreign trade, foreign metal 
has been introduced, owing to its being cheaper 
and of superior quality. The composition is 
80% tin and 20% lead; the tin being first melted 
and the lead added. When in a state of fusion 
the metal is poured on, and pressed into sheets 
between bricks, smoothed and covered with 
common Chinese paper, by which latter process 
the metal receives the yellowish tint. The 
sheets are then worked as required. Special 
attention is drawn to the complete Chinese 
dinner service included in this collection of 
pewter ware articles. This dinner set is com- 
posed of 139 pieces, the dishes being very at- 
tractive in their various shapes and artistic de- 
signs. 

GROUP 31. 

JEWELRY. 

157 9 Silver and Enameled Hair Pins. 

151 Crystal Official Beads. 

GROUP 45. 
CERAMICS. 

124 Models illustrating manufacture of pottery. 





Various Porcelains 


36 


1 Incense burner. 


37-38 


2 Figures. 


39 


2 Vases. 


40 


2 Teapots. 


41 


1 Water jug. 


42 


1 Flower holder. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 273 



Earthenware — Faience. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




1- 3 


3 Water jars. 


4-10 


10 Teapots. 


7 


7 Teapots with trays. 


12-13 


2 Wine pots. 


14-16 


4 Vases. 


17-18 


3 Incense burners. 


19 


1 Flower holder with stand. 


20-23 


8 " holders " stands. 


24 


2 " " " buffalo 


25-26 


4 Ornaments, buffalo figure. 


27-29 


4 Figures. 


30 


2 Baskets. 


31 


2 Pagodas. 


32-33 


4 Flower holders. 


" 34-35 


4 Furnaces with cooking pot. 



figure. 



GROUP 47. 
GLASS AND CRYSTAL. 



152 Sample of Crystal. 

147-148 2 Crystal Ornaments. 
149 4 Snuff Bottles. 



GROUP 50. 

TEXTILES. 

122 Model illustrating the process of the manufacture of 

Grasscloth. 



GROUP 52. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN BLEACHING, DYEING, 

PRINTING AND FINISHING TEXTILES IN THEIR 

VARIOUS STAGES. 

120 Model illustrating process of dyeing. 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

105 Books of samples of Nankeen. (Cotton cloth.) 



274 Catalogue of the Swatow Collection 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

70 Book of samples of Grasscloth. 

A fabric similar to the finest linen, but less 
durable than most foreign manufactures of the 
kind. It is woven from the fibres of different 
plants, which are comprised under the general 
name of China grass, some of which have been 
identified, viz. : as Urtica nivea, Sida tiliacfolia, 
Dolichos bulbosus, etc. The first named plant 
is very common in China. The stalk of these 
plants is like that of hemp, and its filaments 
boiled in lime water, and exposed to the sun, 
become more flexible and white, suitable for 
weaving into cloth. Being dried the raw fibres 
are hatcheled, peeled, and divided by the fingers 
into fine fibres ; these threads, smoothed and 
twisted by hand, are tied together at the ends 
and wound with care. The winding and warp- 
ing have nothing peculiar. The weaving is done 
in looms with the ordinary treadle. The woven 
cloth is bleached by subjecting it to a protract- 
ed boiling in water, slightly alkalied with pot- 
ash, and then thoroughly scoured by spreading 
it upon a green sward, and sprinkling it with 
water many times a day until the bleaching is 
completed. There are three qualities, accord- 
ing to the number of threads in the cloth; the 
best containing 120, the second 100, and the 
coarsest 80 threads. The finer sorts are pro- 
duced in the* southern provinces, Kuangtung 
and Kiangsi, while the coarse qualities are 
grown and manufactured in the central provin- 
ces. 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

The Swaton Grass Cloth drawn work industry has gained much 
reputation. There are no special factories, for this industry is car- 
ried on in every household by the women, who devote all their spare 
time to this exceedingly fine and patient w r ork. The collection is 
composed of: 

71 1 Long Runner. 
72-77 6 Trav cloths. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 275 

Exhibit 
Number. 

78 1 Tabler miner. 

79-80 2 Table centers. 

81-82 2 Tea cloths. 

83 6 Squares. 

84 6 Plate Mats. 
85-87 3 Pillow Covers. 

88 1 Tea Cloth, blue. 

89 1 Tea Cloth, white. 
90-91 12 Ice Doylies, zlue. 
92-95 24 Ice Doylies, white. 
96 1 Toilet Table set. 

97-98 2 Tea pot cover (cosies). 

99-100 2 Night dresses, blue and white. 

101-102 1 Tea Cloth, blue, and 6 napkins to match. 

103-104 1 Tea Cloth with characters, and 6 napkins to match. 

139-142 4 Silk Embroideries for mantle piece. 

143 1 Silk Embroidery for ladies' sleeve. 

144 2 Silk Embroiderred squares for official robes. 
145-146 2 Silk Collars. 



GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 



151 Crystal Official Hat Button. 

159 14 Gauze and Bamboo Fans. 



GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

135 Model — Tic-a-tac. This boat is 18 feet long with 4 

feet beam, and is generally used to convey 4 
or 5 passengers. It is propelled by one oar at the 
stern. 

129 Model — Mandarin's Boat. Used by Chinese officials 

in traveling, and has accommodation for 30 to 
50 followers. 

123 Model — Paper Boat. Built of very thin planking, so 

as to reduce their draught and enable them to 
navigate the shallow rivers and creeks. The 
bow rises high out of water, and amidship stands 
a large bamboo mat house, over which a wooden 
frame is erected for laying the oars when not in 
use. These boats are generally employed in the 
paper trade between Shih hia pa and Chao- 
chowfu, but also engage in the passenger traffic. 

19 



276 



Catalogue of the Swatow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 
119 



131 



126 
136 



Model — Mud Boat, for conveying of passengers over 
mud banks when the tide has receded. They 
have a flat bottom enabling them being pulled 
or pushed along the banks from the boat at 
water-edge to terra firma. 

Model — Sea-going Junk. These junks are employed 
in the coasting trade and some of them can carry 
as much as 1,000 tons. They are built of soft 
wood, have a flat bottom and a large rudder 
which enables them to turn easily. In steering 
the rudder is sometimes slung to the stern verti- 
cally, and sometimes with the post inclined for- 
ward. This adaptability of the rudder to differ- 
ent adjustments, according to the depth of 
water, is a characteristic feature of a great many 
Chinese vessels. The hull is divided into water- 
tight compartments for cargo. The rigging con- 
sists of three or four masts which carry sails 
of matting. 

Model — Cargo Junk. Carrying capacity about 5 tons. 

Model — Cargo Boat. Carrying capacity about 15 tons ; 
for carrying cargo to and from the various 
steamers. 







GROUP 81. 










TOBACCO. 












Market value 








per 


picul 








Mex. 


dollar. 


63 


Tobacco prepa 


red, 1st quality 




105 


64 


a u 


2nd " 




45 


65 


a it 
ft 


3rd " 




35 


66 


4th " 




32 


67 ' 


5th " 




30 


68 


it it 


6th " 




18 




GROUP 86. 







EQUIPMENT AND METHODS EMPLOYED IN THE PREPARA- 
TION OF FOODS. 



124 



Model illustrating process of manufacture of Sugar. 



The sugar cane is extensively cultivated in the southern part 
of the Fukien province, in the Changchow district, near Amoy, but 
the most important plantations are found in Kuangtung province; 
in the districts on the banks of the East River, Pearl River delta, 
the Southeastern departments of Kuangtung, particularly the 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 277 

Island of Hainan and Peninsula of Leichow and the northeastern 
districts near Swatow. 

The sugar factories are, as a rule, situated in the midst of the 
cane plantations, and, according- to the extent of the latter, con- 
tain one, two, or sometimes three sets of presses. Each manufac- 
turer works independently of his neighbor. The process followed 
in pressing the cane and manufacturing the sugar is, as represented 
by the respective models, of primitive nature. The mill consists 
of two rollers of hardwood, through which the cane is drawn by 
cog-wheels, turned by one or more buffaloes. The rollers are 
placed sufficiently close together to press the cane and extract the 
juice. The cane is passed through twice, and the juice runs 
through a drain leading under ground into a reservoir in the 
building. The juice is then ladled into iron cauldrons and boiled 
until it becomes quite thick, like molasses. It is constantly stirred 
whilst boiling, and all dirt rising to the surface is carefully re- 
moved. The boiled juice is then poured into earthen jars of conical 
or rather funnel shape, with small plugged holes in the bottom of 
each ; these jars when filled about four-fourths full are carefully 
closed over with clay, placed in the open air, and the plug being 
removed, remain there for 30 or 40 days according to the weather, 
until the contents are quite dry. The sugar so obtained is divided 
into three grades, the first or uppermost in the jar being white, the 
middle green, and the lowermost brown. The drippings which are 
left in the sun to dry, give the black sugar. There is another kind, 
the ordinary brown sugar produced exclusively for foreign mar- 
kets for which the juice is partially clarified, and having been 
boiled to a certain consistency is transferred into jars. These jars 
are inverted in vessels and allowed to drain for but a short time, 
when their contents are spread in the. sun to dry. The working ex- 
penses of a sugar mill average about 1,600 cash per diem, for work- 
men, fuel, and buffaloes. One press will extract 18 tubs or piculs 
21% to 50%, equal to about 25 cwt. per diem, requiring from 60 to 
70 piculs of cane. The average value of cane is about $24 Mexican 
per mow, (equal to one-sixth of an acre), which would yield from 
10 to 12 piculs of raw sugar. The best canes in the hands of a 
skilled operator will produce about 18 lbs. sugar (white) for each 
tub of juice, the residue being all molasses. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances one tub of juice will give 4 lbs. white sugar, 4 lbs. 
green and 6| lbs. brown. The growers of cane are generally small 
farmers owning one or two fields each. In some localities the cane 
arrives at maturity as early as October when the fields, or rather 
their produce, are sometimes sold to small owners at so much per 
acre, calculated according to the size and appearance of the cane. 
Samples of sugar, with market values will be found under group 
90, class 555. 



278 Catalogue of the Swatow Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 
132 



Model of Cottage and grounds for producing- salt by 
evaporation. 



106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 



GROUP 90. 

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY. 

Market value 

per picul 

Mex. dollar. 

Sugar, White, 1st quality 9 50 

2nd " 9 00 

3rd " 8 60 

4th " 7 50 

5th " 6 90 

Brown, 1st " 7 00 

2nd " . 6 90 

3rd " . 6 40 

4th " 5 90 

5th " 5 60 

6th " 4 80 

7th " 4 50 

Sugar Candy, 1st " 14 00 

2nd " 13 00 



GROUP 122. 



FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 

121 Model— Mud Sledge. The plank is 6 ft. 9 in. long by 

9J broad. In the middle are two upright sup- 
ports 1 ft. 9 in. high, on which a horizontal rest 
is fixed. Having one foot on the sledge and 
leaning on the rest, the fisherman propels him- 
self along by the means of the foot. 

128 Model — Moonlight Fishing Boats. Two boats fast- 

ened together, of very light draught; are 25 ft. 
6 in. long, with 2 ft. 9 in. beam. On the outside 
are boards painted white, 2 ft. 6 in. wide, pro- 
jecting outwards like shelves on both sides, but 
sloping a little towards the water. From April 
to September fishermen go out in these boats 
on bright, clear nights, and as the light of the 
moon falls on the boards, the fish leap upon or 
over them into the boat and are captured. 

127 Model — Fishing Boat, and Bamboo Raft with Trawl 

net. Employed from March to September. The 
raft is made of ten pieces of bamboo trimmed 
hexagonally; the fishermen say that this pre- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 279 

Exhibit "* 

Number. 

vents them from splitting. On either side stand 
thole-pins, to which the sculls are attached by 
rattan grommets. A net hangs between the raft 
and the boat, and they drag it as they move. 

130 Model — Fishing Junks. Carrying capacity, two 

and five tons. Dimensions, 50 ft. long, with 14 
ft. 6 in. beam, having two or three masts with 
sails made of matting or of bamboo leaves, fast- 
ened together with split bamboo. The hull is di- 
vided into water-tight compartments for stor- 
ing fish until the vessels return to port. The 
forward compartment is used as a fresh-water 
tank, and the after one for the crew, which 
generally consists of six men. Like all Chinese 
vessels, an eye is painted on the port and star- 
board bow, which, according to the supersti- 
tion of the country, enables the vessel to find her 
way. and thus preserves her from mishap. 

131 Model — Large Dip Net. A large square net attached 

at each corner to bamboo poles, and is worked 
by means of wooden windlass, from a mat shed 
erected on posts driven into the mud with a 
platform extending from the hut to the net to 
enable the fishermen to collect the fish with a 
hand net. 
137-8 Model — Fishing Stakes. Showing the manner in 

which the posts or stakes are put up and fast- 
ened at the bottom of the water. The nets are 
suspended between the posts, which are kept to 
gether above the surface of the water by strong- 
bamboo ropes covered with straw. 

Fish forms an important part in the domestic economy of the 
Chinese. Together with rice it constitutes the principle staple of 
their daily food, and fishing has for this reason formed a prominent, 
occupation of the people from the most ancient times. The modes 
of fishing and implements used at the present day vary little from 
those of the remote past ; the simplicity of the former and the in- 
genious construction of the latter are as remarkable now as in days 
gone by. That fishing should be engaged in so extensively is 
easily explained. The coast line is long and tortuous ; groups of 
islands, forming convenient fishing stations, are spread all along 
the mainland; swift streams and large lakes intersect the country, 
and a net of canals water the vast plains in all directions. All these 
circumstances serve to direct the attention of the people to the 
exploration of the waters. On the part of the Government no re- 
strictions are laid on fishing grounds. Fishing is carried on all 



2S0 Catalogue of the Swatow Collection 



the year round, and no regulations hamper the fishermen in the 
use of their nets or lines ; but each fishing boat must be registered 
where it belongs, and at fixed periods must pay a tax for a license. 
A tax is also required for the privilege of fishing in the rivers and 
canals, space being allotted to each party in proportion to the pay- 
ment made. During the spawning season fishing is not interdicted 
in the inland waters, and even on the high sea fishermen continue 
their operations — but with this difference, that smaller nets are 
made use of during this intermediary period than during the regu- 
lar fishing season. 



CATALOGUE 



-OF THE- 



CANTON COLLECTION. 



GROUP 9. 



Exhibit PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Number. 

1- 6 Paintings on paper. 

(a) Goddess of Mercy, with two attendants. Worshipped by- 
women in South China more than in the North, on the 19th day of 
the 2nd, 6th and 9th moons. Her temples are many. Worshippers 
ask for sons, wealth and protection. 

(b) Goddess of Children, or of parturition; with two attend- 
ants. Worshipped by women. Her temples are less numerous. 
On the 17th day of the 4th moon, propitiatory services are held, 
seeking her favor. 

(c) Goddess of Heaven, with two attendants. Worshipped 
by sea-faring men, and boat-people. On the 23rd day of the 3rd 
moon, incense and candles are lighted, and an offering of chicken 
and roast pork made, with prayer for protection on the deep. 

(d) God of War, with two attendants. This god is wor- 
shipped on the 13th day of the 5th moon and 24th day of the 6th 
moon, by both civil and military officials; he is also revered by 
tradesmen. A deified hero who lived in the latter part of the "Han 
Dynasty. His temples are large, but few. 

(e) God of Fire, with two attendants. Worshipped for three 
or four days, beginning on the 17th day of the 8th moon, when 
lanterns, lamps and chandeliers are hung in the streets. He is sup- 
posed to be able to prevent conflagrations, and is propitiated with 
the hope that fires may not break out. 

(f) God of Wealth, with two attendants. Worshipped or 
the 20th day of the 7th moon, mostly by jx>or people, also b\ 
gamblers. He is the most common of the gods. His temples and 
shrines are very numerous. 

— 281 — 



282 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

7-18 12 Albums of 12 views each; Paintings on Pith Paper, 

representing : 

(g) Official Costumes of the Imperial Court. 

(h) Life of a wealthy man. 

(i) Competitive examinations for Civil and 

Military services, 

(j) Art, and various trades. 

(1) Crafts and Boats of various descriptions, 

(m) Birds and flowers, 

(n) Silk weaving and Silkworm rearing, 

(o) Marriage procession, 

(p) Tea planting and the tea trade, 

(q) New Year's lantern procession, 

(r) Hawkers, peddlers and green grocers. 



GROUP 11. 
SCULPTURE. 

19 3 Urns, red, white and gray marble. 

GROUP 15. 
TYPOGRAPHY— VARIOUS PRINTING PROCESSES. 

144 Specimens of Chinese block types, brushes, printing 

table, and all pertaining to Chinese printing. 

GROUP 16. 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

145 Panoramic view of Shameen. (Shameen — an artificial 

island — is the Foreign Settlement in Canton, and 
is divided into the British and French Conces- 
sions. It is here where most of the Europeans 
and Americans reside.) 

146 Album containing 32 views of Canton and vicinity. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

148 Map of Kwang Tung and KwangSi Provinces. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 283 

GROUP 19. 

INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 
ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
149 Abacus. Arithmetical calculations are performed with 

the assistance of an abacus, called a "Suan-pan," 
or "counting board/' which is simply a shallow 
case divided longitudinally by a bar and crossed 
by several wires ; on one side of this bar the wdre 
bears five balls, on the other two. The five balls 
stand for units, the two balls each being worth 
five units, when the balls on any wire are taken 
for units, those next to the left stand for tens, 
the third for hundreds, and so on ; while those 
on the right denote tenths, hundredths, etc., pre- 
cisely as the figures would be written in the deci- 
mal system. 
180- 181 2 Geomantic Compasses. Used in selection of suit- 
able sites for houses, and graves. 
1 Mariner's Compass. 

Pocket 

Sundials. 
12 Spectacles, Crystal, etc., in metal, ivory and tortoise 
shell frames. 

Foot Rules. 

Land Measures. 

Oil Measures. 

Wine Measures. 

Rice Measures. 

Set money Scales with weights. 

Steelyards with weights. 

Hand Scales for weighing money. 

GROUP 21. 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

196- 201 6 Flutes. 

202 Horn. Used in the army for regulating the morning and 

evening hours. 

203 Conch. A sea shell; blown by private watchmen for 

the purpose, as the Chinese say, "to let thieves 
know that the house is guarded." 
204- 205 2 Brass Trumpets. 

206 Lute. 

207 Guitar, three strings. 

208 Guitar, four strings. 

209 Guitar, four strings. 

210 Violin, high tuned. 

211 Violin, low tuned. 



152 




1 


153 




1 


154- 


156 


3 


157- 


168 


12 


169- 


176 


8 


177 




1 


178- 


181 


4 


182- 


185 


4 


186- 


188 


3 


189 




1 


190- 


193 


4 


194- 


195 


2 



28 1 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 






Number. 






212 




Mandolin, 4 strings. 


213 




Dulcimer, lacquered. 


214 




Scholar's Lute. 


215 




Brass Cymbals. 


216-218 


3 


Rattles. 


219 


1 


Set Castanets. 


220-225 


6 


Drums. 

GROUP 23. 



CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ARTS. 

226 Refined Sulphur. 

227- 228 Cow Glue, 1st and 2nd quality. 

4556-4559 Toilet Powder, scented. 

229 Indigo, dried. 

230 Vermilion. 

231 Turmeric. The dried root — stocks of "Curcuma Langa," 

Linni. 

232 Ochre, red. 

233 Ochre, yellow. 

234 Soap stone Powder, white. 

235 Soap stone Powder, red. 

236 Soap stone Powder, black. 

237 Turmeric Powder. 

238 White Lead. 

239 Red Lead. 

240 Yellow Lead. ■ 

241 Nutgalls. 

242 Hartall. 

243 Hartall Powder. 

244 Colours. 

245 Paint, green. 

246- 247 Paints ("Tze Pin" and "Fan Hung.") 

248 Tinder made from Artemisia. 

249 Refuse cakes, obtained from the so-called Tea seed 

("Camellia Sesanqua," Thunb.) 

250 An earthy Hematite. A cordial and tonic used as a 

pigment. 

251 Bark of Camphor tree. 

252 Seeds of Camphor tree. 

253 "Chang Shan" Leaves— Several plants supply drugs of 

this name, which are used as .febrifuges as 
"Dichroa febrifuga," "Lour Hydrangea," sp. and 
an unknown herbaceous plant. 

254 Cotton seed. "Croton Tiglium," L. 

255 Orange Peel, from the Mandarian orange. 

256 "Acorus Calamus," Linn. 

257 Colocasia," sp. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 285 

Exhibit 
Number. 

258 "Celosia Argentea," L., Var. Christata, Benth. 

259 Lining membrane of gizzards of fowls. 

262 Buckwheat. ("Fagopyrum eoculentum," Monch.) 
2G3 ' Spines of "Gleditschia sinensis," Lam. 

264 Inflorescence and seed pods of "Eucalyptus globulus." 

265 Fruit of "Hovenia Dulcis," — Thunberg. 

266 "Gardenia Florida," L. 

267 "Dendrobium" sq. (Golden Glass.) 

268 A Cicada with a fungus growth. 

269 Fruit unknown. 

271 Fly-honeysuckle ("Lonicera Chinensis" — Watson.) 

272 Root of "Rosa Laevigata," Mich. 

273 "Citrus Japonica," Thunb., var "fructa globoso." 

274 "Celosia Argentia," L., var. "Cristata," Benth. 

275 "Artemisia Apiacea," Hance. 

276 "Senecio scandens," Ham. 

277 Flowers of the plant yielding the "hairy China Card- 

amons," which may be "Amomum Villosum," 

278 Seeds of the "Amonum Villosum," Lour. 

279 Husks of the Amomum Villosum," Lour. 

281 "Tamarix Chinensis," Lour. 

282 "Gymnocladus Chinensis," Baillon. 

283 "Euphorbia pilulifera," L. 

284 Wasps' nest. 

286 "Phoenix tail grass." A species of fern. 

287 "Hibiscus rosa" — Sinensis, L. 

288 "Hibiscus Mutabilis," L. 

289 "Hibiscus Mutabilis," L. 

290 "Lemna minor," L. 

291 Bark of the cotton tree (Bambax Malabaricum, D. C.) 

292 Eclipta or Wedelia Calendulacea, Less. 

293 Phyllanthus sp. 

294 Carpesium Abrotanoides, L. 

295 Polygonum Multiflorum, Thunb. 

296 Siegesbeckia Orientalis, L. 

297 Brunella Vulgaris, L. 

298 Andropogon Schoenanthus, L. A kind of fragrant 

grass. 

299 Abrus precatorius, L. , 

300 Hypoxis minor, Don. 

301 Dipsacus asper, Lamium Album, L. var. barbatum. 

302 Dispacus asper, Lamium Album, L. var. barbatum. 

303 Inula Chinensis. 

304 The legumes of Sophora japonica, L. 

305 Dendrobium sp. 

306 Gardenia Florida, L. 

307 Seed of the Huang-pi, Clausena wonpi, Oliv. 
.309 Lophantus rngosus, Fisch. 



286 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

310 Leaves of Lophantns rugosus, Fisch. 

311 Cinicus Japonicus, Maxim. 

312 Leonurus Sibiricus, L. 

313 Pips of Mandarian oranges. 

314 Pachyrhizus angulatus, Rich. 

316 Dried Lizards. 

317 Pueraria Thunbergiana, Benth. 

319 Dicksonia Barometz, Lk. 

320 Uncaria rhynchophylla, Mig. 

322 Imitation dragon's blood, a mixture of resin and refuse 

rouge. 

323 Dried slices of fruit of Momordica charantia, L. 

324 Seeds of Melia Azedarach, Linn. 

325 Bark of the Melia Azedarach, Linnaeus. 

326 Rhizome of Woodwardia radicans, sm. 

328 Root of Plant "Kuo Chiang Lung." 

329 Stones of Lichee (Nephelium Lichee, Camb). 

330 Powdered Oyster-shells. 

331 Typhonium divaricatum, Blume. 

333 Lysimachia foenum graecum, Hance. 

334 Fruit of Podocarpus Macrophylla, Don. 

336 Phragmitis Roxburghu, Kunths. 

337 Pandanus odoratissimus, L. 

340 Aloes from aloe vulgaris, Lam. 

341 Flowers of the Lungan Nephelium Longana, Camb. 

342 A root bark of Pachi Herpestis Mouniera, H. B. K. 

344 Verbena Officinalis, L. 

345 Impereta arundinacea, Cyrill. 

347 Sprouts of wheat and barley. 

348 Pisiform Manganiferous Limonite. 

349 Sapindus Mukorossi, Gart. 

350 Fruit of Sapindus Mukorossi, Gart. 

351 Flower of the Cotton tree. (Bambax Malabaricum). 

353 Datura Alba, Nees. 

354 Cyperus sp. 

355 Koempferia pandurata, Roxb. 

356 Root stocks of the Lotus. Nelumbium Speciosum. 

357 Herpestis Monniera, H. B. K. 

358 . Vitis seriansefolia, Max. 

360 Vincetoxicum sp. 

361 Leaves of the Loquat tree. Eryobotrya Japonica. 

363 Peppermint leaf. Mentha. 

364 Leaves of Biota orientalis, Don. 

365 Taraxacum officinale, web, var. Corniculatnm. 

366 Red oxide of mercury. 

367 Saururus chinonsis, Turcz. 

368 Mulberry twigs, cut. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 287 



Exhibit 
Number. 

369 Root bark of the mulberry (Morus alba.) 

370 Capoor Cutchery (Koempferia Galanga, Linaeus. 

371 Fruit of Alpinia officinarum, Hance. 

372 Pseudo bulbs of an orchidaceous plant. 

373 Rubus parvifolius, L. 

374 [Magnetic oxide of iron. 

375 Halloysite, a reddish unctuous aluminuous earth. 

376 Dendrobium sp. 

377 Seeds of Coesalpinia minus, Hance. 

378 Pomegranate Peal (Tunica granatum, L). 

379 Polypodium lingua. 

380 Quisqualis indica, L. 

381 Angelica sp. 

382 Limanthemum Nymphoeoides, Lk. 

385 Luffa acutangula, Roxb. 

386 Perilla ocymoides, L. 

387 Seeds of Perilla, Ocymoides, L. 

388 Leaves of Perilla Ocymoides, L. 

389 Polypodium Fortunei, Kze. 

390 Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria', L. 

391 A species of large leaf Artemisia. 

392 Roots of shrub. 

393 Aneilema medicum, R. Bk. 

396 Seeds of Kochia Scoparia, strad. 

397 Common earth worm. Lumbricus terrestris. 

398 Viola patrinii, D. C, var. Chineusis g Don. 

399 Poterium Officinale, Benth et Hook^ F. 

400 Melastoma repens, Lam. 

401 Root of a bamboo. 
403 Silk-worm excreta. 

405 Pods of Gleditschia sineusis, Lam. 

406 Eupatorium sp. 

407 Root of Xanthium Strumarium, L. 

408 Fruit of Xanthium Strumarium, L. 

409 "China root." Root of climbing plants of the genus 

Smilax and others, (e. g. Heteroomilax Japonica, 
Kunth). 

410 Root of Lycium chineuse, Mill. 

411 Leaves of the mulberry dried in winter. 

412 Iron peroxide in broken cubical masses. 

414 Selaginella involvens, spreng. 

415 Mosquito powder. Said to contain arsenic and lead, rub- 

bed on the skin as an antidote against mosquito 
bite?. 

416 Dried plums. 

418 Fruit of an unknown shrub. 

419 Flowers of Averrhoa Carambola. 

420 Bat's duns;. 



288 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

422 Pumelo pips. Citrus decumana, L. 

423 Flowers of the Pumelo (Citrus decumana, L.) 

424 Elm bark (Ulmus sp). 

425 A medicine composed of sulphate of soda, prepared 

wild liquorice, and radish roots. 

426 Rabbit's dung. 

427 Adventitious roots of a Banyan (Ficusretusa, L.). 

428 Alpinia Ofhcinarium, Hance. 

429 Arsenic, red and white. 

431 Cantharides. Mylabris chicoru. 

434 Berries of Daphnidium cubebs, Nees v. Esenbeck. 

434a Verdigris (Subacetate of copper). 

435- 40 Medicated Samshu (wine). 

GROUP 24. 
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

516 Gold Paper, imitation. 

517 Silver Paper, imitation. 

518 Paper pipe-lights. 

519- 524 Pith Paper. Made of the pith of Aralia papyrifera. 
The pith is soaked before cutting ; the workman 
then applies the blade to the cylinders of pith, 
and, turning them around dexterously, pares 
them from the cirfumference to the center, mak- 
ing a rolled layer of equal thickness throughout. 
The best pieces are used for painting; the 
smaller for artificial flowers, forw hich pur- 
pose, owing to manner in which it takes color, 
and the appearance of "bloom" it gives to the 
flowers it is sperior to the materials usually 
employment in Europe. 

GROUP 26. 
MODELS, PLANS AND DESIGNS FOR PUBLIC WORKS. 

525 Model of Dredging boat. 

GROUP 28. 
STATIONERY. 

2581 Visiting Card. 

5281a Visiting Card. When in mourning for father or mother, 

which is nominally of three years, but in fact of 

27 months only. 
5281b Visiting Card. Used by a son in mourning for his father 

or mother, after the period of 27 months, when 

a sacrifice is made in honor of his dead parent. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



289 



Exhibit 
Number. 
5281c 



5281d 



5281c 

5281f 

5282 

5283 
5284 

5285 



5286 



)287 



5288 
5289 

5290 
5291 



5292 



Visiting Card. Is used by Chinese in one year's mourn- 
ing, that is, after the death of a brother, uncle, 
grandfather, etc. 

Visiting Card. Of a more ceremonious character than 
the ordinary one. Is sent in by a Chinese gentlemen 
calling for the first time on a superior, a friend 
or a relative whom he has never met before. This 
introductory card is always given or sent back to 
the caller as a mark of respect. 

Visiting Card. Used by an official calling on a superior 
to introduce himself. This differs from the ordin- 
ary card in givin titles and official positions in ad- 
dition to the name. 

Funeral Card. This card is meant to be an invitation to 
the ceremony. 

Funeral Card. As a notice sent to inform of the date 
selected for the funeral. 

Funeral Card, announcing death. 

Wedding Card, invitations to ceremonies. 

Wedding Card. Is the letter sent by the father or the 
nearest relative of the bridegroom to the father 
of the fiancee, together with presents after the 
marriage has been settled through the go-between 
and within a month before the ceremony takes 
place. It is an uninterrupted succession of compli- 
ments to the address of the fiancee's family. A 
similar letter is sent back in answer, also with 
presents to the bridegroom's father. 

Wedding Card. Is also a letter sent by the bridegroom's 
father at the same time as the above. It is a 
genealogical table of ancestors for four genera- 
tions. It also states the name of the bridegroom 
and his age. A similar letter is sent back in re- 
turn by the bride's family, giving the same details 
about her ancestors. 

Wedding Cards. Containing compliments to the address 
of the bride. This, sent together with the bridal 
chair, to fetch the bride, and bring her to her new 
family. 

Ordinary letter to a friend. 

Official Despatch. Used by an inferior writing to a su- 
perior. 

Despatch sent to an equal. 

Despatch sent to an inferior. The difference between 
these three kinds of despatches is more to be found 
in the composition of writing than in the form. 

Book containing the impression of the seals of the differ- 
ent high officials in the Kuang Tung province. 



290 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

526- 530 

531 

532- 534 



5 Ink pots, brass and white metal. 
Collection of Pens, large and small, various. 
3 Ink stones. 





GROUP 29. 




CUTLERY. 


582 


Iron Candle knife. 


583-584 


"■ Paper " 


585 


" Fur 


586 


Paper ". small. 


587 


" Fruit 


588 


"Kwan to" knife, large. 


589 


" small. 


590 


" Flower " 


591-592 


" Cinnamon 


593 


" Sugar cane " 


594 


" Fruit - 


595 


" Paper box 


596 


" Joss stick 


597 


Yam 


598-600 


Packing knives. 


601 


Hook for scaffolding. 


602 


Cocoanut knife. 


603 


" Cabbage 


604 


11 u 


605 


" " 


606 


" Bristle 


607 


Steel Rust scraper. 


608 


Iron Knife sharpeners. 


609-613 


" Opium bowl scrapers. 


614 


Brass knife. 


615 


Iron Cocoanut sheer. 


616 


" Melon 


617 


" Betelnut cutter. 


618-625 


" Pen knives. 


626 


" Money stamp and awl. 


627 


" Yam sheer. 


628 


Ear knife and nipper. 


629 


" Deer horn scraper. 


630-632 


" Meat choppers. 


633-641 


" Penknives. 


642-645 


" Pincers. 


646 


Medicine nipper. 


647-648 


Wooden Chopsticks with silver tips 


649-650 


Bamboo " " " , " 


651 


Silver . " 


652 


Tortoise Shell " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 291 



653 


Ivory Chopsticks. 


654 


Bone 


(( 


655-662 


Blackwood 


it 


663-665 


Redwood 


(i 


666 


Bamboo 


red lacquered. 


667 


Coin Cane 


it 


674-683 


Collection of 


Scissors. 


684 


Iron Razor. 




685-688 


Iron Pipe cleaners. 






GROUP 30. 



SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

689 1 Set of 23 Silversmith's Tools. 

1439-1450 12 Silver Chains, enamelled. 

1451-1466 16 Sets Silver Buttons, fancy and enamelled. 
1467-1468 2 pairs " Bangles, enamelled. 

2837 Enamelled Partition box; for candies; dragon pattern. 

2838 " Plate; round, painted flower 

2839 " Fruit stands. 

2840 " Dish); oblong; " dragon 
2841-2844 4 " Card" trays, leaf shape and butterfly 

2845 " Puff box. 

2846 Cigar case; dragon and flower 
2847-2852 6 " Coffee cups and saucers; " 
2853 1 " Tray; painted butterfly 
2854-2855 2 " Rice bowls. 

2856-2857 2 " Tea cups, with stands. 

GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 

Silver Hair pins, inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

locust pattern. 
Silver Hair pins ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

Cash pattern. 
Silver Hair ornaments ; inlaid with King Fisher 

feathers ; butterfly and lily flower pattern. 
Silver Hair ornaments ; inlaid with King Fisher 

feathers; flower pattern. 
Silver Hair ornament; inlaid with King Fisher 

feathers; dragon pattern. 
Silver Hat pins ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers. 
Silver Ear-rings ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

butterfly and basket pattern. 
Silver Ear-rings ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers, 
inlaid with King Fisher feathers; 

flower pattern. 

20 



1561-1562 


2 


1563-1564 


2 


1565-1566 


2 


1567-1568 


2 


1569 


1 


1570-1571 
1572 


2 
2 


1573 

1574 


2 
2 



292 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 
1575-1576 2 Silver Scarf pins ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

locust pattern. 
1577 1 Silver Nail guard ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers. 

1578-1579 2 " Ornaments ;. inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

for watch charms ; shoe pattern. 
1580-1581 2 Silver Ornaments ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers ; 

for watch charms ; bat pattern. 
1582-1583 2 Silver Ornaments; inlaid with Fing Fisher feathers; 

for watch charms; double fish pattern. 
1584 2 Silver Ear-rings ; inlaid with King Fisher feathers. 

1585-1623 39 Silver brooches; inlaid with King Fisher feathers and 

of various designs. 
1624-1631 8 Silver Hair Ornaments. 
1632-1633 2 pairs Silver Ear-rings. 
1634-1635 2 Silver Thimbles. 
1636-1640 5 Silver Hair pins. 
1641-1642 2 Sets Silver tooth-picks. 
1643 2 Silver Enameled Ear-rings. 

1644-1645 4 " and Rattan Bangles. 
1646-1647 2 " Scarf pins. 

1697 Imitation Pearls. 
3170 Glass Bangles. 
4506-4511 Glass Beads; various colors. 

1698 1 String Amber beads. 
1699-1700 2 Amber buckles. 
1701-1729 29 Amber ornaments. 
1730-1731 2 Sets Amber buttons. 
1732-1733 2 Amber rings. 
1734-1736 3 Strings glass court beads. 
1757-1758 28 Cornelian hat ornaments. 
1759-1761 3 Cornelian finger-rings. 
1762-1763 2 pairs Cornelian Ear-rings. 
1764-1765 2 sets Cornelian buttons. 
1766-1767 2 Cornelian pipe stems. 

GROUP 32. 
CLOCK AND WATCH MAKING. 

1804 1 Set of 52 watchmaker's tools. 

GROUP 34. 

BRUSHES, FINE LEATHER ARTICLES, FANCY ARTICLES AND 

BASKET WORK. 

1805 Brush, coir, for pasting labels. 

1806 Brush, coir, for printers. 

1807 Brush, coir, with handle, for pasting labels. 

1808 Brush, coir, with handle, for pasting labels, 



_ 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



293 



1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 

1814 

1815 

1816 

1817 

1818 

1819 

1820-1822 
1823 



1826 
1828 
1833 

1838 
1866 

•1872 



1824- 
1827- 
1829- 
1834 
1835- 
1839- 
1867- 

1873-1884 

1885-1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892- 

1894 

1895- 

1897 

1898- 

1902- 

1908- 

1910 

1911- 

1913- 

1915- 

2508 



1893 

1896 

1901 
1907 
1909 

1912 
1914 
1929 



Brush, coir, with bamboo handle, for ordinary use. 

1 lot ' Brushes, coir, with bamboo handles, for pasting. 

1 set of 7 Brushes, various sizes, for painting. 

Brush, black bristle, with bamboo handle, for scrubbing. 

Brush, black bristle, with bamboo handle, for brushing 

clothes. 
Brush, black bristle, with bamboo handle, for brushing 

shoes. 
Brush, white bristle with bamboo handle, for brushing 

shoes. 
Brush, black bristle with bamboo handle, for polishing 

brass. 
Brush, black bristle with bamboo handle, for brushing 

caps. 
Brush, black bristle with bamboo handle, for stencil 

plates. 
Brush, black bristle with horn handle, for brushing 

combs. 
3 Brushes, black bristle with horn handle; toilet. 

1 Brush, black bristle with horn handle, for smoothing the 

eye-brows. 

3 Leather Purses. 

2 " Key cases. 

5 " Tobacco pouches. 

1 " Clothes wrapper. 

4 " Portfolios. 

Collection of Combs, wood and bamboo. 

6 White metal water pipes, inlaid with ivory and painted 

in gold. 
12 Opium boxes, hornware. 

2 Tortoise shell Plates. 
" Bangles. 
" Fan handle. 
" Puff box. 
" Jewel box. 
" Spectacle frame. 
" Fan clasps. 
" Moustache comb. 
" Nail guards. 
" Tongue scraper. 
" Hairpins. 

Glass snuff bottles, painted. 
Cornelian pipe stems. 
Ivory pipe stem. 
Bone pipe stems. 
White metal pipe stems. 
15 Glass pipe stems. 
1 Blackwood dressing case, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 



294 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




5293 


Blackwood tray, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 


5294 


Blackwood tray. 


5295 


Blackwood stand for bowls. 


5296 


Pewter lamp. 


5297 


Brass shield. 


5298 


Pewter dross box.' 


5299 


Bowl scrapers. 


5300 


Picks. 


5301 


Glass water pot. 


5302-5303 


Red glass lions for resting picks. 


5304 


Jade and brass stand. 


5305-5306 


Ladles. 


5307 


Horn Opium box. 


5308 


Pipe cleaner. 


5309 


Iron Scissors. 


5310-5311 


Tortoise Shell pipes with 4 bowls. 


5312 


" pipe. 


5313 


Shark's skin " 


5314 


Black lacquer " 


5315 


Red 


5316 


Bamboo 


5317 


Tortoise shell pipe, with ivory bowl. 


5318 


Black horn 


5319 


Green lacquer " 


5320 


Yellow " 


5321 


Tortoise shell imitation pipe. 


5322 


Sugar cane 


2429-2431 


3 Rattan tea pot baskets, round, square and oval, with 




tea pots, painted in gold. 


2432 


Rattan Lady's work basket. 


2433 


Fruit basket. 


2434 


Money " 


2435 


Cake " 


2436 


" Food " 


2437 


Luggage basket. 


2438 


Bamboo Clothes " 


2439 


Cockroach trap. 


2440 


Grasshopper cage. 


2441 


Monev basket. 


2442 ' 


Rice * 


2443 


Market " 


2444 


Frog 


2445 


Cricket " 


2446 


- " Food 


2447 


" Cake seller's basket. 


2448 


Fancy 


2449 


Bamboo Shrimp catcher. 


2450 


Ginger scraper. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 295 

Exhibit 
Number. 
2451 1 lot Divination sticks, with case, as used by fortune 

tellers. 
2509 Coir duster. 

2957 Coir Mosquito whip. 



GROUP 35. 
ARTICLES FOR 1 RAVELING AND CAMPING. 



2452-2459 8 Brass locks with keys. 

2460-2462 3 Iron locks with keys. 

2506 1 Leather chair cushion. 

2507 1 Rattan chair cushion. 



GROUP 36. 

TOYS. 

2463-2464 2 Masks, lion's head. 

2465-2470 6 Toy figures, self righting. 

2471-2490 20 Toy actors. 

2491-2492 2 Toy frogs. 

2493-2494 2 Tov lion's heads. 

2495-2500 18 Toy rattles. 

2501-2504 10 Shuttlecocks, etc. 

GROUP 37. 

DECORATION AND FIXED FURNITURE OF BUILDINGS AND 

DWELLINGS. 

2505 1 Ornamental Wood Carving, usually seen hanging over 

the main entrance of temples. 





GROUP 41. 




HARDWARE. 


2817 


Set of 33 Ivory carver's Tools. 


2818 


19, Tortoise shell worker's Tools. 


2819 


21, Scale maker's 


2820 


20, Musical Instrument maker's Tools 


2821 


29, Locksmith's 


2822 


30, Tinsel flower maker's 


2823 


34, Opium pipe maker's 


2824-2826 


Iron Pincers. 


2827 


Duck feather nipper. 


4927 


Set of 13, Comb-maker's Tools. 


4928 


" 35, Engraver's 



296 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 






Number. 






4929 


Set of 39, Wood carver's Tools. 




4930 


5, Bricklayer's " 




2828 


Iron wire for cutting jade stone. 




2829 


covered with paper, used in the manufacture 




of artificial flowers. 




2830 


Clamp nails. 




2831 


Brass Money Bowl. 




2832 




' Pump. 




2833 




' Spittoons. 




2834 




Toilet dish. 




2835 




Pudding tray. 




2836 




' Basin. 




2859 




' Mosquito Curtain Hooks. 




3171 




1 Saucepan. 




3172 




Soup Ladle. 




3173 


" Kettle. 




3174 


Brass kettle with furnace. 




3175 


Set of 5 brass stoves. 




3176-3177 


Iron soup ladles. 




3190 


Tailors' Irons. 




2858 


Iron medicine chopper. 




2859 


1 set Iron China root slicers. 




2860 


Iron China root knife. 




2861 


Iron tobacco plane. 




4924 


Iron hammer. 




4925-4926 


Iron saws. 




2862 


Brass foil, plain. 




2863 


Brass foil, embossed. 




2864 


Brass foil, plain, red. 




2865-2867 


Brass foil, green, white and yellow. 




2868 


Gold foil, imitation. 




2869-2870 


Tin foil, white and yellow. 





GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

2944-2948 5 Pillows, lacquered leather. 

2949-2951 3 Pillows, rattan. 

2952-2956 5 Pillows, straw. 

2958 1 Pillow, bamboo. 



3139 
3140 

3141 



GROUP 45. 

CERAMICS. 

Earthenware Figure, representing a Tobacco Planer. 
Earthenware Figure, representing a Traveling Mu- 
sician. 
Earthenware Figure, representing an Olive Seller. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



297 



Exhibit 

Number. 

3131-3134 4 Glazed earthenware balusters. 

3135-3136 2 Glazed earthenware mural borders. 

3137-3138 2 Glazed earthenware tiles. 



GROUP 49. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS, NOT ELECTRICAL, FOR LIGHTING. 

blackwood frames, 



3178 

3179 

3180 

3181 

3182 
3183 

3184 
3185 
3186 
3187 
3188 



2 Glass lanterns, painted, carved, 
hexagonal. 

2 Glass lanterns, painted, carved, redwood frames, hexa- 
gonal. 

2 Glass lanterns, painted, carved, blackwood frames, 
square. 

2 Glass lanterns, painted, carved, blackwood frames, 
peach shape. 

2 Glass lanterns, painted, metal frames, hexagonal, 

2 Silk gauze lanterns, painted, dragon design; for 
temples. 

2 Silk gauze lanterns, painted, flowers and birds design. 

Hand lantern, brass. 

Table lamp, brass. 

Mosquito lamp, brass. 

Lampwick. 



GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 



Hand Woven Cotton Cloth : 



3191 

3192 

3193-3196 

3197 

3198 

3199 

3200-3203 

3204-3205 

3206 

3207 

3208 

3209 

3210 

3211 

3212-3213 

3214-3215 

3216 

3217 

3218 

3219 

3220 

3221-3222 

3223 

3224 

3225 



Red, white and blue check. . . 

Blue and white check 

" " " " each 

White and blue " 

Blue mottle check 

Blue, plain 

Blue and white stripe each 

Dark blue '< 

Light blue, glazed , 

Medium blue, glazed 



Counterpane 

Green 

White 

Plum color each 

Navy blue " 

Drab 

Navy blue 

Blue and- white check 

Navy blue 

Plum color 

Navy blue each 



Plum color. . . . 
Brown, glazed, 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
11 
10 
7 

7/2 

7y 2 

I 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



yds. x 1Q}4 in. 
xl7 " 
x 16 K " 

x ie£ " 

xl7 " 
x 1Q% " 
x 16^ « 
xl3 " 
x 12 

xll^ » 
xl2^ « 
x 143^ << 
x U% " 
xl5& " 
x 15^ " 
x 12^ » 

x isy 2 » 

xlO^ " 

xl6^ " 

xl3^ " 

x 13 #- u 

x 15^ " 

x isy 2 - 

xl3^ u 
x 15 



Foreign yarn. 



Native yarn. 

Foreign yarn. 
Native yarn. 
Foreign yarn. 



Native yam. 

(( it 

Foreign yarn. 



Native yarn. 

Foreign yarn. 

<( t< 

Native yarn. 



298 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

3226 Blue 1 yds. 

3227 Navy blue 1 

3228 White 1 

3229-3231 Grey (unbleached) each 1 

3232 Red (unbleached) 1 " 

3233 Scarlet (unbleached) 1 « 

3234 Blue and white check 1 

3235 Drab 1 

3236 Navy blue, glazed 1 

3237 Plum color 1 

3238 Green 1 

3239 Gauze, Yellow 1 

3240 Blue, striped 1 

3241 Blue and white check 1 " 

3242 Grey (unbleached) 1 " 

3243 Collection of Cotton Tapes, various colors 



x lb}{ ins., Foreign yarn, 

x 15 

x 11 " 

x 15 

x 20 

x 12 

xl6X 

xl6>^ 

x 14 

xisy 2 

x 15 " 

x 9 " " " 

x liy 2 '• <« « 

x 10^ " " " 

x 16^ " Foreign yarn. 



Native yarn. 
Foreign yarn. 

(( u 

Native yarn. 
Foreign yarn. 
Native yarn. 



GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

3244-3246 Samples of Ramie Fibre, 1st, 2nd and 3rd quality. 
3247-3249 Samples of Hemp thread. 



GROUP 57. 
SILKS AND FABRICS OF SILK. 



3321 
3322 
3323 

3324 
3325 
3364 
3365 
3366 

3367 
3400- 



3408 



1st quality, market value, Mex. 

2nd quality, market value, Mex. 

3rd quality, market value, Mex. 

4th quality, market value, Mex. 

market value, Mex. 



3 Skeins Silk thrown, 

$840 per picul. 
3 Skeins Silk thrown, 

$820 per picul. 
3 Skeins Silk thrown, 

$800 per picul. 
3 Skeins Silk thrown, 

$780 per picul. 
3 Skeins Silk thrown, 5th quality 

$760 per picul. 

30 Skeins Silk Floss, various colors, used for fine em- 

broidery; market value, Mex., $1,100 per picul. 

31 Skeins Silk Thread, various colors, used for em- 

broidery; market value, Mex., $1,300 per picul. 
24 Skeins Silk Thread, various colors, used for tassels 

and coarse embroidery; market value, Mex., 

$1,000 per picul. 
7 Skeins Silk Thread, various colors ; market value, 

Mex., $900 per picul. 
9 pieces Silk Noil Yarn Cloth — each 19 yards by 16 

inches — of various qualities and colors. This 

fabric is made from the refuse of waste silk. The 

yarn is imported from Europe and the cloth 

manufactured in China. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 299 

Exhibit 
Number. 
3409-3418 10 pieces Silk and Cotton Mixtures, brocaded and of 

various colors. Manufactured from native silk 
* and foreign cotton yarn. 

3368-3379 12 pieces Silk Ribbons, interwoven with imitation silver 

thread, each four yards in length. 
3380-3389 20 pieces Silk Ribbons, interwoven with imitation gold 

thread, each eight yards in length. 
3493-3538 46 pieces Silk Ribbons, each four yards in length. 



GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

3539-3549 11 Key Cases, silk embroidered with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

3550-3552 3 Watch and key cases, silk embroidered, with imitation 
gold and silver thread. 

3553-3555 3 Watch cases, silk embroidered, with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

3556-3559 4 Purses, silk embroidered, with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

2560-3563 4 Tobacco pouches, silk embroidered, with imitation gold 
and silver thread. 

3564-3566 3 Buckles, silk embroidered, with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

3567-3572 6 Cigarette cases, silk embroidered, with imitation gold 
and silver thread. 

3573-3578 6 Cigar cases, silk embroidered, with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

3579-3586 8 Spectacle cases, silk embroidered, with imitation gold 
and silver thread. 

3587-3590 4 Fan cases, silk embroidered, with imitation gold and 
silver thread. 

3591 1 Satin Canopy, embroidered with imitation gold 

thread. 

3592-3593 2 Silk Official Banners, embroidered with imitation 
gold thread. 

3594 4 Satin Embroideries, in blackwood frames, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 

4747 1 Canopy, fan shape, embroidered satin, with imitation 

gold thread. 

4512 1 Satin Portiere, embroidered with imitation gold 

thread, having four characters, meaning happi- 
ness, longevity, prosperity and health. Used at 
all festive occasions, especially at weddings and 
birthday ceremonies. They are engraved on sil- 
ver gifts, written on paper scrolls or worked on 
satin. 



300 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

4513 1 Satin Portiere, embroidered with imitation gold 

thread, with figures of the "Eight faries," the 
Taoist Immortals — eight men of ancient times, 
who through moral or religious excellence were 
transformed into Genii. 

GROUP 60. 

LEATHER, BOOTS AND SHOES, ETC. 

4650-4652 Parchment Leather, 1st, 2nd and 3rd quality. 

4653-4666 Leather, Buffalo, Cow and Kid. 
4620-4624 5 pairs Boots, satin, velvet, leather and cloth. 

4625-4640 16 pairs Shoes, satin, velvet, leather and cloth. 
4641-4644 4 pairs Clogs. 
4645-4649 5 pairs Sandals. 

GROUP 61. 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

4514-4525 12 Official Hats, winter and summer, 1st to 9th rank. 

4526-4531 6 Silk and satin caps for men. 

4532-4539 8 Silk and satin caps, embroidered with imitation gold 

thread, for children. 

4540-4552 13 Bamboo, straw and rattan hats. 
4554-4555 Artificial flowers. 

4692-4696 5 Official hat buttons, 1st to 9th rank. 
4697-4701 5 Coral cap buttons, various sizes. 
4702-4706 5 Silk thread cap buttons. 
4707-4711 5 Horse hair cap buttons. 
4712-4716 5 Cotton cord cap buttons, red, various sizes. 

4717-4731 15 Glass bead cap buttons, red, black and blue. 

4732 30 sets Buttons, brass, various sizes. 

4733 29 sets Buttons, mother-of-pearl, various patterns. 
4734-4746 25 Brass buckles. 

4748-4759 12 Puzzle fans. 

4760-4771 12 Silk embroidered fans. 

4772-4775 4 Silk embroidered fans, with ivory handles. 

4776-4778 3 Silk gauze embroidered fans, with lacquered handles. 

4779-4790 12 Silk gauze embroidered fans, with sandalwood handles. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 
Models of: 

4931 Hongkong cargo junk. Tonnage of full sized craft 

from 150 to 200 tons, register, carrying capacity, 
from 400 to 500 tons. Cost, Mex., $3,000. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 301 



Exhibit 
Number. 

4932 Stern-wheeler. Tonnage of full sized boat about 70 tons. 

Cost, Mex., $800. Propelled by the feet. 

4933 Sampan. Cost of full sized boat, Mex., $120. 

4934 Fish transit boat. Carrying capacity about 5 tons; cost, 

Mex., $200. These boats are used for conveying' 
fish from the breeding ponds to the outlying dis- 
tricts of Canton, to the steamer leaving every morn- 
ing for Hongkong. The special point to be noticed 
about these boats is that they are divided into 
sections, in order to keep the fish alive and fresh 
while in transit. Holes are made in the sides of the 
boat to allow the water to flow through. About 
15 of these boats, each having a crc.y of 8 or 10 
men, bring, on an average, 20,000 lbs. of fish, and 
transfer them by nets into large tubs kept on 
board for this purpose. 

It is estimated that about 42,000 piculs (2,500 
tons) of fresh fish, valued at $500,000 are annually 
exported to the Hongkong market. 

4935 "Yu Lang Chuk" boat. Fish-soup-seller's boat.) Cost 

of full sized boat, Mex., $50. Rice soup, flavor- 
ed with fish and vegetables, is sold in these 
boats. 

4936 Ferry boat. Cost of full sized boat, Mex., $40. 

4937 "Ma Ling Tan" (Slipper boat). Cost of full sized boat 

Mex., $120. • 
4938-4943 National Flags. 

4944 Flag of Viceroy of Liang Kuang. 

4945 Flag of Hoppo. 

4946 Flag of Chinese Rearguard. 

4947 Flag of Sinching regiment. 

4948 Flag of a military or naval commander. 

4949 Official Processional flag. This flag is borne in front of 

• high official. The characters signify "purity." 

4950 Flag of a Canton street patrol. 

4951 Artillery flag. The character on the flag signifies a 

"cannon." 

4952 Flag of Authority. The character on the flag signifies 

"Mandate ;" such a flag would be borne by a force 
sent to suppress a f iot ; it conveys authority to use 
arms against a mob. 

4953 Flag of the Chinese Gun-boat, "Fupo." 

4954 Junk Guardian Flag. Device represents the "eight dia- 

grams" of Chinese philosophy, within the centre, 
the diagram of the "yang" and "yin" the prim- 
ordial positive and negative essences from which 
all matter was evolved. The flag is hoisted by 
Junks to ward off evil influences. 



30^ Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

4955 Domestic Guardian Flag. The picture represents "tzu 

Wei" the spirit which keeps off evil influences. 

4956 The picture on this represents an eclipse, which the Chi- 

nese say is brought about by toads or a dragon try- 
ing to devour the sun, or moon. 

4957 The stars on this flag represents the seven stars of the 

Great Bear, which constitute the "Plough." The 
proper relative positions are not preserved. . 

4958 The picture on this flag is that of a bat, the Chinese em- 

blem of happiness. 

4959 Flag of the Chinese Gunboat "Chento". 

4960 Congratulatory Flag. The characters on the flag signify 

"Jov be with you." 

4961 Buddhist temple Flag. 

4962 Flag of Official Junk. 

4963 Buddhist Temple Flag. The characters signify "Queen 

of Heaven," a deity of the Chinese. 

4964 Flag used at Mid-autumn Festival. The characters sig- 

nify "Mid-autumn greeting." 

4965 Flag of Officials from 4th rank downwards. 

4966 Flag of Officials from 2nd to 4th ranks. 

4967 Flag of Officials of 1st rank. 

4968 Flag of a Generalissimo. The character on the flag sig- 

nifies "Commander-in-Chief." 

4969 Flag of a General of Provincial Forces. 

4970 Device represents "yang" and "yin" and eight diagrams 

surrounded by four bats. 

4971 Laudatory Flag. Such a flag is presented to a skillful 

workman. 

4972 Model of Dragon Boat, Dimensions 125 ft. long x 2-J 

ft. deep x 5J ft.wide. Cost, Mex., $500. The festi- 
val of the dragon boat, on the 5th day of the 5th 
moon, presents a very animated scene. At Can- 
ton, long, narrow boats, holding sixty or more 
rowers, race up and down the river in pairs with 
huge clamor, as if searching for some one who had 
been drowned. The festival was instituted in 
memory of a statesman, about 450 B. C, who 
drowned himself after having been falsely accused 
by one of the petty princes of the state. The peo- 
ple who loved the unfortunate courtier for his fi- 
delity and virtues, sent out boats in search of the 
body, but to no purpose. They then made a pe- 
culiar sort of rice-cake called tsung, and setting 
out across the river in boats with flags and gongs, 
each strove to be first on the spot of the tragedy 
and sacrifice to the spirit of the statesman. This 
mode of commemorating the event has been car- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



303 



Exhibit 

Number. 

ried down to posterity as an annual holiday. The 
bow of the boat is ornamented or carved into the 
head of the dragon, and men beating gongs and 
drums, and waving flags, inspirit the rowers to re- 
newed exertions. 

4073 Model of Flower Boat. Tonnage varies from 50 to 150 

tons. The cost of a medium sized boat with black- 
wood furniture, satin cushions and hangings, etc., 
Mex., $5,000. These boats, known by foreigners 
as flower boats, are elaborately and richly 
furnished, they may be called floating restaur- 
ants. 

GROUP 76. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT OF NAVAL SERVICES: NAVAL 

WARFARE. 



4974 
4975 
4976 



Model of War Junk. Tonnage of full-sized craft "about 
150 tons. Cost, including guns and rifles, Mex., 
$8000. 

Model of Guard Boat or River Police Boat. Ton- 
nage of full sized boat about 30 tons. Cost, in- 
cluding stand of arms, Mex., $1,200. 

Model of Likin Boat or Inland River Customs Boat. 
Tonnage of full sized boat about 8 to 12 tons. 
Cost, with stand of arms, Mex., $700. 



4977 
4978 
4979 
4980 
4981 
4982 
4983 
4984 
4985 
498fi 
4987 
4988 
4989 
4990 
4991 
1992 
4993 
4994 



GROUP 81. 

TOBACCO. Market value 

per picul 
Mex. dollars. 

Tobacco prepared, brown, 1st quality fine 40 

coarse ... 40 

2nd " 30 

3rd " 25 

yellow, 1st " fine 40 

coarse 40 

2nd " 25 

3rd " 20 

coarse .... 20 

leaf, brown, 1st quality 35 

25 



2nd 
3rd 
yellow, 1st 
2nd 
" 3rd 
Cigarettes. 
Snuff. 
Snuff, scented with rose. 



20 
25 
20 
15 



304 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

The Cantonese method of preparing tobacco leaf is very simple, 
and all done by manual labor. There are three kinds of tobacco pre- 
pared in Canton: 

The dark-brown. 

Yellowish brown. 

Yellow. 
The first made from leaves which are dark-brown and coarse, after 
drying in the sun; the other two from leaves which are yellowish 
brown and of finer quality. The first and second kinds are prepared 
in the following manner. The mid-rib of the leaf is taken out by women 
and children, and what remains is placed in a basket which when full 
is passed on to a platform about 12 feet square. The contents are 
turned out, and stirred with the feet by four or five men ; at the same 
time two others sprinkle them, one with water, and another with a moist- 
ure of ground nut oil and dark red ochre. This has the effect of dark- 
ening the color and making the tobacco much stronger. For every 100 
lbs. of dried leaves about 20 lbs. ground nut oil, 5 lbs. water and 3 lbs. 
red ochre are used. The leaves are thoroughly mixed with this prep- 
aration, and are then pressed by the feet into a wooden box or mould, 
and the tobacco, which retains the shape of the mould, placed under a 
press. .This is composed of a heavy hard- wood beam (16 feet long), 
one end fixed into an iron clamp, about 3 feet from the ground, and the 
other raised about ten feet. When there are 8 or' 10 cubes of the leaf, 
one upon the other, an endless rope is passed over the raised end of the 
beam, and by means of a windlass and lever, brings it down with tre- 
mendous force upon the mass of leaves, forming it into a solid cake. 
They are allowed to remain in this state for twenty-four hours, after 
which the mass is cut into narrow lengths, and placed upon a board, 
and a small piece of hard wood is put on the top. The mass is then 
kept in position by passing a rope over this, and round a roller placed 
under the board at one end, this rope, by means of a small lever, can 
be tightened when necessary. The operator then stands over it and 
with an ordinary carpenter's plane shaves it into thin flakes. The yel- 
low tobacco prepared is treated in the same way, but with only ground 
nut oil ; the leaves under this treatment retaining their natural color ; 
occasionally a small quantity of Turmeric powder is added to brighten 

it. 

GROUP 84. 

VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




4995 


Rice, white. 


4996 


Rice, red. 


4997 


Pearl barley. 


4998-4999 


Beancurd, dried. 


5009-5011 


Ground-nut oil. 


5012 


Tea oil. 


5013 


Wood oil. 


5014 


Sesamum seed oil. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 305 

GROUP 87. 
FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




5015-5022 


Rice flour. 


5023 


Wheat flour. 


5024 


Bean flour. 


5025 


Starch. 


5026 


Sago. 


5027 


Water Caltrop flour made from the dried fruit of the 




Trapa bicornis. 


5028 


Water Lily root flour, made from the large stock root of 




the "Nelumbian Speciosum." 


5029 


Water Chestnut flour, made from the "Eleocharus 




(Scirpus) tuberosus." 


5030 


Yam flour. 


5031 


Vermicelli. 



GROUP 88. 
BREAD AND PASTRY. 

5032 Cakes, Sesamum seed. 

5033 Cakes, Fei E Ko," used for infant's food and are made 

from bird's nests and rice flour, mixed with a little 
sugar. 

GROUP 89. 

PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

5061 Lungngan pulp, dried. Fruit of "Nephelium Longana," 

5760 Lungngan, dried. 

5161 Lichees, dried. 

5162 Lotus nuts. "Nelumbrum speciosum." 





GROUP 90. 




SUGAR AND CONFEC 


Preserved in Sugar: 


5074 


Lemon. 


5075 


Dates. 


5076-5078 


Pumpkin. 


5079 


Ground-nut Pulp. 


5080 


Walnut 


5081-5082 


Cocoanut 


5083 


Ginger, Sliced. 


5084 


Yam, 


5085 


Wongpi " 


5086 


Young stem ginger. 


5087 


Oranges, small. 


5088 


Pine apple. 


5089 


Almonds. 



306 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

5090 Citrons. 

5091 Lotus nuts. 

5092 Tomatoes. 

5093 Lily root, sliced. 

5094 Kam Kwat, " 

5095 Mixed Chow Chow. Composed of different fruits and 

bamboo shoots, and known under the name of 
"Canton Chow Chow." 

5096 Young stem ginger. 

5097 Water Melon. 
5098-5099 Ginger, red, in syrup. 

5100 Vinegar, white. 

5101 Vinegar, black. 

5102 Cassia buds. 

5103 Cassia, broken. 

5104 Cassia twigs, bark, broken. 
5105-5106 Cassia lignia. 

5107 Spice (Heung Linfan.) 

5108 Yau Nien sauce. 

5109 Salt bean sauce. 

5110 Green chilli. 

5112 Melon sliced sweetened. 

5113-5115 Soy. Made by boiling the beans of the "Dolichos 
soia," adding an equal quantity of wheat or bar- 
ley and leaving the mass to ferment, a layer of 
salt and three times as much water as beans are 
afterwards added, and the whole compound 
stirred daily for two months when the liquid is 
pressed and strained. 

5116 Soy, sweet. For flavoring purposes. 

5117 Pickled Lemon. 

5118 " Plums. 

5119 " Ginger. 

5120 " Garlic. 

5121 " Cutow (Garlic.) 

5122 Salted Lemons. 

5123 " Yan Nien. 

5124 " Ginger. 
5125-5127 " Olives. 

5128 " Melon. 

5129 " Beans. 

5130 " Carambola. 

5131 Sesamum sauce. 

5132 Plum sauce. 

5133 Chilli sauce. 

5134 Chilli and plum sauce. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



307 



GROUP 93. 

SYRUPS AND LIQUEURS— DISTILLED SPIRITS— COMMERCIAL 

ALCOHOL. 



Exhibit 






Number. 






5135-5137 


Shamshu 


.Native Wine. 


5138-5131) 


ii 


red and white. 


5140 


" 


green plum flavour. 


5141 


a 


lemon 


514? 


" 


pear 


5143 


" 


orange 


5144 


a 


rose 


5145 


a 


banana 


5146 


" 


quince 


5147 


<( 


"Jen yin fa" 


5148 


a 


"Lanfa" 


5149 


a 


"Man Chi Kno" fla 


5150 


a 


"Kum Kwat" 



GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

5151 Cotton (tree.) -The silky wool of the fruit of the cotton 

tree "Bombax malabaricum." 

5152-5153 Ramie. "Bohmeria nivea." 

5154 Flax. Used in the manufacture of rope, twine, and sack- 

ing. 

GROUP 110. 

SEEDS AND PLANTS FOR GARDENS AND NURSERIES. 



5163 
5164 
5165 
5166 


Turnip (small) Seeds. 

(large) 
Cabbage 
Mustard 


5167 


Celery 


5168 
5169 
5170 


Squash 

Pumpkin 

Bean 


5171 


Yam 


5172 
5173 


Parsley 
Mustard 


5174 


Bitter melon 


5175 


Cabbage 


5176 


Snake gourd 


'5177 
5178 


Spinage 
Long beans 


5179 


Lettuce 


5180 


Cucumber 


5000-5001 


Bird 


5002 


Olive 



21 



308 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 
Number. 

5003 Olive seed pulp. 

5004-5005 Melon " red and black. 

5006-5007 Sesamum seed, white and black. 

5008 Melon seed pulp. 



GROUP 113. 

PRODUCTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF FORESTS AND OF 
FOREST INDUSTRIES. 

Samples of wood produced in the Kwong Tung- province. The 
specimens are cut into a triangular shape, one side showing the 
bark one with bark removed, and the other polished. 

5182 Hardwood. Used for furniture. 

5183 Hardwood. For coffins and furniture. 

5184 Lychee (Hardwood.) "Nephelium Litci." Used in 

boat building. 

5185 Lychee (Hardwood). Wild Lychee. Used in boat build- 

ing. 

5186 Pear, (Hardwood). Used for making seals. 

5187 Lungngan (Hardwood.) "Nephelium Langanum". 

Used for furniture and boat building. 

5188 (Hardwood.) Called by the Cantonese carpenter, "Chi- 

nese Mahogany." Used for furniture. 

5189 (Hardwood.) For making imitation candles used in 

temples and households at Chinese New Year. 
5190- 91 Camphor (Hardwood.) The "Laurus Camphora." 
Used for furniture and boat building. 

5192 Red (Hardwood). The celebrated Canton blackwood 

furniture is made of this wood dyed. 

5193 Hardwood. The "Ficus indica." The bastard banyan, 

used for making wheels, toys and small articles. 

5194 Hardwood. Used in making furniture. 

5195 Hardwood. The sawdust of this wood is used for manu- 

facturing incense sticks. 

5196 Hardwood. Used for furniture. 

5197 Hardwood. Used for making flails and wooden dippers. 

5198 Pumelo. "Citrus decamana" Linn, used for making rice 

bowls, and coarse articles. 

5199 Hardwood. "Canarium album." Used for furniture. 

5200 Hardwood. "Citrus." 

5201 Hardwood. "Abrus precatorius," Linn. Used for furni- 

ture. 

5202 Cotton tree, hardwood. "Bombax malabaricum." 

Used for signboards, clogs, etc. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 309 



Exhibit 
Number. 

5203 Hardwood. Planed into shavings from which is extract- 

ed a mucilage used by women for fixing the hair. 
The tree has not yet been identified ; it has been re- 
ferred to "Malvaceoe" and "Tiliaceoe," but the 
structure of the wood microscopically renders it 
doubtful if it belongs to either of these orders. 

5204 Box wood. Used for combs. 

5205 Softwood. Used in the manufacture of rice bowls, can- 

dle sticks and fittings for lanterns. 

5206 Softwood. "Eloecoccus oliefera" or "Dryandra Cardi- 

folia." Used for making sounding boards of 
musical instruments. 

5207 Softwood. The fir tree. "Cunninghamia Sinensis," 

building of houses and boats. 

5208 Softwood. Root of the Cypress tree. Used for making 

corks and floats, shaped like gourds, which are 
tied by the boat people on the backs of young 
children to keep them afloat, should they fall into 
the water. 

5209 Camphor. 

5210 Refined Camphor. 

5211 Refined Blumea Camphor. 

5212 Camphor oil. 

5213 Blumea Camphor oil. 

5214 Corks. Made from the root stock of the Cypress. 

5215 Rattan Shavings. 

5216 Bamboo Used in calking the seams of boats. 

5217 Potash. 

5218 Liquid Potash. 
5219-5221 13 Rattan Dish stands. 

5222 1 " Clothes Beater. 

5223 3 " Tea trays. 

5224 3 " Letter " 

5225 1 Ladies Work tray. 

5226 1 Bamboo Ladies Work tray. 

GROUP 114. 

APPLIANCES FOR GATHERING WILD CROPS AND PRODUCTS 

OBTAINED. 

5227 Mushroom. 

5228 "Ko Hsiu Mi." A Lichen, used for food. 
5229-5231 Rosin. 

GROUP 115. 
WORKING OF MINES, ORE BEDb, AND STONE QUARPIES. 
5232 Set of 38 Marble Cutter's tools. 



310 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 



Exhibit 
Number. 
5245 Coal, Kuang Si. 



GROUP 120. 

HUNTING EQUIPMENT. 

5347-5248 2 Rattan Shields— plain and painted. 
5249 Set of 38 Ancient Weapons. 

GROUP 121. 
PRODUCTS OF HUNTING. 

5250-5251 Collection of Birdskins — Kingfisher. 

GROUP 122. 
FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 

5266-5268 Fishing line made from silkworms. 

GROUP 127. 

ETHNOLOGY. 

Specimens of Chinese Writing: 

5269-5270 1 Pair Scrolls in seed characters, or ''Hsiao chnan." 
These characters were in current use, from the 
reign of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti (B. C. 225), when 
they were invented by one of his ministers, Li 
Ssu, until the Han dynasty (from B. C. 206 to 
A. D. 25). They are now only used for seals. 
There is also an. older form of seal character 
found on ancient bronzes, drums, etc., but is 
now seldom written on paper. 

5271-5272 1 Pair Scrolls in square character, or "Li shu" intro- 
duced under the Han dynasty to replace the seal 
characters. These characters have been in cur- 
rent use until about A. D., 350. They are now used 
for writing on scrolls, fans, stone tablets, etc. 

5273-5274 1 Pair Scrolls, known as the clerical style, or "Ch'iai 
shu'' so called in Chinese from a kind of tree 
which grows at the grave of Confucius. This 
handwriting was invented, to replace the less 
handy square characters, by Wang Hsi Chih, 
about A. 1)., 350. Under the Chin dynasty, and 
has been used ever since for official documents, 
etc. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 311 

Exhibit 

Number. 

5275-5276 1 Pair Scrolls, are in grass hand or 'Tsao shu", intro- 
duced under the Chin dynasty, about A. D., 350. 
This grass hand has never been used in official or 
ceremonious writings, the square characters, and 
afterwards the clerical style, being the proper form 
of writing. It was only on account of its being of 
easier and quicker writing that the grass hand had 
been adopted for private use. It is now used only 
for writings on scrolls. 

5277-5278 1 Pair Scrolls, paper, are in running hand, or "Hsing 
shu." these characters were introduced under the 
Tang dynasty (A. D., 618 to 906), and being of 
an easier and quicker writing than the clerical 
style, have been since in common use for the writ- 
ing of private letters, drafts, bookkeeping, etc. 

5279-5280 1 Pair Scrolls, in manchtt characters, the meaning of 
which is the same as that of the above scrolls. 

5324 Life-size figure showing the costume of a Gentleman. 

5325 Life-size figure showing the dress of a Lady. 

5326 Buddhistic Fish. Called by the Chinese "Pu yu" — divin- 

ing fish; used in the recitation of prayers, by the 
Buddhist priests, for marking time to their in- 
cantations. 

5327-5331 5 Sets of 21 Earthenware figures, representing five 
theatrical scenes. 

5332 Set of 8 Earthenware figures, representing a Chinese 

New Year procession. 

5341 Crematory Oven. Is a facsimile of the one attached to 

the Honam Temple at Canton. Cremation is con- 
sidered, according to the ancient custom, the proper 
mode of disposing of the bodies of deceased priests, 
but it is by no means invariably followed; yet, in 
the case of the laity, where custom does not de- 
mand it, it is sometimes, though rarely, adopted. 



312 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. SHEWAN, TOMES & CO.— 

CANTON. 



GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 



Exhibit 
Number. 

2871 
2872 
2873 
2874 
2875 



1 Matting Loom and accessories, white and dyed straw. 

4 Cocoanut husks. Used for brushing matting. 

1 Bamboo needle. Used for sewing up wrappers. 
1 Knife. Used for splitting the straw. 
1 Knife. Used for cutting the selvedge. 

5 Views Illustrating various processes in the Mann 

facture of 



Matting : 



2876 
2877 
2878 
2879 
2880 



1 Roll 110-125 lbs. Seamless white palmed Lintan 
matting, 40 yards by 1 yard. 

1 Roll 40-45 lbs. Seamless palmed Extra superfine nar- 
row Ningpo fancy matting, 40 yards by 1 yard. 

1 Roll 110-120 lbs. Seamless palmed fancy matting, 
40 yards by 1 yard. 

1 Roll 110-125 lbs. Seamless palmed white Ningpo 
matting, 40 yards by 1 yard. 

1 Roll Superfine Damask matting, 40 yards by 1 yard. 



MATS. 

2881-2884 4 pieces Superfine Fancy. 

2885-2888 4 " Colored center. 

2889-2894 4 " Damask. 

2893-2894 2 " Twisted Fancy. 

2895-2898 4 " " Damask, Narrow Ningpo. 

2899-2900 2 " Narrow Ningpo, Fancy. 

2901-2904 4 " No. 1, Fancy. 

2905-2906 2 " Colored center. 

2907-2910 4 '- Damask. 

2911-2914 4 " Twisted, Fancy. 

2915-2918 4 " " Damask, Narrow Ningpo. 

2919-2920 2 " Narrow Ningpo, Fancy. 

2931-2930 10 " Various fancy matting. 

2931-2934 4 " Narrow Ningpo fancy matting. 

2935 1 piece, Red check fancy matting. 

2936-2937 2 pieces, Damask matting. 

2938 1 piece, solid red, colored matting. 

2939 1 " Olive Kak Chai matting. 

2940 1 " Narrow Ningpo twisted matting. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 313 



CARPETS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

2941 1 piece Twisted Damask Narrow Ningpo Carpet, 12 ft. 

x 12 ft. 

2942 1 piece, white center ''perfection," fancy blue check bord- 

ered carpet, 12 ft. x 12 ft. 

2943 1 piece Carpet, with Shewan, Tomes & Co.'s flag woven 

in. 



NOTES ON THE MANUFACTURE OF MATS AND 
MATTING. 

(By Mr. I,. H. Gilman of Messrs. Shewan Tomes & Co., Hong Kong and Canton.) 

Canton is the center of the matting trade in China. This has 
increased annually, and is now one of the largest exports of Southern 
China. The total export in a year now amounts to, roughly, 500,000 
rolls. 

Lintan and Tungkoon are the chief places of manufacture, the 
latter place usually supplies all the lower grades, and the former the 
higher grades. Some of the medium grades are made in, or around 
about Canton, as well as most of the mats and rugs. Tungkoon is 
situated on the East River and is distant from Canton about six hours 
in a launch. Lintan is on the West River, about two days' journey by 
launch. Cargo boats, however, sometimes take about twenty days 
owing to the inspections which are made at the various Lekin stations, 
and also owing to the strong current. The matting is all hand made, 
two men or women to a loom, with the exception of the Damask looms 
which require three people. In Tungkoon the dealers give out the 
patterns and so much straw, to the work people, who take them home 
and make the matting in their own houses where they have looms fixed 
up. In Lintan, the largest dealers have their own workshops as also 
in Canton. The looms used for the manufacture of matting is an up- 
right frame work with a cylinder above and below over which the 
warps, or hemp strings, run. Then there is a cross piece through 
which the warps pass and as each straw is placed in the warps with a 
split of bamboo by the man at the side, w r ho carries the pattern in his 
head, this cross piece, is brought down sharply by the other man, who 
at the same time turns in the ends of the straw, making the selvedge. 
The straw is always dyed before weaving. There are, roughly four 
kinds of matting exported — white, fancy, check and damask. 

The length of a roll is 40 yards, and the usual width one yard. 
The grass used for matting is known by the name of "Arundo mitis." 
It is cultivated in the lowlands of the Tungkoon districts. There are 
five different warps. Lintan, Ningpo, Narrow Ningpo, Kak-Chai and 
mixed. The different grades and qualities are indicated by the weight, 
the lowest grade weighing 40-45 lbs. and the highest 120-125 lbs., the 
latter is difficult to obtain, as straw such as is used for this grade is not 
plentiful. 



314 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

The finest matting is turned out by the Lintan manufacturers, and 
three to four rolls can be made in one month on one loom by two men, 
in Tungkoon nine to ten rolls and in Canton five to six rolls. The 
straw is cut twice a year for the medium and common grades, namely : 
in August and October, but for the finer grade matting is cut only once ; 
i. e., October. 

The straw is triangular in shape and is split in half with a knife 
specially made for the purpose. It arrives- in Canton dry and cut in 
half, ready for assortment. The assorting is done by women and 
children. The different lengths are chosen and placed in separate 
bundles, the tops and stubs, which are useless, first having been cut 
off. About 20 per cent is lost in the cutting. In the dyeing process 
the straw is kept in the dye for three days the first time, and then 
hung up to dry; when dry it is placed in the dye for a further period 
of three days; it is then taken out and again dried and when dry is 
placed for the last time in dye for nine days. This completes the pro- 
cess, and the straw is taken out and dried. Aniline dye is used for the 
low grades and Sapan-wood, an imported wood, for the high grades. 

The hemp used for the warps comes from Tungkoon and also 
from the Kwang-tung province. About ten pounds are used for one 
roll. Matting is made in two yard joints ; that is, 20 pieces, each of 
two yards, are joined together to make the 40 yards; or seamless, 
which is a roll of 40 yards, without seam or joint. 

The latter kind is sub-divided into unpalmed and palmed matting. 

The process of palming is as follows : The matting when it 
leaves the loom is hung up over a wooden bar several feet above the 
ground, and two men, one on either side, smooth tthe matting down- 
wards with their hands, so as to get it as close together as possible. 
Four or five yards at least must be made extra if a roll is going to be 
palmed, that is forty-four to forty-five yards of unpalmed matting 
makes about forty yards of palmed goods. 

This is an expensive piece of work, as it is very slow, two coolies 
finishing up one roll in one day. The above process renders the mat- 
ting closer and firmer, and palmed goods always fetch a higher price 
than the unpalmed. Twisted matting is made mostly in or around 
Canton. 

The straw used is simply two straws twisted together, which 
gives the matting that cordy look. The twisting was originally done 
by rubbing two straws together on the knee, but it is now done with a 
machine that is worked with the foot, a tremendous amount of labor 
being saved. 

It takes four days to make one roll of matting and is more ex- 
pensive than ordinary fancies. It looks more effective in carpets. 
Mats are nearly all made around Canton and are exported chiefly to 
England and the Continent, the demand from America having fallen 
off during the last few years. 

Chinese matting is very durable, although the patterns are not 
nearlv so complicated or attractive as those of other mattings. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



315 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. JARDINE MATHESON & CO.— 

CANTON. 



Raw 

Exhibit 

Number. 

3326 

3327 

3328 

3329 

3330 

3331 

3332 

3333 

3334 

3335 

3336 



GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 
Silk Exported to American Market: 



2 Skeins — "Gold Dragon;' 
— "Gold Lion;" 
1 —Extra Extra A 

; _ « a 3 

: " " A 

; — " B 



2 

2 " 

2 

2 " 

2 " 

2 " 

2 " 

2 " 

2- " 

1 Skein 



—No. 1; 

" 2 • 

— Re-reel, 



Extra 

Ordinary 

Common 







Market value 






per 


picul 






Mex. 


dollars. 


size 


13-15 or 


14-16.. . 

n 


940 
925 


n 


a 


a 


915 


a 


tt 


" 


900 


a 


a 


" 


880 


tt 


a 


tt 


860 


a 


it 


n 


850 


a 


tt 


a 


480 
810 


rv 






790 


)11 . . 






760 



Raw Silk Exported to Lyons and Europe'. 



3337 
3338 
3339 
3340 
3341 
3342 
3343 
3344 
3345 
3346 



3347 
3348 
3349 
3350 
3351 
3352 
3353 
3354 
3355 
3356 
3357 



2 Skeins — Extra; size 11-13 



— Rest 1st class ; size 9-11 



2nd " 


" 


10-12 


2nd " 


tt 


18-22 


2nd " 


a 


26-30 


3rd " 


" 


11-13 


3rd " 


" 


13-15 


3rd " 


a 


14-18 


3rd " 


a 


26-30 


WASTE SILK. 





960 

940 
980 
920 
820 
820 
840 
790 
760 
750 



Pun jam Book, No. 1 - 200 

" 2 180 

'• 3 150 

" 4 136 

Waste 123 



Gum 



Xo. 



Re-reel 

Filature 

Yellow 

Brown Knubbs 



123 

80 
140 
140 
115 

80 



Exhibit 




Number. 




3358 


Stea 


3359 


" 


3360 


" 


3361 


" 


3362 


" 


3363 


" 



316 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Market value 

per picul 

Mex. dollars. 

Steam Waste, Open, No. 1 150 

" 2 115 

Unopen, No. 1 140 

" 2 110 

" 3 90 

" VA' 125 



GROUP 96. 

USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS— PLANT DISEASES. 

5156 Cocoons "a filer," Best quality. . .' 220 

5157 " " Medium " 2O0 

5158 Pierced Cocoon, Best quality 125 

5159 " " Medium " 115 

(One picul equals 133 1-3 lbs.) 

NOTES ON RAW AND WASTE SILK. 

(By Monsieur G. Richarme, Silk Inspector of the firm.) 

There are so many varieties of silk worms in China that it would 
take too long to enumerate them all, therefore, we will limit ourselves 
to describing the two principal kinds, "Taysam" and "Lunjut." The 
first named hatch once a year, or, as will be explained further on, 
twice a year; the latter are used by the Chinese for all their crops 
which, in China amount to seven. • The hatching of the eggs or grains, 
as they are usually termed, commences in the early part of February, 
and the cocoons thus produced serve as seed worms. This crop, 
which the Chinese in their very expressive language call "The grand- 
father's crop," does not produce any silk. These grains are immediate- 
ly set for re-hatching and without any further manipulation hatched 
anew. The crop thus obtained is called the "Father," or "Taysam" 
crop. 

Part of the Taysam cocoons are kept to provide grains for the fol- 
lowing year, but the largest portion of it is spun, the silk thus produced 
having a beautiful gloss and of a fine quality, though rather hard. 

The Taysam cocoon is much larger, producing more silk than the 
Lunjut kind, and is somewhat similar to the Japanese annual variety. 
Unfortunately, its grains are of a very sensitive nature and any at- 
tempt to reproduce it, like the Lunjut variety, would cause serious 
injury to the breed. Very little silk is made from the Lunjut silk 
worm. 

It is then hatched once more and the result is the "Infant" or 
first crop. A portion of this grain is set apart for use in the coming 
year, and the other part produces the second crop, reproduction going 
on for the crop following up to the seventh, arrived at which stage the 
grain becomes useless for breeding. With the exception of the "grand- 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 31 



father", ''father" and "infant" crops which hatch naturally, it is 
necessary to wash the grains with tepid water to induce incubation, the 
eggs being hatched at the expiration of eight days. 

Before they are hatched, mulberry leaves are placed on the cards 
containing the eggs in order that newly hatched worms may find 
nourishment at once, these leaves teeming with worms are then gath- 
ered and placed on screens. At this stage it is sufficient to feed them 
twice to three times a day. For eight days the worms feed well, after 
which period they are overcome by a sort of lethargy, during which 
they remain almost motionless for 24 hours with their heads raised. 

This is designated the sleep or "moulting" because after each sleep 
the worms cast their skins. The duration of this sleep, as well as the 
length of time before entering it is greatly influenced by the tempera- 
ture. 

With a sharp, cold temperature they often are 10 days before 
falling into this state of stupor and this sleep sometimes lasts for four 
or five days instead of 24 hours. 

In general the worms are much more vigorous during cold weather, 
but great care should be taken that the leaves with w T hich they are fed 
should be perfectly dry and that they have not suffered from hard 
frost. The worms sleep four times with intervals of eight days. At 
the 3rd, and especially at the 4th moulting the worms feed voraciously, 
when thus feeding they emit a curious sound, which gives one the im- 
pression on entering a silk nursery, of the falling of a heavy tropical 
shower. 

Upon the worms approaching the spinning stage they become 
lighter and transparent, and about six days after the 4th moulting 
they are ready to begin the construction of their cocoons. They are 
then placed on bamboo frames pierced w T ith holes. 

This system differs a great deal from the twigs of heather em- 
ployed in Europe, and. although it requires a little more trouble, it is 
none the less very practical, because it prevents the spinning of 
"doubles" two worms spinning in common a single cocoon, technically 
doublisme, which produce a smaller quantity of silk ; one and a half to 
two per cent of. doubles being the maximum desirable. The worm 
works from 24 to 30 hours at its cocoon, and three days afterwards the 
moth makes its appearance, having perforated the pointed end of the 
cocoons. It lays its eggs (grains) in one day at the end of which it 
is thrown away; this grain washed as mentioned above, hatches after 
eight days and the same process again repeated. The rearing of the 
silkworm or silk husbandry as it may be called, goes on all the year 
round, and those engaged in it generally devote themselves entirely 
to this business. 

There are a considerable number of filatures run by foreign pro- 
cess and machinery, and "Tsatlees" (silk re-reeled by the old native 
hand method^ have almost entirely disappeared, those that appear on 
the market being in the shape of re-reels which are all exported to the 
United States. The output of the filatures has improved considerably 
in quality, but Canton silk still retains the grave defect of being irregu- 



318 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



lar in thread and of containing too much "down" or "flue"' without 
being elastic enough; as a set-oft to this it is of a remarkable silky 
lustre. Of late, the silk put on the market by the small spinners which 
is known as "pacquetoille" (small lots of silk of different weights and 
kinds collected from various places and made up in a lot), tends to dis- 
appear; its quality is often very good, but the standard is very ir- 



regular. 



RAW SILK. 



The total export from Canton is now about 45,000 bales (of 106 
3-4 lbs. each) per annum, and if we take the export for 1902-3 season 
it is made up more or less as follows : First crop about 2,500 bales ; 
second crop about 7,500 bales ; third crop about 12,000 bales ; fourth 
crop about 8,000 bales ; fifth crop about 7,800 bales ; sixth crop about 
7,000 bales. A total of, say, 44,800, being 34,500 bales for Europe and 
10,300 bales for the United States. To these figures we must add local 
consumption, which is difficult to calculate, but which can be put down 
at an equal quantity. 



WASTE SILK. 

The export of waste silk is from 35,000 to 45,000 bales, and the 
figures for the 1902 and 1903 season may be divided as follows : 





ENGLAND. MARSEILLAS. 


AMERICA. 


TOTAL. 




Bales. 

17,662 

1,090 

536 

1,675 

617 


Bales. 

9,157 

60 

1,347 

78 


Bales. 
954 


Bales. 

27,773 
1,150 

536 
3,022 

695 


Punjam Books 

Gum Waste 

Cocoons (pierced) 

Various 




21,580 10,642 


954 


33,l7<i 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



319 



EXHIBITED BY THE GREEN ISLAND CEMENT CO.— 

CANTON. 

GROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

5236 Samples of Limestone. 

5237 Samples of Clay. 

5238 Samples of Limestone and Clay mixed. 

5239 Cement clinker. 

5240 Cement. 

5342 Photographs illustrating" various processes in the manu- 

facture of cement. 



EXHIBITED BY KWONG MEE HONG & CO.— CANTON. 

GROUP 89. 
PRESERVED MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

5034-5036 Preserved Rice birds. 

5037-5039 " Fish. 

5040-5042 " Frogs. 

5043-5045 " Fish, "Fa-yu." 

5046-5048 " Fish, "Ling-vu." 

5049-5054 " Bamboo shoots. 

5055-5057 " Ginger. 

5058-5060 . " Garlic. 

5062-5064 " Lichees, 

5065-5067 " Pine apples. 

5068-5070 " Carambolas. 

5071-5073 " Pears. 

5073a " Lung-ngans. 



EXHIBITED BY CHUN KAI YUEN— CANTON. 

GROUP 116. 
MINERALS AND STONES AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

5241 Antimony, Sulphide of 

5242 Antimony, metal, crude, smelted. 

5243 Asbestos. 

5244 Plumbago. 



320 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



EXHIBITED BY 
MESSRS. REUTER, BROCKELMANN & CO.— CANTON. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

63a 1 Bronze Incense burner; made during the Han Dy- 

nasty, B. C. 206 to A. D. 25. 

63b 1 Bronze Vase, made during the Chow Dynasty, B. C. 

63c 1 Bronze Incense burner, made during the Chow Dy- 

nasty, B. C. 1122 to B. C. 255. 

63d 1 Bronze Incense burner, made during the Han Dy- 

nasty, B. C. 206 to A. D. 25. 

63e 1 Bronze Urn, made during the Han Dynasty, B. C. 

206 to A. D. 25. 

63f 1 Bronze Vase, made during the Han Dynasty, B. C. 

206 to A. D. 25. 

63g 1 Bronze Incense burner, made during the Han Dy- 

nasty, B. C. 206 to A. D. 25. 

63h 1 Bronze Vase, made during the Chow Dynasty, B. C. 

1122 to B. C. 255. This vase bears an inscrip- 
tion of which the following is a translation : 
"Dedicated to His Imperial Majesty the Em- 
"peror, on the first day of the cycle. Ting Hoi 
"by Pak Wo in humble recognition of favors 
"and assistance rendered to my people. This 
"vase has to be preserved forever (10,000 years) 
"and is to be carefully looked after by our future 
"generations. 

63i 1 Bronze Vase, made during the Chow Dynasty, B. C. 

63j-64k 2 Bronze Miao-tsze Drums. 

These drums are supposed to be from 2,000 to 
3,000 years old; they were unearthed in February 
and November, 1903, respectively, in the province 
of Kwangsi, near those places which are still occu- 
pied by the independent Miao-tsze tribes. A volume 
which should prove very interesting to archolo- 
gists has been written on the subject of these 
drums by Professor Franz Heger, K. K. Regier- 
ungsrath and Director of the Anthropological-Eth- 
nographical Section of the Court Museum at 
Vienna, under the title of "Aire Metalltrommeln 
aus Sud-ost Asien." 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 321 

EXHIBITED BY O. SPANDAU— CANTON. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

631 1 Bronze Incense burner, representing a unicorn, made 

during the Han Dynasty B. C. 206 to A. D. 25. 

Bronze Miao-tsze Drum, 

Bronze Miao-tsze Drum. 

Bronze Miao-tsze Drum. This drum bears an in- 
scription on the inside, of which the following 
is a translation : 

"I, together with my friends, Li Kwan and 
"Ishang on the fifth moon of the 3rd year of the 
"Cycle Ting Tsz present (this drum) to Chow 
"Yao Cheung, and Sing Sai Kam as a token of 
"affection, trusting that they may remain young 
"for a long time to come, and that they may 
"always keep in good health. Please hand this 
"drum over to your successive generations in 
"order that they may carefully preserve it." 



63m 


1 


63n 


1 


63o 


1 



EXHIBITED BY L. ALBERT— CANTON. 

GROUP 1. 
SCULPTURE. 

64-65 • 2 Carved Tusks, on carved blackwood stands. 



EXHIBITED BY MESSRS. DEACON & CO.— CANTON. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

3130a 1 Antique Porcelain Vase, red and blue Arabesque, 25 in. 

high, made during the Ming Dynasty, A. D. 1368 
to 1628. 



EXHIBITED BY CHEONG WOO— CANTON. 

GROUP 60. 

FURS AND SKINS. 

5252-5261 10 Tiger skins. 
5262-5265 4 Panther skins. 



322 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



EXHIBITED BY WING CHEONG & CO.— CANTON. 

GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

To Dozens Pictures — water-color painting on Pith 

Paper — called ''Rice Paper." 
18 Oil painted Mother-of-pearl Shells. 
1 Set Paintings on Silk. k 





GROUP 11. 




SCULPTURE. 




Carved Ivory Ware: 


o 
O 


Elephant Tusk. 


9 


Balls. 


13 


Card Cases. 


1 


Brush. 


13 


Mirror. 


8 


Glove stretcher. 


3 


Pin Cases. 


22 


Sets Chessmen. 


14 


Shoe horns. 


53 


Napkin rings. 


1? 


Photo frames. 


18 


Paper Cutters. 


3 


Umbrella handles. 


37 


Combs. 


1 


vSet Dominoes. 


25 


Boxes. 


2 


Sets Billiard Balls. 


2 


Toilet set — each 5 pieces. 


2 


" 6 " 


192 


Wire phoenix (ornament.) 


5 


Carved Bamboo Figures. 


1 


Boat. 


1 


Incense Stick Holder. 


1 


Pencil Stand. 


1 


Cup. 


2 


" Animals. 


13 


" Rhinocerus. horn Cups. 


1 


" Tortoise-shell Fan. 



GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 
Ancient Bronze Ware: 

2 Lions. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 323 





49 


Censers. 




65 


Images. 




4 


Drums. 




6 


Pitchers. 




1 


Boat. 




6 


Cups. 




3 


sets Censers and Vases — 5 pieces each set. 




9 


Offering Cups. 




1 


Ink Well. 




42 


Ornaments. 


l 


• 


Ancient Cloisonne Ware: 




2 


Lions. 




51 


Vases. 




G 


Censers. 




12 


Pitchers. 




2 


Sets Censers and Vases. 




1 


Tea Set — 3 pieces. 




2 


Flower pots. 




10 


Sets Toilet sets — 7 and 8 pieces. 




1 


Hanging plate. 




2 


Toilet dishes. 




24 


Card Trays. 




4 


Canisters. 




4 


Bowls. 




2 


Candlesticks. 




5 


Screens carved black wood frames. 
Carved Jadestone Ornaments: 




39 


Vases. 




5 


Pitchers. 




3 


Plates. 




14 


Sets Censer and Vases. 




5 


Bowls. 




1 


Fruit. 




4 


Standing plates. 




6 


Screens. 




3 


Mountains. 




32 


Cups. 




1 


Vegetable. 




1 


Set Lambs. 




1 


Dog. 




2 


Figures. 




80 


Watch Charms. 




1 


pair Bracelets. 




1 


Pen Vase. 




9 


Ink Wells. 




2 


Horses 




12 


Boxes. 




1 


Butterfly. 



22 



3 2 4 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



2 


Figure with bird. 


1 


Pin tray. 


1 


Flower basket. 


3 


pairs Chop Sticks. 


50 


Snuft boxes. 




Ancient Porcelain Ware: 


136 


Vases. 


12 


Urns. , 


5 


Screens. 


44 


Bowls. 


15 


Cups. 


7 


Pen Vases. 


1 


Ink Well 


4 


Censers. 


2 


Pots. 


2 


Flower holders. 


14 


Plates. 


2 


Jars. 


32 


Ornaments. 


1 


Flower basket. 


46 


Figures. 


1 


Pen rack. 


3 


Boxes. 




GROUP 30. 


SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 




Silverware Articles: 


6 


Water Kettles. 


8 


Champagne Cups. 


38 


Flower Bowls. 


50 


Finger Bowls. 


3 


Tea sets — 4 pieces. 


2 


" " _8 " 


37 


« « _3 " 


2 


Large Screens. 


92 


Small 


4 


Pitchers. 


41 


Flower holders. 


22 


Candle sticks. 


6 


Bread baskets. 


1 


Set Cigar lighter and smoke articles. 


2 


Butter Dishes. 


16 


Sets Cruet Stand. 


7 


Sugar Tongs. 


22 


Mustard Pots. 


50 


Salt Cellars. 


43 


Cups. 


192 


Wire Ornaments, Phoenix. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 325 



37 


Plates. 


57 


Mugs. 


10 


Flower Pots. 


20 


Flower Vases. 


12 


Flower Plates. 


4 


Silver Tea sets. 


2 


" Tea pots. 


D 


Sets Children's Knife., fork and spoon. 


6 


" Fish fork and knife. 


7 


Doz. Fruit Knives and forks. 


8 


Cups. 


24 


Scent Bottles. 


6 


Button Hooks. 


1 


Handkerchief box. 


4 


Pin Cushions. 


4 


Mounted Ivory combs. 


38 


Umbrella handles. 


27 


Cane Knobs. 


34 


Pin holders. 


4 


Pen trays. 


1 


Large Dragon Boat. 


10 


Small 


2 


Sets Palaces. 


2 


" Temples. 


1 


" Pagoda. 


2 


" Eight articles. 


72 


Boats. 


70 


Chairs. 


2 


Sets Marriage displays. 


2 


u Court trials. 


18 


Grass hoppers. 


4 


Pagodas. 


24 


Jinrikshaws. 


2 


Sedan Chairs. 


2 


Round Banets. 


2 


Fans. 


18 


Water pipes. 


30 


Tables. 


4 


Houses. 


12 


Beds. 


68 


Pepper Boxes. 


9 


Canisters. 


36 


Napkin Rings. 


14 


Egg Cups. 


4 


Set Comb and Brush. - 


28 


Match Cases. 


4 


Ladles. 


34 


Liquor Cups. 


12 


Cups and Saucers. 


1 


Cocktail shaker. 



326 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



2 


Cigar lighters. 


24 


Safety Match Cases. 


6 


Tooth pick holders. 


15 


Hand glasses. 


18 


Photo frames. 


18 


Powder boxes. 


82 


Cigarette Cases. 


37 


Card Cases. 


14 


Purses. 


44 


Belts. 


97 


Belt buckles. 


11 


Hair pin boxes. 


5 


Match case with tray. 


4 


Glove boxes. 


12 


Ink Stands. 


4 


Blotter Holders. 


25 


Doz. Tea spoons. 


1 


. " Table " 


14 


pes. Sugar ' " 


2 


Doz. Fish Knives. 


9 


forks. 


12 


Butter Knives. 




GROUP 31. 




JEWELRY. 




Gold Ware: 


6 


Gold Lockets. 


8 


Ladies' long chains. 


28 


Rings. 


10 


Necklaces. 


48 


Watch charms. 


94 


Pins. 


53 


Bracelets. 


57 


Brooches. 


1 


Large Pearl. 


53 


pairs Sleeve Link Buttons. 




Silver Ware: 


66 


Bracelets. 


20 


Brooches. 


472 


Watch Chain Charms. 


138 


Menu Stands. 




GROUP 34. 




FANCY ARTICLES. 


1 


Lacquered Cabinet, carved 


1 


Wheel box 


o 


Travs 


16 


Boxes 


1 


Vase 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 3^7 

GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 



2 


Cabinet, Blackwood carved. 


1 


Corner stand 


a a 


21 


Flower stands " 


a ti 


2 


Tables 


" with Bronze tc 


3 


Stools 

GROUP 45. 


" Marble ' 




CERAMICS 




5 


Porcelain Tea Sets- 


—27 pieces. 


10 


< i it it 


-15 " 


3 


" Dinner " - 
GROUP 55. 


-82 " 


ND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER TH/ 




COTTON. 




79 


pieces Grass Cloth, white. 


41 


" Blue, 


8 


" Embroidered Curtains. 


5 


a a 


Bed Covers. 


13 


a n 


Table " 


65 


a a 


Centre pieces. 


223 


a a 


Tea Cloth. 


14 


doz. 


Napkins 


170 


a it a 


Plate Doylies. 


10 


ft a 


Dresses. 


36 


a it 


Blouses. 



GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 



22 


Satin Embroidered Curtains. 


18 


Bed covers. 


15 


Table " 


19 


Banets. 


60 


Cushion cover 


21 


Siik " Table 


23 


Doz. Silk Handkerchiefs. 


87 


Crape Shawls (Large.) 


30 


(Small.) 


1 


Pongee Silk Embroidered Curtain 


2 


Crape Embroidered Dresses. 


98 


Rolls Canton Silk. 


6 


" Figured. 


16 


" Gauze. 


21 


" Crape. 



328 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



12 Silk embroidered Chinese Flags. 

23 " " Children hats. 

37 Pairs " " Ladies' shoes. 

Shoulder covers. 



o 



16 Chinese ladies' skirts. 

36 " " Sleeves. 

2 " " Banets. 

3 Bed covers. 

4 Dress patterns. 
9 Sets " Chair covers. 

2 Mirror covers. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

40 Siik Embroidered folding fans, Carved Ivory 
frames. 

88 Silk Embroidered folding fans, Carved Sandal- 
wood frames. 

42 Silk Embroidered folding fans, Carved Lacquer- 
ed frames. 
846 Round Silk Embroidered fans, Lacquered frames. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




1422 


1 


1423-1424 


2 


1425-1426 


2 


142M429 


3 


1430 


1 


1431 


1 



EXHIBITED BY WAH HING LUNG— CANTON. 

GROUP 30. 

SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Silver wine jug, engraved figures. 
Silver flower pots, engraved figures. 
Silver bowls, engraved figures. 
Silver bowls, dragon pattern. . 
Silver bowl, with lion head handles. 
Silver tea set, comprising milk jug, tea pot, sugar 
basin, sugar tongs, chrysanthemum pattern. 

1432 1 Silver tea set, comprising milk jug, tea pot, sugar 

basin, sugar tongs, engraved figures. 

1433 1 Silver tea set, comprising milk jug, tea pot, sugar 

basin, sugar tongs, bamboo and cherry blossom 
pattern. 

1434 1 Silver tree, with 80 birds. 
1435-1436 2 Silver vases, flower pattern. 
1437-1438 2 Silver vases, engraved figures. 

GROUP 44. 

UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATION. 

3189 One pair lanterns, glass, painted, carved blackwood 

frames. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 329 



EXHIBITED BY TAK LOONG— CANTON. 

GROUP 45. 

CERAMICS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

2960 1 Set Porcelain Dinner Service — 152 pieces Green and 

Gold pattern, comprising: 

2960 4 Vegetable dishes. 1 Gravy dish. 

2 sets of 3 Dishes. 1 Fish 

2 Gravy bowls. 2 Sauce boats. 

3 Pickle dishes. 1 Tureen. 

1 Salad bowl. 2 Fruit dishes. 

4 Fruit stands. 1 Coffee pot. 

1 set of 5 Fruit dishes. 1 Tea 

12 Coffee cups and saucers. 1 Butter dish. 

2 Soup plates. 1 Sugar bowl. 
2 Cheese " 1 Milk jug. 

1 Coffee cups and saucers. 12 Butter plates. 

1 Tea " " " 12 Fruit 

1 set of 7 Meat dishes. 
2961-2974 14 Porcelain Punch Bowls — Green and Gold pattern. 
2975-2986 12 - " Card plates. " " " 

2987 1 set of 3 Porcelain Pickle dishes — Green and Gold pat- 

tern. 

2988 1 Porcelain Salad bowl — Green and Gold pattern. 

2989 1 set of 5 Porcelain Fruit dishes — Green and Gold pat- 

tern. 

2990 1 doz. Coffee cups and saucers — Green and Gold pattern. 
2991-2992 2 sets of 4 Soup plates— 

2993-2996 4 " Porcelain Cheese plates— " 

2997 1 of " Coffee cups and saucers — Green and 

Gold pattern. 

2898 1 " " 7 " Meat dishes— Green and Gold pattern. 

2999-3000 2 " " Fruit 

3001 1 doz. Bread and butter plates — Green and 

Gold pattern. 

3002-3005 4 ' " Vegetable dishes, square — Green and 

Gold pattern. 

3006-3009 4 " Fruit stands— Green and Gold pat- 

tern. 

3010-3011 2 doz. Tea cups and saucers — Green and Gold 

pattern. 

3012-3013 2 " Coffee cups and saucers — Green and 

Gold pattern. 

3014-3017 4 sets " Plates— Green and Gold pattern. 

3018-3019 2 pieces " Tea pots, round — Green and Gold pat- 

tern. 



330 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 










Number. 










3020-3021 


2 


sets 


Tea service, 


containing tea pot, Sugar 








Basin and milk Jug. 


3022 


1 


doz. 


Fruit plates, 
pattern. 


large — Green and Gold 


3023 


1 


set Porcelain Dinner Service 


— 1 52 pieces, comprising : 




1 


doz. Soup Plates. 


2 Sauce boats. 




1 


" Dinner " 




1 set of 3 Pickle dishes. 




1 


Cheese " 




1 Salad bowl. 




1 


Coffee cups and sau- 


4 Fruit stands. 






cers. 




1 set of 5 Fruit dishes. 




1 


Tea cups 


and saucers. 


1 doz. Coffee cups and 




1 


set of 7 Meat Dishes. 


saucers. 




1 


Gravy Dish. 




1 Coffee pot. 




1 


Fish " 




1 Tea 




1 


Tureen " 




1 Butter dish. 




2 


Sauce boats. 




1 Sugar bowl. 




1 


Fruit dish. 




1 Milk jug. 




1 


it (C 




1 doz. Butter Plates. 




4 Vegetable dishes. 


1 " Sweetmeat plates. 




2 


sets of 3 Dishes. 




3024 


1 


doz. Porcelain 


Soup plates, 


Butterfly pattern. 


3025 


1 


a u 


Dinner " 


it 


3026-3029 


4 


a a 


Cheese " 


a (i 


3030 


1 




Coffee cups , 
tern. 


and saucers, Butterfly pat- 


3031 


1 


a a 


Tea cups and saucers, Butterfly pat- 








tern. 




3032 


1 


set of 7 " 


Meat dishes. 


Butterfly pattern. 


3033-3034 


2 


Fruit 


" 


<t (< 


3035 


1 


set of 3 Pickle 


it 


a a 


3036 


1 


Salad bowl, 


a 


a tt 


3037 


1 


set of 5 Fruit dishes, 


a it 


3038 


1 


doz. Coffee cu 


3s and saucers 


, Butterfly pattern. 


3039 


1 


" Butter plates, 


it ei 


3040-3049 


10 


Porcelain Punch bowls, 


a n 



3050- 
3052- 
3056- 
3060- 

3064- 
3060- 



3051 
3055 
3059 
3063 
3065 
3067 



3068 

3069-3090 

3091-3093 

3094 

3095 



2 

4 

4 

4 

2 
o 

1 

22 
3 
2 

9, 



doz. ' Tea cups and saucers, 

Dinner plates, 
Vegetable dishes, square, Butterfly pattern. 
Fruit stands 
Tea pots, round 
sets " " services, containing Tea pot, Sugar 

Basin and Milk Jug. Butterfly pattern. 
doz. Sweet meat plates, Butterfly pattern. 
Porcelain Card plates, 

Punch bowls, " 
" Vases, figures in relief, 24 in. high. 

" ■' " " " on yellow ground, 

27 in. high. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



331 



3096 

3097 

3098 

3099 



3100 


2 


3101 


2 


3102 


2 


3103 


2 


3104 


2 


3105 


2 


3106 


2 



2 Porcelain Vases, flower pattern, on blue ground, "24 in. 

high. 

landscape, square pattern. 26 in. high. 
colored dragons; on black ground. 22 in. 
high. 

country scene, on white 24 

in. high. 

Vases, figures in relief, 18 in. high. 
" hawthorn pattern, 18 " 

landscape, on blue ground. 

light blue arabesque, 15 in. high. 

figures on red ground, 18 in. high. 

flat, figures, 18 in. high. 

painted animals, on white ground, 18 

in. high. 

3107 1 Vase, figures and dragon in relief, 24 in. 

high. 

3108 1 " " landscape pattern, 18 in. high. 

3109 1 blue figures, on white ground, 18 in. 

high. 

3110 1 colored dragons, on bronze ground, 

15 in. high. 

3111 2 Vases, green and gold, square pattern, 24 in. 

high. 

3112 1 Jar, in relief, on yellow ground, 13 

in. high. 
3113-3114 2 " Fish bowls, colored figures 16 in. in 

diameter. 
3115-3116 2 Fish bowls, blue dragon and flowers, on 

white ground, 24 in. in diameter. 
3117-3118 2 Porcelain fish bowls, craquele, blue flow r ers, 24 in. in 

diameter. 
3119-3120 2 Porcelain fish bowls, arabesque, 28 in. in diameter. 

3121 1 Umbrella stand, bamboo pattern, green and gold, 24 in. 

high. 

3122 1 Umbrella stand, old craquele, blue and brown, 34 in. 

high. 

3123 1 Umbrella stand, dragon, on white ground, old 

craquele, 24 in. high. 

3124 1 Umbrella stand, dragon and flowers, 24 in. high. 

3125 1 Placque, colored dragons, 21 in. in diameter. 

3126 1 Placque, colored flowers, 16 in. in diameter. 

3127 1 Placque, green dragons, on yellow ground. 14-| in. in 

diameter. 

3128 1 Placque, butterfly and flower pattern, 12 in. in diameter. 

3129 1 Placque, flower pattern, 18-J in in diameter. 

3130 1 Placque, flower pattern, 18 J in. in diameter. 



332 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

EXHIBITED BY KWONG CHEONG TAI— CANTON. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

110 2 Ancient Porcelain Vases, manufactured during the 

reign of Emperor Kien Lung, A. D.. 1736-95. 

111 1 Ancient Porcelain Vase, blue on white ground, man- 

ufactured during the reign of Emperor Kien 
Lung, A. D. 1736-95. 

112 1 Ancient Porcelain Vase, Blue on white ground, man- 

ufactured during the reign of Emperor Yung 
Ching, A. D. 1723-35. 

113 1 Porcelain Vase, pattern about 100 years old. 

114 1 " " Blue and Red. Manufactured during 

the reign of Emperor Yun Ching, A. D. 1723-35. 

115 1 Porcelain Vase, Pale blue. 
115a 1 " " Sang-de-boeuf. 

116 1 " " Blue and Red. 

117 1 pair Vases, Hexagonal shape. Flowers on Sang-de- 

boenf ground. 

118 1 pair Vases, Crackle. Manufactured during the reign 

of Emperor Kien Lung, A. D., 1736-95. 

119 1 pair Vases, Blue flowers on white ground. 

120 1 " " lions on white ground. 

121 1 Ancient Porcelain Bowl. Sang de boeuf, manufac- 

tured during the reign of Emperor Kang Hsi, A. 
D., 1662-1722. 

122 1 Ancient Porcelain Bowl, Blue figures on white 

ground. Manufactured during the Ta-Ming Dy- 
nasty, A. D., 1368-1628. 

123-124 2 Ancient Porcelain Bowls, Arabesque, Manufactured 
during the reign of Emperor Kien Lung, A. 
D., 1736-95. 

125-127 3 Ancient Porcelain Bowls, Blue on white ground. 

128 1 " " " white painted in various 

colors, Manufactured during the reign of Em- 
peror Tung Chih, A. D., 1862-74. 

129 1 Ancient Porcelain Bowl, Dark blue, embossed. Man- 

factured during the reign of Emperor Kien 
Lung, A. D., 1736-95. 

130 1 Ancient Porcelain Bowl, Red and gold, white me- 

dallion. 

131 1 Ancient Porcelain Bowl, Old crackle. 

132 1 " " stamp bowl, Blue dragon on white 

ground. Manufactured during the reign of Em- 
peror Wan Li, A. D., 1573-1619. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



333 



Exhibit 




Number. 




133-137 


5 


138 


1 


139 


1 


140 


1 


141 


1 


142 


1 


143 


1 


3152 


1 


3153-3155 


3 


51 


2 


52 


1 


53-56 


4 


57-58 


2 


1489-1490 


2 



1491 

1492 
1493 

1494 



1495 


1 


1496 


1 


1497 


1 


1498-1502 
1503 


5 
1 


1504 
1505 


1 

1 


1506-1507 


2 


1508 
1509 


1 
1 


1510 


1 


1511 


1 



Porcelain Plates, Blue drag-on on yellow ground. 

Plate, Colored figures on white ground. 
Manufactured during the reign of Emperor 
Tung Chih, A. D., 1862-74. 
Porcelain Plate, Painting on white ground. 

Urn, Pea-green, with blackwood stand. 

" Sang-de-boeuf. 
Pen-stand, Blue and white. 

Red dragon on white ground. 
Ancient Earthenware Vase, fish pattern. 
" " Figures. 

Bronze Lions, on carved blackwood stands. 
" Vase, " 
" Urns, " 
" Idols, " 
pairs Cloisonne Vases, Square. Various colors on 

blue ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Double diamond shape, Flow- 
ers and Birds on blue ground, with blackwood 
stands, 
pair Cloissone Vases, Flowers and Birds on blue 

ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Colored flowers on blue 
ground with gilt handles, bird shape, on black- 
wood stand, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Square, Various colors on blue 
ground, with gilt dragon handles, on blackwood 
stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Fancy pattern, on blue ground, 

with blackwood stands (22J ins. high.) 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Bamboo, Lotus and flowers on 

black ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Square, Fancy pattern and 

bats on blue ground (7f ins. high.) 
pairs Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on blue ground, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Red, white and blue dragon on 

blue ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Red and blue medallion, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on blue ground, with 

blackwood stands, 
pairs Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on blue ground, with 

gilt lion head handles, on blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Fancy colors, on blue ground, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Phoenix and flowers on blue 

ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Red and yellow dragons on 

blue ground, with blackwood stands, 
pair Cloisonne Vases, Colored flowers on green 
ground, with blackwood stands. . 



334 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1512 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Colored flowers on blue 

ground, with blackwood stands. 

1513 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Fruit in relief on blue ground, 

with blackwood stands. 

1514 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Square, flowers on back 

ground, with blackwood stands. 

1515 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Blue, with gilt dragon handles, 

on blackwood stands. 
1516-1518 3 pairs Cloisonne Vases, Fancy pattern on blue ground, 
with blackwood stands. 

1519 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Lily flowers on gilt ground, 

with blackwood. stands. 

1520 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, green dragon on red ground; 

with blackwood stands. 
1521-1523 3 pairs Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on blue ground, 

with blackwood stands. 
1524 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Red dragon, on green ground, 

with blackwood stands. 
1525-1526 2 pair Cloisonne Vases, Red dragon on blue ground, 

with blackwood stands. 
1527 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Blue flowers on pink ground. 

1528-1530 3 pairs Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on blue ground. 
1531 1 pair Cloisonne Vases, Flowers on black ground. 

1532-1533 2 Cloisonne Fish Bowls, Colored flowers on blue 

ground. 

1534 1 pair Cloisonne Water Carafes, green dragon on red 

ground. 

1535 1 pair Cloisonne Water Carafes, Red dragon on green 

ground. 

1536 1 pair Cloisonne Pitchers, Red, black and yellow drag- 

ons on blue ground, with dragon handles. 
1537-1538 2 Cloisonne Fruit Boxes, white dragon on blue ground. 
1539-1540 2 Cloisonne Fancy boxes, Flowers on blue ground on 

covers. 
1541-1542 2 Cloisonne Fancy boxes, Vase pattern on blue ground 

on covers. 
1543-1546 4 Cloisonne Urns, Fancy pattern on blue ground. 
1547-1548 2 Cloisonne Urns, Fancy pattern on blue ground, with 

elephant head handles. 
1549-1552 4 Cloissonne card plates, Flowers on blue ground. 
1553-1554 2 " " " Lotus pattern on blue ground. 

1555-1556 2 " " Chrysanthemum pattern on 

blue ground. 
1557-1558 2 " " "' Cherry blossom pattern on blue 

ground. 
1559-1560 2 " " " Bat and flower pattern on blue 

ground. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



335 



Exhibit 








Number. 








85 


1 


pair 


Bamboo Hangings, dragon pattern. 


86 


1 




" Crystal Vase. 


87 


1 




Penstand. 


' 88 


1 




" Water pot. 


89 


1 




" Jadestone Elephant. 


90 


1 




Bowl, on carved blackwood 
stand. 

GROUP 34. 
FANCY ARTICLES. 



1930 1 Red lacquered Cabinet, engraved. 

3 930a 10 Carved. Blackwood Photo frames. 



2603-2604 

2609-2615 
2616-2619 

2620-2630 



2631- 

2642- 
2645- 
2651- 
2653- 
2655- 
2675- 
2682- 



2641 
2644 
2650 
2652 
2654 
2674 
2681 
2683 



GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

6 Carved blackwood Cabinets, inlaid with mother-of- 

pearl. 

7 Carved blackwood Cabinets. 

4 Tables, cloisonne tops, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 
11 Tables, marble tops, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 
Tables, marble tops. 



2684-2687 

2688-2691 
2692-2699 



2700-2703 

2704-2707 

2708-2709 

2710 

2711-2712 

2713-2714 



Tea tables, with trays. 

Chess " marble squares. 

Desks. 

Stools, marble seats. 

Easy chairs. 

marble seats and backs, 
inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl. 

Chairs, embroidered backs, inlaid 

with mother-of-pearl. 

Chairs, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, 
porcelain backs, marble 
seats, inlaid with mother- 
of-pearl. 

Teapoys, marble tops, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 

Arm chairs, dragon designs. 

Settees. 

Sofa. 

Cupboards, triangular shape. 

Pagodas, 5 stories, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 



336 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 

Number. 

2715 1 Blackwood Couch, marble surface back decorated with 

mother-of-pearl. 

2716-2721 1 Blackwood and marble table, 1 Blackwood spittoon, 
2 Blackwood stools, 2 Rattan Pillows, 2 Rattan 
Cushions, for above couch. 

2722-2781 60 pairs Carved Blackwood stands with cloisonne, por- 
celain and marble tops. 

2782-2797 8 pairs Carved Blackwood Stools, tub shape, with mar- 
ble seats, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 

GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

2510 1 Carved black wood table Screen, Red lacquer center. 

2511 1 " " " " Porcelain 
2512-2514 3 " " '■' Screens, " 

figures in relief. 
2515-2516 2 "" " " " cloissone 

2584 1 screen (5 leaves) embroidered Satin 

panels. 

2585 1 " " screen (4 leaves) embroidered Satin 

panels and inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl. 
2586-2588 3 " " . Screens (4 leaves) embroidered 

Satin panels. 
2589 1 " " Screen (5 leaves) embroidered 

Satin panels. 
2590-2591 2 ■ " Screens, Satin embroidered panels. 

2592 1 " " Screen, (8 leaves) cloissone panels, 

inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 
2593-2594 2 " " Table Screens, cloissone panels, in- 

laid with mother-of-pearl. 
2595-2596 2 " " Fire Screens (4 leaves) porcelain 

panels, inlaid with niother-of pearl. 
2597-2598 2 Large Mirrors in Carved blackwood frames and stands, 

inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 
2599-2602 4 Dinner Gongs, on carved blackwood stands. 

GROUP 127. 

ETHNOLOGY. 

5334 Set of 14 Wooden Figures. These figures represents a 

theatrical scene called 'The Fairy Rewards 
with a Son." They consist of a fairy with the 
babe in her arms, six sister fairies, a "Chuang 
Yuan" (the holder of the highest literary de- 
gree in the Empire), two title-board bearers, 
one canopy-bearer, one fan-bearer and two gong 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 33' 



Exhibit 

Number. 

beaters. This scene often precedes a Chinese 
play. The fairy and child, attendants, and fan- 
bearer come on the stage and meet the Chuang 
Yuan returning from the examination, to whom 
the fairy presents the child as his heaven sent 
reward. The "Chuang Yuan" is preceded by 
the title-board and canopy bearers, and two 
gong beaters. 

5335 Figure of the "Goddess of Mercy." 

5336 Figure of an idol "Lo Pu." 

5337 Figure of an idol "King of Hades." 

5338 Figure of an idol "Kuei Sing." 

"God of Literature." During the triennial 
examinations held at the Capitol (Peking) the 
following play is represented : Four men come 
on the stage and write essays. "Kuei Sing'* 
points at the head of one with a red pencil and 
makes him the "Chuang Yuan," the first scholar 
of his year in the Empire. He also points at 
two others, designates them as second and third 
scholars. The fourth man gets no degree. 
"Kuei Sing" is represented with a book in his 
hand on which is written four characters, mean- 
ing "Heaven Decides Literary Success." 



EXHIBITED BY CAPTAIN THOMAS— CANTON. 

GROUP 96. 

USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 
5155 Collection of Butterflies. 



EXHIBITED BY F. W. CAREY— CANTON. 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

147a Series of 68 photographs, illustrating the costumes and 

customs of the natives of Southwest Yunnan and 
the Shan States. 



33S 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



EXHIBITED BY WASSIAMULL, ASSOMULL— CANTON, 



Exhibit 
Number. 
34-50 



GROUP 9. 
PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 



92 


1 


93-100 


9 


102-105 


4 


2183 


2 


106-109 


4 



11 pairs Paintings in oil on shells, on blackwood stands. 



GROUP 11. 

SCULPTURE. 

Carved Ivory Tusk, on silver stand. 
Concentrical balls, 
sets Billard balls. 

" Ornaments, concentrical balls in center. 

" Chessmen. 



GROUP 28. 

STATIONERY. 

558-569 12 Mother-of- Pearl Penholders. 

570-581 12 Silver Penholders. 

570-581 12 Mother-of-pearl Penholders. 

545-557 13 Ivory Paper knives, carved handles. 

GROUP 30. 

SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Silver Fish Knife and fork. 

" Tea set (9 pieces), dragon designs. 
(4 pieces), " 
pairs Silver Flower vases, various designs. 

" Candle sticks, " 
sets " Cruet stands, 
Silver Bowls, Dragon pattern. 

" " open work. 

Bowl, " Bamboo and cherry pattern. 

Chrysanthemum pattern, open work. 
Punch Bowl, Dragon pattern. 
Prize Cups, " " and fish 

pattern 
" Bamboo pattern. 
" Dragon 
Cigar Ash Trays. 

Card cases, Dragon and flower pattern. 
Plates, Flower pattern, open work. 
" Chrysanthemum pattern. 



673 


1 


821 


1 


822 


1 


823-831 


9 


832-834 


3 


835-840 


6 


841-844 


4 


845-848 


4 


849 


1 


850 


1 


851 


1 


852-853 


9 


854-855 


2 


856-858 


3 


859-860 


2 


861-878 


18 


879-880 


2 


881-882 


2 


883-884 


2 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



339 



Exhibit 








Number. 








885 


1 


(t 


Milk Jug, Fancy pattern. 


886-888 


3 




Mugs, Dragon and figure pattern. 


889-892 


4 


" 


Flower boats. 


893-898 


6 


" 


Guard Boats. 


899-900 


2 


" 


Dragon Boats. 


901 


1 


<< 


Ornament, Representing Chinese Court Scene. 


902 


1 


<< 


Marriage Procession 


903 


1 


" 


Funeral 


904-905 


2 




Ornaments, Inland Native cos- 
tumes. 


906-910 


5 


" 


Mandarin chairs. 


911-918 


8 




Sofas. 


919 


1 




Necklace, Fancy pattern. 


920-921 


2 


pairs 


Silver Official fans. 


922-923 


2 


tt 


canopy. 


924 


1 


Silver Water Kettle, Dragon pattern. 


925-926 


2 


Sets silver Ancient weapons. 


927-928 


2 


Silver Rest Houses. 


929-931 


3 




Fishermen. 


932-937 


6 




Junks. 


938-943 


6 




Sampans. 


944-949 


6 


" 


Lamps. 


950-955 


6 




Cane Tops. 


956-957 


12 


"' 


Chinese Chairs. 


968-977 


10 




Mountain Chairs. 


978-987 


10 




Chairs. 


988-989 


2 




Long Chairs. 


990-995 


6 




Jin Rickshaws. 


996-999 


4 




Screens. 


1000-1003 


14 


" 


Salt Cellars. 


1014-1015 


2 




Flowers in pots, with stands. 


1016-1019 


4 




Pagodas. 


1020-1023 


4 


" 


Pepper boxes, Vase pattern. 


1024-1032 


9 


it 


Pouches. 


1033-1038 


6 


" 


Match Boxes. 


1039-1044 


6 


" 


Snuff 


1045-1046 


2 


" 


Pin 


1047-1048 


6 


" 


Puff 


1053 


1 


" 


Tea Set (4 pieces), Figures in relief. 


1054 


1 


pair 


Silver wine cups, Dragon pattern. 


1055-1063 


9 


Silver Cigarette Cases, Dragon and bamboo pattern. 


1064-1065 


2 


(( 


Cigar 


1066-1094 


29 


.'»- 


Lady's buckles, various patterns. 


1095-1099 


5 


" 


Mustard pots. 


1100-1103 


4 


Menu card stands, Dragon and Butterfly pattern. 


1103a 


1 


pair 


Silver Model of Fish Hawker. 


1103b 


1 


a 


Hawker of Poultry. 


1103c 


1 


" 


Itinerant Barber. 



23 



340 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 




: 


Number. 






1103d 


1 


Silver Jewel box. 


1103e 


2 


" Cocktail shakers. 


1104-1117 


24 


" Serviette Rings. 


1128-1139 


12 


" Thimbles. 


1140-1175 


3 


doz. pairs Silver Sleeve links. 


1176-1195 


20 


Silver Brooches. 


1196-1207 


12 


" Hat pins. 


1208-1307 


100 


Watch charms. 


1308-1309 


2 


Silver Plates. 


1310-1315 


6 


" Egg cups and Spoons. 


1316 


6 


" Lady's waist belts. 


1322-1323 


2 


Elephants. 


1324-1325 


4 


Silver Toothpick stands, with blackwood stands. 


1326-1343 


18 


Umbrella handles. 


1344-1359 


16 


Silver watch chains. 


1360-1385 


26 


pairs Silver bracelets. 


1386-1421 


36 


Silver Teaspoons. 


1469-1480 


12 


Enamelled Silver Chains. 


1481-1488 


8 


Enamelled Silver Ornaments, Representing Pagoda 
and Joss house, chairs and wedding chairs. 



1648 


2 


1649-1652 


4 


1653-1666 


4 


1657 


1 


1649-1652 


4 


1653-1666 


4 


1657 


1 


1658 


1 


1659 


1 


1660 


1 


1661 


4 


1665-1676 


12 


1677 


1 


1678 


1 


1679-1683 


5 


1684 


1 


1.685-1696 


6 


1691-1696 


6 


1768-1803 


36 



GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 

Jadestone Bangles. 

" set in gold. 
Brooches " " 
set of 5 Jadestone Coat buttons. 
Jadestone Bangles, set in gold. 

" Brooches, " 

set of 5 Jadestone Coat buttons, 
pair Jadestone Ear-rings, 
string Jadestone necklace, 
string Jadestone Court beads, 
pairs Jadestone Sleeve Links, set in gold. 
12 Jadestone Watch charms, set in gold. 
" chain, " " 
" Bracelet, 
Scarf pins, 
Hair " •' " 

Silver chains, with Jadestone ornaments. 
36 pairs Mother-of-pearl Sleeve links. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 341 

GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

1957-1958 2 pairs Carved Ivorv and bone Flower baskets. 

1959-1961 3 " " " " " " " Vases. 

1962-1965 4 " " " " " Card baskets. 

1966-1977 1 doz. " Fan stands, various patterns. 

1978-1995 18 Carved Ivory Photo frames. 

1996 1 " " Cabinet. 

1997-2002 7 " " Handkerchief boxes. 

2003-2010 8 " " Puff boxes. 

2011-2013 3 " " Jewel boxes. 

2014-2031 18 " " Shoe horns. 

2032-2051 20 " " Combs. 

2052-2057 6 Carved Ivory Glove stretchers. 

2058-2093 3 doz. Carved Ivory Serviette Rings. 

Hand Mirrors. 

Toilet and Clothes brush backs. 

Umbrella handles and stems. 



2094-2097 4 " 

2098-2104 7 

2105-2106 2 

2107-2130 2 doz 

2131-2132 2 

2133-2134 2 

2135-2141 7 



Cigarette holders. 
Cribbage boards. 
Card markers. 



cases. 

2142-2143 2 Dressing Cases, with complete ladies' toilet requi- 
sites in carved ivory. 

2144-2156 13 Carved Ivory Jewel boxes. 

2157-2161 5 " " Glove " 

2162 2 Mother-of-pearl Shells, silver dragons in relief, on 

silver and carved blackwood stands. 

2163-2178 16 Mother-of-pearl plates on silver stand. 

2179 2 Mother-of-pearl fruit stands, on silver and black- 

wood stands. 

2180-2182 3 Mother-of-pearl ash trays, on silver tripods. 

1 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

3304-3325 17 pieces (each 20 yds. x 34 in) Grasscloth tor dresses ; 
white, cream and light blue. 

GROUP 57. 

SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

3419-3434 16 pieces (each 20 vds. x 25 in.) Silk Crepe for dresses. 
3435-3438 4 " " " " " " " Pongee " 

3439-3450 12 " " 15 " " 

Figured, striped and Plain. 
3451-3460 10 " " 20 yds. x 25 in.), Plain Silk for dresses. 



342 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



GROUP 58. 

LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

3659-3665 7 Embroidered Satin Bed covers. 

3666-3670 5 " Grasscloth Bed covers. • 

3671-3676 6 " Satin Table 

3677-3700 24 " Grasscloth Table cloths. 

3701 1 " Silk 

3702-3706 5 " Grasscloth Tea cloths. 

3707-3756 50 Old Silk Embroideries. 

3757-3758 2 " " lady's robes. 

3759 1 " " Embroiderv — official robe. 

3760-3762 3 " Satin Embroideries— " 

3763-3772 10 " Silk " Jackets. 

3773-3802 30 " " " skirts. 

3803-3804 2 Embroidered Satin Portieres. 

3805-3808 4 " " Mantel pieces. 

3809-3821 13 " " " borders. 

3822-3837 16 " Cushion covers. 

3838-3877 40 " Silk 

3878-3880 3 pairs Embroidered Satin curtains. 

3881-3882 2 " " Grasscloth curtains. 

3883 1 Embroidered Satin curtain. 

3884 1 " Grasscloth curtain. 
3884-3895 12 " Silk crepe shawls. 
3896-3907 12 " Grasscloth Blouses. 

3908-3914 7 pieces Embroidered Grasscloth for Dresses, (each 

10 yds. x 34 in.). 

3915-3924 12 doz. " Serviettes. 

3925-3944 18 Silk " Chinese Flags. 



GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

4560-4619 5 doz. Grasscloth Neckties, for evening dress. 
4674-4691 18 Walking Sticks, blackwood, horn and bamboo, with 

silver knobs. 
4867-4923 57 Fans, Silk and Gauze embroidered, with carved 

ivory, sandalwood, bone and tortoise shell 

frames and handles. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 343 



EXHIBITED BY VOCHON— CANTON. 

GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 14 Albums, water color on pith paper, representing: 

19 Tea culture. 

20 Silk spinning-. 

21 Flowers. 

22 Fruits. 

23 Landscape. 

24 Military Officials. 

25 Civil Officials. 

26 Gambling. 

27 Birthday congratulation. 

28 Historical Scenes. 

29 Life of wealthy lady. 

30 Officials. 

32 Marriage Ceremonies. 

GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

59 Ancient bronze Incense Burner. 

60 Ancient bronze Incense Burner, manufactured in 

Thibet, A. D. 1300. 

GROUP 36. 
TOYS. 

3156-3169 14 Earthenware toy figures. 

GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

2579 Carved blackwood screen (4 leaves), satin embroidered 

panels, flower and bird patterns. 
2580-2585 4 Carved blackwood table screens — satin embroidered 

panels. 

. GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

3461-3470 10 nieces Ribbed silk for dresses; various colors (20 yds. 

x 27 in.) 
3471-3490 20 nieces Silk crape for dresses; various colors (20 yds. 

x 27 in.) 



344 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

GROUP 58. 

LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

3268-3269 2 dozen Grasscloth Serviette, embroidered. 

3292-3303 12 pieces " for dresses, embroidered (20 yds. 

x 33 in.) 
4122-4230 9 pieces Grasscloth Table cloths, embroidered, flowers 

and dragons. 
4131-4142 12 Silk Table Cloths, embroidered various designs. 
4143-4200 58 Grasscloth Tea cloths, embroidered, various designs. 
4201-4212 24 " Tray cloths, 

4225-4320 96 " Table Centres, 

4321 1 Satin Embroidered Portiere, flowers and birds de- 

signs. 

4322 1 pair Satin Embroidered Curtains, flowers and birds 

designs. 

4323 1 Satin Embroidered Lambrequin, flowers and birds 

designs. 

4324-4327 4 Satin Embroidered Table covers, flowers and birds 
designs. 

4328-4363 48 Satin Embroidered Chair Cushions, flowers and birds 
designs. 

4364-4370 7 Satin Embroidered. Bed covers, flowers and birds 
designs. 

4371-4374 4 Grasscloth Bed covers, embroidered flowers and 
dragons. 

4375-4378 4 Sets of 3 Satin Embroidered panels. for fire screens. 

4379-4392 14 Satin Embroidered panels for fire screens. 

4393-4418 26 dozen Grasscloth Doyleys, embroidered, various de- 
signs. 

4419-4426 8 dozen Grasscloth Serviettes, embroidered dragon. 

4427-4428 2 Ribbed Silk Dresses, embroidered with imitation 
gold and silver thread (10x24.) 

4429-4432 4 Ribbed Silk Dresses, embroidered (10x34.) 

4433-4438 6 Silk Crape Dresses, embroidered, flowers (10x34.) 

4439-4453 15 Grasscloth Dresses, embroidered, various colors, and 
designs (10x34.) 

4454-4457 4 Ribbed Silk Blouses, embroidered with imitation gold 
and silver thread. 

4458-4469 12 Ribbed Silk Blouses, one -various colors and em- 
broidered designs. 

4470-4475 6 Silk Crape Blouses, embroidered flowers. 

4476-4505 30 Grasscloth 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



345 



EXHIBITED BY CHUN KWAN KEE— CANTON. 



Exhibit 
Number. 
66-68 

69-80 
81-84 



GROUP 11. 
SCULPTURE. 

3 Carved Ivory Tusks, on carved blackwood stands. 
12 " " concentrical Balls. 

4 sets Carved Ivory Chessmen. 



63 



GROUP 14. 
ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

2 Bronze Vases, figures in relief. 



GROUP 28. 
STATIONERY. 

535-544 10 Carved Ivory Paper Knives. 

GROUP 34. 
FANCY ARTICLES. 



668-672 


5 


pairs Ivory chopsticks. 


2184-2231 


48 


Carved Ivory Photo frames. 


2232-2241 


10 




Sandalwood Photo frames. 


2242-2251 


27 




Blackwood 


2269-2270 


4 




Brackets. 


2271-2272 


2 




Ivory Jewel Boxes. 


2273-2274 


2 




Sandalwood Jewel Boxes. 


2275-2282 


8 




Ivory Puff Boxes. 


2283-2287 


5 




Sandalwood Puff boxes. 


2288-2292 


5 




Sandalwood boxes. 


2293-2296 


4 




Ivory Handkerchief boxes, at $25 each. 


2297-2301 


5 




Sandalwood Jewel boxes. 


2302-2305 


4 


Lacqu 


ered Handkerchief boxes, painted in gold. 


2306-2309 


4 


11 


Cigar boxes, painted in gold. 


2310 


1 


" 


Partition Sweetmeat box, painted in gold 


2311-2315 


5 


Carved Sandalwood glove boxes. 


2316-2317 


2 


n 


Ivory pin boxes. 


2318-2323 


6 




Ivory Card boxes. 


2324-2347 


24 




Ivory Serviette Rings. 


2348-2367 


20 




Ivory Combs. 


2368-2372 


6 




Ivory glove stretchers. 


2374 


1 




Ivory Boat. 


2375-2376 


2 




Ivory Baskets. 



346 



Catalogue of the Canton Collection 



Exhibit 




Number. 




2377-2378 


2 


3379-2388 


10 


2389-2392 


4 


2393-2396 


4 


2397-2400 


4 


2401-2406 


6 


2407-2409 


3 


2410 


1 


2411-2420 


10 


2421-2424 


4 


2425 


1 


2426-2427 


2 


2428 


1 


5323 


1 


3142-3151 


10 



Carved Ivory Card trays. 
" " Shoe Horns. 

" Pen stands. 
" Hair brush backs. 

Toilet brush backs, with handles 
" Hand mirrors. 
Sandalwood Cribbage boards. 
Lacquered chessboard, painted in gold, inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. 
Sandalwood miniature Coffins. 
Lacquered Tea caddies, painted in gold. 
Set of 4 Lacquered Tea trays, painted in gold. 
Sets of 4 Lacquered Teapoys, painted in gold. 
Set of 5 Lacquered Teapoys, painted in gold. 
Ivory opium Pipe. 
Monkeys, Earthenware. 



2812-2816 



GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

5 pairs carved blackwood flower stands, with marble 
tops. 



GROUP 44. 
UPHOLSTERER'S DECORATIONS. 

2798-2801 4 Carved blackwood screens (4 leaves), satin embroidered 

panels, flower pattern. 
2802-2811 10 Carved blackwood firegrate screens, satin embroidered 

panels, flower pattern. 
3595-3598 4 Satin pictures, embroidered with imitation gold thread, 

blackwood frames. 



GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

Ivory walking sticks. 

Tortoise shell walking stick, with silver top. 

Carved sandalwood walking sticks. 

Carved ivory fans. 

Satin fans, carved ivory frame. 

Silk gauze fans, carved ivory frame. 

Silk gauze fans, carved sandalwood frames. 



4667-4668 


2 


4669 


1 


4670-4673 


4 


4824-4825 


2 


4826-4828 


3 


4829-4837 


9 


4838 


25 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 347 

EXHIBITED BY TAK SHANG— CANTON. 

GROUP 9. 
PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

33 1 pair Mother-of-pearl shells, painted in gold. 

GROUP 11. 
SCULPTURE. 

91 1 pair Carved mother-of-pearl shells. 

GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Silver Menu card stands. Dragon pattern. 

" Buckles. 

" Waist bands for ladies. 

" Tea sets. 

" Tray. 

" Purl boxes. 

" Umbrella handles. 

Pepper stands, gourd and pogoda shape. 
Cruet stands, wheelbarrow and Lotus patterns. 

" Wine cups. 

" Serviette rings. Assorted. 
Coffee pot. 

" Teapot and spirit lamp. 

" Mugs. 

" Pagodas, on black and wood stands. 
Silver Pin trays. 

" Cocktail shaker. 

" Water pipe. 
Set Silver Ancient weapons. 
Set silver ancient weapons. 
Silver Cigarette cases. 

" Spoons. 

" Guard boats. 

" Dragon boats. 

" Slipper boat. 

" and Mother-of-pearl Fruit stands. 

GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

1949 Dressing case, blackwood. Containing ladies' toilet 

requisite : 2 hair brushes, ivory backs ; 1 hand 
mirror, ivory ; 2 clothes brushes, ivory backs ; 1 
puff box, ivory ; 1 comb, ivory ; 1 shoe horn, ivory ; 
1 glove stretcher, ivory. 



Exhibit 




Numb< 


2r. 




690- 


693 


4 


694- 


702 


9 


703- 


705 


3 


706- 


8 


3 


709 




1 


710- 


11 


2 


712- 


717 


6 


718- 


725 


18 


736- 


738 






739- 


740 


24 


741- 


758 


18 


759 




1 


760 




1 


761- 


763 






764- 


765 


2 


766- 


767 


2 


768 




1 


769 




1 


770 




1 


771 




1 


772- 


776 


5 


777- 


812 


36 


813- 


815 


3 


816- 


817 


2 


818 




1 


819- 


820 


2 



348 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1950-1951 2 Ivory photo frames. 

1952-1953 2 Blackwood photo frames. 

1954-1956 3 Sandalwood photo frames. 

5339-5340 2 Cash swords — used as charms to ward ofr" evil influ- 
ences. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

4863-4866 4 Silk fans, carved ivory frames. 



EXHIBITED BY ON LOONG— CANTON. 

GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

1931-1933 3 Sets of 5 Lacquered teapoys (tables), painted in gold. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

4391-4392 2 dozens Silk handkerchiefs. 

GROUP 58. 

LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

Silk crape shawls, embroidered flowers. 
Satin tea cosys, 
dozen Silk handerchiefs, " 
pairs Satin curtains, 
pairs Silk crape curtains, " 
Satin bed covers, 

Satin bed cover, dragon and flowers. 

Satin table cloths, flowers. 

Satin table cloth, " and dragons. 

Embroidered satin panels for screens, flower pattern. 
24 Embroidered satin chair covers, flower pattern. 

pairs Embroidered satin cushion covers, flower pat- 
tern. 



3599-3605 


7 


3606-3607 


2 


3608 


1 


3609-3611 


3 


3612-3613 


2 


3614-3615 


2 


3616 


1 


3617-3621 


5 


3622 


1 


3623-3629 


7 


3630-3653 


24 


3654-3658 


5 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 349 



EXHIBITED BY HAU CHEONG TAI— CANTON. 

GROUP 14. 

ORIGINAL OBJECTS OF ART WORKMANSHIP. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

61 Ancient bronze Urn. 

62 Ancient bronze Vase. 

GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 

3250-3255 6 pieces White Grasscloth for dresses (20 yds. by 34 

inches.) 
3256-3261 6 pieces Pale blue Grasscloth for dresses (20 yds. 

by 34 inches.) 
3262-3267 6 pieces Plain Grasscloth for dresses (20 yds. by 34 

inches.) 

GROUP 58. 
LACES, EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMINGS. 

3945-3949 5 Satin bed covers, embroidered flowers and birds. 

3950-3955 6 Grass cloth bed covers, embroidered flowers and 
dragons. 

3956-3967 12 Satin panels for screens, embroidered flowers, birds 
and fish. 

3968 1 pair Satin curtains, embroidered flowers and birds. 

3969-3975 7 pairs Satin cushion covers, embroidered flowers, 
birds and fish. 

3976 1 Satin mantel border, embroidered flowers and birds. 

3971-3984 • 8 Silk embroidered American flags. 

3985-3986 2 White silk crape shawls, embroidered flowers. 

3987-3988 2 White silk crape dresses, embroidered flowers (20 
yards by 20 inches.) 

3989-4002 14 Grasscloth dresses, various colors (10 yds. by 34 
ins.) embroidered flowers and dragons. 

4003-4017 15 dozens Grasscloth doyleys, various colors, embroid- 
ered various patterns. 

4018-4023 6 White Grasscloth cake doyleys, embroidered flow- 
ers and dragons. 

4024-4033 10 pairs White Grasscloth pillow covers, embroidered 
flowers and dragons. 

4034-4038. 5 dozens White Grasscloth serviettes, embroidered 
flowers and dragons. 

4039-4048 10 White Grasscloth tea cloths, embroidered flowers 
and dragons. 



350 Catalogue of the Canton Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 
4049-4060 12 Grass cloth tea cloths, various colors, embroidered 

dragons. 
4061-4064 4 White Grasscloth tray cloths, embroidered flowers. 
4065-4069 5 Blue Grasscloth dress borders, embroidered white 

flowers. 
4070-4096 27 White Grasscloth table cloths, embroidered white 

flowers and dragons. 
4097-4120 24 Grass cloth table centers, embroidered white flowers 

and dragons. 



EXHIBITED BY WAH CHEONG— CANTON. 

GROUP 34. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

1934 1 Lacquered jewel box, painted in gold. 

1935-1940 6 Lacquered cigar boxes " 

1941-1945 5 Lacquered tea caddies, 

1946-1948 3 pairs Carved blackwood brackets; bamboo pattern. 

GROUP 38. 

OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

2520-2523 4 Carved blackwood Cabinets ; flower pattern. 

2524-2530 7 " " Tables with marble tops, various 

shape. 

2531 1 Lacquered Table, painted in gold, round shape. 

2532 1 Carved blackwood Desk, dragon pattern. 
2533-2534 2 " " Chairs, dragon pattern. 
2535-2538 4 " " Chairs, bamboo pattern. 

2539 1 " Arm chair, dragon pattern, round 

2540 1 " Rocking chair, dragon pattern. 
2541-2564 24 " " Stools, marble seats. 
2565-2574 20 " " Flower stands, with marble tops. 
2575-2578 4 " " Garden seats, with marble tops. 



EXHIBITED BY YAU SHIN HING— CANTON. 

GROUP 38. 
OFFICE AND HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 

2517 Carved blackwood screen (10 leaves), satin embroid- 

ered panels and decorated with porcelain. 

2518 Carved blackwood screen, satin embroidered panel 

decorated with ivory figures and inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl. 

2519 Carved blackwood table screen with marble panel, 

carved figures. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 351 



EXHIBITED BY CHAN A. FOOK, 

GROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. • 

Ores and Minerals from the Po Hing Mine, Sam Cha Shan, 
Kwang Si Province. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Galena. 

2 

3 

4 

5 Galena, Copper Pyrites and Zinc. 

6 " " " " " 

fv a u a a tt 

8 Arsenical Silver Ore. 

9 « . « 

10 Native Copper. 

11 Argentiferous Silicate Ore. 
12 

13 

14 

15 Complex Ore. 

16 

17 Carbonate of Zinc. 

18 '" " " 

19 Phosphate of Lead. 

20 Auriferous Iron Ore. 



EXHIBITED BY YUT SHING— CANTON. 

GROUP 61. 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

4791-4795 5 Lacquered fans, painted in gold. 

4796-4800 5 Carved sandalwood fans. 

4801-4803 3 Tortoise shell fans. 

4804-4805 2 Ivory fans. 

4806-4811 6 Ivory and feather fans. 

4812 1 Tortoise shell and feather fan. 

4813-4814 2 Feather and ivory fans. 

4815-4816 2 Ivory and silk fans. 

4817 1 Silk and ivory fan, bone ribs. 

4818-4821 4 Silk gauze fans, painted, with ivory and bone 

handles. 

4822-4823 2 Silk gauze fans, painted, with sandalwood frames. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

KIUNGCHOW COLLECTION. 



GROUP 9. 

PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Collection of water color paintings on Silk Scrolls. 

GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

2 Chart of Kiungchow Harbor, situated on the North Coast 

of the Island of Hainan. 

GROUP 30 

SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

Enameling of silver is an old industry in this port. The design 
to be enameled is marked out by thin silver strips cemented on the sur- 
face of the article. Vitreous material of various colors is then melted 
into the spaces formed by the strips. 



6 


12 


Salt cellars. 




7 


12 


Pepper bottles. 




8 


6 


it (C 




9 


6 


Mustard pots. 




10 


12 


Liquor glasses. 




11 


2 


Trays for Liqueur glasses. 




12 


12 


Egg cups. 




13 


12 


" spoons. 




14 


4 Sweet boxes. 




34 


10 


Brooches, silver articles inlaid with 

GROUP 34. 
FANCY ARTICLES. 


Kingfisher feathers, 


Cocoanut- 


ware: 





The shell of the Cocoanut which grows so plentifully in the Island 
of Hainan, after being freed from the outside fibre and inside pulp is 



352 — 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 



353 



made into various articles for domestic or ornamental purposes. Some 
of these articles are lined with silver or pewter. 



Exhibit 










NTumber. 
15 


12 Tea cups, 


Silver lined. 


16 


1 Sugar stand, 


<< 


a 


17 


2 Trinkets, 


tt 


a 


18 


2 Milk jugs, 


a 


a 


19 


1 Sugar stand, 


a 


it 


20 


2 Tea pots. 






21 


3 Trinkets. 






22 


1 Tea pot, 




pewter lined 


23 


1 Wine pot, 






t a 


24 


1 Tea can, 






t it 


25 


1 Official bead box 




t. tt 


26 


10 Wine cups, 






i a 


27 


1 Wine pot, 






t tt 


28 


1 Tea can 






t a 


29 


1 Sugar cup, 






1 it 


30 


2 Sugar cups, 






1 n 


31 


2 Flower vases, 






i a 


32 


12 Finger bowls, 






1 a 



GROUP 55. 
ARTICLES FOR TRAVELING AND FOR CAMPING. 

65 1 Leather Trunk Decorated. Wooden trunks covered 

with gilt pig skin. 

66 1 Leather Trunk Plain. Made in wood covered with pig 

skin. 



GROUP 55. 

THREADS AND FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRES OTHER THAN 

COTTON. 



58 

59 

60 
61 
62 

63 



64 

67 



Grass Cloth Fine. (6 qualities). This is made of pine ap- 
ple fibre. 

Grass Cloth Coarse. (2 qualities.) 

Hemp and Cotton Cloth. (4 qualities.) 

Hemp Cloth. (3 qualities.) 

Rush Sacking. (3 qualities), used generally for making 
bags for rice and sugar. 

Coir. The fibre of the palm tree, dried and carded they 
are used to make ropes, mats, rain coats, brooms, 
brushes, etc. 

Hemp. Used for making cordage and cloth. 

Coir Rope. 



354 Catalogue of the Kiungchow Collection 

GROUP 57. 

Exhibit SILK AND FABRICS OF SILK. 

Number. 

57 3 pieces — each 18 yards — Silk. Made from the wild silk 

cocoon; spun by hand and woven by hand looms. 
76 Specimens of Wild Raw Silk. 

GROUP 72. 

CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHTS' WORK. 

35 Model of Wheelbarrow. These wheelbarrows are gen- 

erally used for conveying sugar from the interior 
to the Coast, one man can transport 500 lbs., on a 
barrow 25 miles in a day. Also used to carry pas- 
sengers one on each side of wheel. 

GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

Models of : 

1 Sea-Going Junk. Length over all 108 feet, breadth 28 

feet, depth 10 feet, carrying capacity 300 tons. The 
cost of a full sized junk with fittings complete is 
Mex. $10,000. 

2 Sewn Boat. Length 28 feet, breadth 8 feet 6 inches, 

depth 5 feet, carrying capacity 4 tons. Carrying 
fruit and vegetables from the country. These boats 
are as a rule, the property of small farmers and 
when not in use they are taken apart by undoing the 
lacing, the parts being stored, until the boat is 
again required. The cost of a boat complete is 
about Mex. $60.00. 

3 River Boat. Length, over all 52 feet, breadth 9 feet 6 

inches, depth 2 feet 6 inches, carrying capacity 14 
tons.' The cost of a full sized boat with fittings, 
complete is Mex. $3,000. 

4 Cargo Boat. Length 42 feet 8 inches, breadth 11 feet, 

depth 3 feet 9 inches, carrying capacity 10 tons. 
Cargo carried : — General merchandise to and from 
steamers in harbor. The cost of a full sized boat 
with fittings complete is Mex. $400.00. 

GROUP 78. 
AGRICULTURE. 

84 Model of a Water Wheel. Used in farming for raising 

water from a running stream or a pond to irrigate 
fields. It is made entirely of bamboo and wood, 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 355 

Exhibit 

Number. 

no metal being employed. It is supported by a 
framework of bamboo poles placed close to the 
bank on to which the water is to be raised. When 
this is taken from a stream the wheel is driven by 
the pressure of the water against flat pieces of 
wood attached to the periphery to which are also, 
fastened bamboo tubes. These tubes fill with the 
water as they pass through it and as the revolution 
of the wheel carries them to the top they discharge 
into a trough from which the irrigating canals 
radiate. In places where the water is stationary 
the wheel is turned by men treading on it. Wheels 
of this kind are sometimes over 30 feet in diameter. 



GROUP 81. 
TOBACCO. 

72 Specimens of tobacco leaf. 

GROUP 90. 
SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY. 

68 Specimen of Brown Sugar — 2 qualities. 

69 " " White 

GROUP 95. 
INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

70 Pine Apple Fibre, for the manufacture of a kind of 

"Grasscloth." 
74 Cow Glue — used medicinally and in manufactures. 

77 Animal Tallow — for making candles. 

78 Betel Nut Husk — used medicinally. 

79 Betel Nuts. The nuts of the Areca palm ; powdered and 

prepared with sapanwood and lime and wrapped 
in the leaf of the betel pepper. Is chewed as a 
tonic by the middle and lower classes. 

80 Sesamum Seed, from which oil is expressed; the residue 

in the shape of cakes being used for fodder and 
manure. 

81 Camphor, manufactured by distilling the leaves of a 

species of Blumea' bahamifera, a tree grown only 
on the Island of Hainan. The analysis gives : 
Carbon, 77.56; Hydrogen, 11.60; Oxygen, 10.84— 
100.00. Used medicinally to scent and sweeten 
other drugs. 

2 24 



356 



Catalogue of the Kiungchow Collection 



83 



Exhibit 

Number. 

82 Galangal. The galangal of the China trade — Radix 

Galangae minoris — is the dried root of a species of 
Alpinia. Similar to "mild ginger." Used in medi- 
cine, cooking and brewing. 
Fragrant Wood. The decayed and resinous portions of 
a tree of the Agallochum species ; used in the man- 
ufacture of beads, bangles and rings ; reduced to 
powder is mixed with clay and made into incense 
sticks. 

GROUP 96. 

USEFUL INSECTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

71 Yellow Wax. 

75 Honey. 

GROUP 122. 
FISHING EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS. 

Model of: 

5 Fishing Raft. Length 29 feet 6 inches, breadth 5 feet 

2 inches. These rafts are used for net fishing and 
are constructed with bamboos, lashed together with 
rattans. The fishing net which is suspended from 
4 bamboos measures about 17 feet square and is 
made of hemp twine. 
73 Silk Fish Lines — Silk spun from cocoons boiled in vine- 

gar. 

GROUP 128. 
ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Articles used by Aborigines, called by the Chinese "Li." 

Bridal handkerchiefs. 

Suits Female skirts and coats. 

Female skirts. 

Female coats. 

Male girdles, worn by men. 

Female girdles, worn by women, made of cotton cloth 

and embroidered in fancy colors. 
Carrying bag. 
Female Pouches. 
Male Pouch. 
Male bone hair pins. 
Female bone hair pins, these hair pins are made of 

deer horn, carved and ornamented with silk tassels 

and glass beads. 
Pair female ear-rings. 
Pair Chop sticks and cases. 



36 


3 


37 


2 


38 


6 


39 


2 


40 


3 


41 


3 


42 


1 


43 


2 


44 


1 


45 


3 


46 


5 


47 


1 


48 


2 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 357 



Brass bound pipe, used by women. 

Pipe used by men. 

Wooden comb, worn by men. 

Axes. 

Sets weaving apparatus. 

Knife and case. 

Bows with arrows. The bow is made of hardwood, the 

string of the bow is made of sinew covered with 

hemp fibre. The arrows are made with bamboo 

with iron points. 
56 2 Cross-bows. Made of hardwood with bow strings of 

sinew covered by hemp fibre. 



Exhibit 




Number. 




49 


1 


50 


1 


51 


1 


52 


2 


53 


2 


54 


1 


55 


3 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

PAKHOI COLLECTION. 



GROUP 18. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

1 Plan of Pakhoi Harbor. 



GROUP 45. 
CERAMICS. 



Glazed Terra Cotta : 



Incense Burners, dark red, brown and mottled. 
Urns, dark brown. 
Teapots, gray, dark brown and red. 
Plate, dark brown. 
Vases, " " 
" red. 
" mottled red and brown. 
" light gray, red and brown. 
This industry was established in Chin Chow, Province of Kuang- 
tung, about 60 years ago, and is in the hands of only a few families. 
These articles are made in two 'shades of terra cotta, the glazed surface 
being produced by rubbing with wax, and polishing with pumice stone 
and wood. 



2-5 


4 


6-7 


2 


8-11 


4 


1.2 


1 


13-17 


5 


18-20 


3 


21-23 


3 


24-26 


3 



358- 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 



LUNGCHOW EXHIBITS 



GROUP 16. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

1 Ail album of seven photographs of Lungchow: 1 and 

2, an Arbor, called the Lo Shou Ting, (Pleasure 
longevity Arbour) built about 50 years ; 3, An 
old bridge, Ching Lung Chiao, (Green Dragon 
bridge) built some 500 years ago; 4, a temple 
called the Ta Wang Miao (Great King temple). 
Goddess of Mercy sits in the middle of six other 
gods, over her is another god with sixteen 
arms ; 5, View of a part of Lungchow harbor ; 
6, Tower, called the San Pao Ta (Three Precious 
tower), built about 100 years ago; 7, Temple 
called the Chin Fu Po Miao (Old Suppressing 
Waves temple), built 200 years ago in honor of 
General Ma Yuan, who suppressed the rebel- 
lion; he is called the Suppressing Waves 
(rebels) General. Important festivals are held 
here every year. 



GROUP IS. 

MAPS AND APPARATUS FOR GEOGRAPHY, COSMOGRAPHY, 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

2 Map of Lungchow (Kwangsi). This town was opened 

to trade on the 1st of June, 1899. Its population 
is estimated at about 20,000. 



GROUP 19. 
INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, ETC. 

1 Sundial. 

— 359 — 



360 Catalogue of the Lungchow Exhibits 



GROUP 31. 

JEWELRY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

4 Five silver head ornaments. 

5 One silver woman foot ring*. 

6 One silver child foot ring. 

7 One silver bracelet. 

8 One silver necklace. 

9 One silver-copper-iron bracelet. 

GROUP 59. 

INDUSTRIES PRODUCING WEARING APPAREL FOR MEN, 
WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

10 One costume of Kwangsi country woman. This 

costume is composed of three pieces : a shirt, a 
bodice and a collar. 

11 One costume of rich Kwangsi country woman. This 

costume is composed of seven pieces : a shirt, 
a bodice, two leggings, one necktie, one belt and 
one head band. 

GROUP 60. 

LEATHER, BOOTS AND SHOES, FURS AND SKINS, FUR 

CLOTHING. 

12 One pair Kwangsi lady's shoes. 

GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

13 One bottle of Aniseed oil. 

14 One branch of Aniseed tree, with leaves, fruits and 

flowers, 

15 One bottle containing Aniseed stars. 

There are two kinds of Aniseed oil: The Tso-Chiang (Lung- 
chow)- oil and the Yu-chiang (Pose) oil. The Lungchow oil is 
much the best, being pure and colorless, while the Pose oil is 
of an inferior reddish quality, which makes it unacceptable to the 
foreign market. 

There are three principal producing fields lying astride of the 
frontier and extending to a distance of ten to fifteen miles on each 
side, some 90 lis (about 30 miles) from Lungchow ; the Shang-chia, 
the Chung-Chia and the Hsia Chia. There are also some planta- 
tions at Ping Hsiang and at Ning-ming-chow, but they are not 
as good as at the above mentioned places. 

The trees are essentially wild and do not take kindly to culti- 
vation. The soil for planting must be cool, hard and muddy. 
The way of planting the trees is as follows : A small branch is 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 301 

cut from an old tree and stuck into the ground; a hollow piece of 
bamboo is fixed up at the side of the plant and through it water is 
poured down every day, so as to water the roots of the small plant 
without wetting the newly formed branches. As soon as the plant 
is one foot high (in about a year's time) the bamboo can be taken 
off and the plant will grow by itself. The trees grow on hill sides 
where the sloping ground prevents water from standing around 
the roots, yet retains enough moisture as the rain runs down from 
the higher ground above. The trees are very liable to injury from 
smoke and as the common habit in clearing the fields is to burn 
the grass and debris, the neighborhood of villages is avoided in 
selecting a place to plant, and the dry grass beneath the trees is 
cut and carried off yearly, to prevent the spread of accidental fires. 
Young trees bear seed suitable for commercial purposes after ten 
years, and trees a hundred years old still bear. The yield of the 
same tree varies yearly and trees that produce every year are rare. 

There are generally two crops in one year; the "big" crop 
and the "season" crop. For the first one the trees blossom in Octo- 
ber, the stars appear within two months, and can be gathered 
and distilled in August, of the following year; for the second or 
"Season" crop, the flowers appear in May and the Stars gathered 
and distilled toward the end 01 the year, this crop, however, is not 
more than one-tenth of the former. 

The production of each tree is about 160 pounds of Aniseed 
star, the quality varying according to the soil. The color of the 
stars is green and yellow. Some having eight angles and others 
nine and ten. 

The oil is extracted from fresh and dried Aniseed by distil- 
lation. Steam passes through a wooden cylinder, placed over the 
boiler, into an earthenware jar, where it is condensed by cold water 
placed in a pan on top. The condensed mixture of water and oil 
flows through a pipe into a tin-lined box of two compartments, 
in the partition between which is a hole near the top. The oil 
floating on the top of the water is drawn off through this hole 
into the other compartment. The process takes at least 24 hours. 
One hundred pounds of fresh Aniseed will yield %\ lbs. of oil ; dried 
for a fortnight, it will yield a little over 3 lbs. 

The best oil is worth from, gold, 70 to $90 per 100 lbs. It is 
packed in tins of 40 to 44 lbs. weight for exportation to Hongkong. 

Some years ago native distillers mixed kerosene oil with their 
Aniseed oil, in proportions which attained as much as 30 per cent. 
In order to put a stop to this ill-practice, the Lungchow merchants 
imported the necessary apparatus for testing the oil. A guarantee 
comity was established by the high authorities of the district, to 
regulate the production, distillation and sale of the oil in this 
region. 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

MENGTSZ EXHIBITS 





GROUP 29. 




CUTLERY. 


Exhibit 
Number. 

1 

2 


Side Arms of all Kinds. 

2 Skull openers. 

2 Swords in one scabbard, worn by muleteers accompany- 


3 

4 


ing caravans. 
1 Sword. 
1 Sword. 



GROUP 30. 
SILVERSMITH'S AND GOLDSMITH'S WARE. 

5 7 Copper boxes inlaid with silver. 

6 5 Silver boxes with copper coating inlaid with silver. 

GROUP 31. 
JEWELRY. 

7 A collection of silver jewelry as worn by Chinese and 

Lolo women. 

GROUP 33. 

PRODUCTIONS IN MARBLE, BRONZE, CAST IRON AND 
WROUGHT IRON. 

Collection of Bronzes: 

8 2 Incense Burners. 

9 2 Candlesticks. 

10 1 Ornamental piece, Goddess of Mercy, Kwang Yin. 

11 1 Ornamental piece, Buffalo and Buddha. 

12 1 Ornamental group, Kwangti, God of War, with 

two attendants. 

13 1 Ornamental piece, Bronze demon Incense Burner. 

14 1 Brass Incense Burner. 

—362— 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 363 

GROUP 43. 
CARPETS, TAPESTRIES AND FABRICS FOR UPHOLSTERY. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

15 3 Felt carpets of varied designs. 

GROUP 51. 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 

16 Loom used by the Miaotze women for weaving cloths. 

The Miaotze women are expert weavers. All 
the cloth required for domestic use is woven 
in the household and any surplus is sold in the 
market. On account of its solidity and dura- 
bility the Miaotze native cloth is much appreci- 
ated. 

GROUP 57. 
SILK AND FABRICS OF SILKS. 

17 2 Pieces of silk, multicolored. Silks thus dyed are 

mostly used for covering quilts. 

GROUP 61. 
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH CLOTHING. 

18 Sunshade. A bamboo frame covered with oil paper 

resting on a bamboo handle. This sunshade is 

used by Lolo women when working in the 
fields. 

19 Umbrella or Sunshade. "Made of bamboo, covered 

with oil paper, resting on a short bamboo 
handle. The border of the bamboo frame is sur- 
rounded by a curtain, often embroidered and 
decorated with silver ornaments, which com- 
pletely hides the face. This kind of umbrella 
or sunshade is a specialty of Mengtsz. 

GROUP 72. 
CARRIAGES AND WHEELWRIGHT'S WORK. 

20 Model of a Yunnan cart and buffalo. These carts are 

solidly built, the wheels being usually of two 
or four solid pieces of wood with no spokes. 
The rails are moveable. 



364 Catalogue of the Mengtsz Exhibits 

GROUP 73. 

SADDLERY AND HARNESS. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

21 Complete outfit for a pack mule, viz. : Saddle, pack- 

frame and cargo, saddle cloth, halter, bridle, 
crupper, crupper-pad, embroidered, traces, nose- 
bag, muzzle, head rosette, 2 bells, bell-rope, 4 
dyed ornamental Yak-tails, felt cloth for pro- 
tection of cargo against rain. 



GROUP 75. 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE MERCANTILE 

MARINE. 

30 Model of Red River Junk. [Tonkin and Yunnan.] 

The boats used by the native merchants in their trade on the 
Red River in its upper stages are divided by them into three 
classes: 1st. Tach'uan, or "large size boat;" 2nd. Chung 
Ch'uan, "middle, size boat/' and 3rd Hsiao ch'uan, "small size boat," 
according to the number of packages (of an average weight of 80 
lbs.), they can hold. The large boats usually carry about 120 pack- 
ages, the medium size boats, which are seldom met with, about 
90 packages, the small craft may be sub-divided into two kinds : 
The "large spoon boat," with a carrying capacity of 40 packages 
and the small spoon boat with one of eighteen packages. In sum- 
mer, during the high water season, these figures vary slightly as 
some additional cargo may then be carried ; in a large boat some 10 
to 20 packages and in the kind, known as "large spoon boat," some 
five packages more are shipped. 

Whereas the small and medium size boats ply exclusively be- 
tween Manhao and Hokow, the small craft very often being 
restricted to the stage between the first named place and Yuang 
Chiang, the larger craft is very often employed on trips as far down 
as Yenbay and Hanoi in Tonkin ; in summer the cargo is usually 
transhipped in Laokay on the Yunnan frontier. 

The three kinds of boats are of the same type, the difference 
being only in the dimensions. The model exhibited is, although 
not exactly built to scale, a fairly well proportioned (scale about 
Y% inch to 1 foot) and accurate copy of one of the large boats with 
a complete outfit of deck fittings, sailing and rowing gear, etc. The 
principal dimensions of such class of boats follow here with an 
enumeration of the necessary fittings and gear. 

Length. 72 to 80 feet 

Beam 9 to 12 " 

Depth 3*4 to 4 " 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 365 



Bottom of junk 5 planks 

Sides of junk 3 

Deck beams 8 pieces 

Timber frames 52 to 60 pieces 

Stem cut water 1 piece 

Stern post 1 

Length of forward deck .... 18 feet 

Length of after deck 11 

Cross beams (for making f 

fast tow rope when track- < 2 pieces 

ing up stream [ 

Bollards (for rowing) 5 " 

Oars ,4 [' 

Steering sweep 1 piece 

Skipe poles 7 pieces 

Bamboo tow rope A few coils 

Sailing sheers } ( 

(mast) .... ( , f I 52 to 55 feet 
Lower yard . . f lltaCle 0t ) 27 to 29 " 
Upper yard .J 1 29 to 32 " 

Square sail (very light na- f 13 x 9 yards 

tive sheeting used) .... \224 yards canvas 

Sheer head block 1 wood 

Halyards 1 bamboo rope 

Sheer, fore stay 1 

Sheer, up and down, Guyus. . 2 ropes 

Sheer stays 6 

Bamboo mats for covering 

in junk amidships 5 pieces 

Bamboo pumps 2 '' 

Water shoots for pumps .... 2 " 

The cargo is stored amidships and covered by palm leaf and 
bamboo mats. Besides a few packages of light cargo, such as tea, 
are very often stowed under the forward deck. The crew find ac- 
commodation on the after deck, which is likewise covered in by 
mats; here is also found the galley, very primitively built of a few r 
bricks. 

The price of these boats, built of a kind of teak, vary accord- 
ing to size and workmanship. For a large boat the approximate 
cost is from gold $120 to $190, according to the quality of timber 
used. To this is to be added the cost of fittings, gear, etc., esti- 
mated at about, gold $45. For a medium size boat the cost of the 
hulk is about gold, $70 ; the small craft can be built for gold, $15 
to $40, outfit included. 

For navigating, the crew of the larger vessels usually consist 
of 8 men, including the ,c tou kao" and the "ch'uan wei," the latter 
serving as pilot. A medium-size boat is usually manned with 4 



366 Catalogue of the Mengtsz Exhibits 

or 5 sailors, whereas the "equipage" of the small size vessels con- 
sist generally of 2 or 3 men. 

GROUP 95- 

INEDIBLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

Medicinal Plants. The Poppy. 

Opium is cultivated over one-third of the area of the province 
of Yunnan — about 35,000 English square miles — in open plains 
watered by streams. The plant is raised in six months, from Sep- 
tember to February, on small farms of mixed culture, mainly owned 
by Chinese and worked by aborigines. The annual yield is esti- 
mated at 54,000 piculs. Raw opium is made up and sold in four 
varieties : 

Opium cakes are wrapped up in paper and bamboo leaves. 

The average customs value in 1902 was, U. S. gold $190 per 
picul for raw opium. (One picul equals 133 1-3 lbs.) The export 
of opium to Tonkin in 1902 amounted to 1,032 piculs, or 137,600 
lbs. When the flowers have fallen, incisions are made in the cap- 
sules, generally in the evening, and the juice that exudes is gath- 
ered in the morning;. 

It is allowed to dry in the sun or is fired and the opium is then 
ready for boiling. 

Opium, ready prepared, is sold in the shops but most of the 
smokers prefer to prepare the raw material themselves. 

Exhibit 
Number. 

22 4 Samples of raw opium. 

(a) Ma Shih tu or Ping Tzu tu. 

(b) Feng Tzu tu or Pao Tzu tu. 

(c) Ko Tzu tu. 

(d) Keui Tzu tu. 

23 Knife for making incisions in poppy. 

24 Knife for collecting the exudation from the poppy. 

GROUP 11C. 
MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

25 Three marble slabs from Tali-fu.. The marble from 

the quarries in the neighborhood of Tali-fu is 
often very curiously marked, the veins form- 
ing all sorts of designs; the more pronounced 
the latter, the more valuable the slab. 

These slabs are used for various ornamental 
purposes, table tops, chair backs or framed as 
wall decorations. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 367 

GROUP 119. 
METALLURGY. 

26 2 Ingots of Tin. 

GROUP 127. 
ETHNOLOGY. 

27 Two flea traps. (Specialty of Yunnan, from the 

capital of the province.) 

These flea traps are worn under the cloth- 
ing; the fleas attracted by the glue are caught 
on the "tanglefoot." 

GROUP 128. 
ETHNOGRAPHY. 

28 Complete costume of a Miaotze woman. 

(a) Headgear. 

(b) Waistband. 

(c) Petticoat. 

(d) Outer coat. 

(e) Two aprons, front and back. 

(f) Shirt. 

(g) Foot bandages. (Puttees.) 
(h) Shoes and stockings. 

Bag-pipe of the Miaotze tribe. 
29a Complete costume of a Lung Miao woman. 

(a) Jacket. 

(b) Petticoat. 

(c) Head bandage. 

(d) Head ornaments and flowers. 

(e) Necklaces.. 

(f) Bracelets. 

(g) Ear rings and rings, 
(h) Shoes. 

Note. — Three necklaces are worn and the or- 
naments cover the body. 
29b Part costume of a Pula woman. 

(a) Apron (upper and lower). 

(b) Jacket. 

(c) Sash. 

(d) Bracelets and rings. 
29b Charms. 

29c Bludgeon, carried by the Miao and Lung Miao 

Muleteers. 

The Miaotze and Lung Miao are aborginal 
tribes of the Yunnan and Kueichow provinces. 



•?f) 



CATALOGUE 

—OF THE— 

SZEMAO COLLECTION 



(SOUTHWESTERN YUNNAN.) 



GROUP 19. 



INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 

ETC.— COINS AND MEDALS. 

Exhibit 

Number. 

73 Collection of 6 kinds of silver used as currency in the 

S. W. districts of Yunnan, viz.: Shih Yin (1), 
Lao tsao Yin (2), Talang Yin (3), Yuan chiang 
Yin (4), Mengsa Yin (5), Kopien Yin (6). 

GROUP 54. 
THREADS AND FABRICS OF COTTON. 

27 Cotton with seeds, from the "Liu Shan," near Szemao. 

28-29 Cotton raw from the Chinese Shan States. 

30 " " " Haut-Laos. 

31 " the British Shan States, 1st quality. 

32 " " ■" " " " ". 2nd " 

33 Cotton yarn, hand made, from Szemao. 

Cotton is not grown in large quantity in the 
Shan States and the bulk of this commodity, 
which is in good demand in Yunnan, where the 
mass population wears only cotton clothing, is 
imported principally from the British Shan 
States and from Laos. 

34 1 piece Cotton cloth, large size, made at Szemao. 

35 1 " " " medium size, 

36 1 " " " small size, 

37 1 " " " fine, 

38 1 " " large size, made and dyed at 

Szemao. 

39 1 " " medium size, made and dyed at 

Szemao. 

40 1 " " fancy, made at Szemao. 

41 1 " bands for bandaging women's feet ; made 

at Szemao. 

42 Cotton cloth (so-lo-pu) from Chinese and British Shan 

states. 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 369 

Exhibit 
Number. 

43-44 Cotton cloth, fancy, from Chinese and British Shan 

states. 

45 Cotton cloth, striped for Shui Pa-i women dress, Brit- 

ish Shan States. 

46 Cotton cloth, fancy, for Han Pa-i women dress, British 

Shan states. 

GROUP 84. 
VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS— AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

49 Dried specimen of "Pn-Erh." tea shrubs ; one year and 

two years old. 

50 Tea flowers, dried. 

51 Tea seeds. 

Pu-Erh Tea Commercial Kinds: 

52 Tea, loose 1st quality, or Shen-ya, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills 

53 Tea, loose, 2nd quality, or Shu-ya, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

54 Tea, loose, 3rd quality, Chien-tzu, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

55 Tea, loose, 4th quality, or So-pien, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

56 Tea, loose, 5th quality, or Ti-cha, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

57 Tea, loose, 6th quality, or Kao-ping, from the T-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

58 Tea, in cakes, blended, Shan-t'ung cha, from the I-wu 

and I-bang tea hills. 

59 Tea, in cakes, blended, Chu-t'ung-cha, from Menglieh 

hills. 

60 Tea, in cakes, blended, Hsiao-yuan-cha, from Menglieh 

hills. 

61 Tea, loose, 1st quality, or So-pien, from the plateaux 

West of Mekong. 

62 Tea, loose, 2nd quality, or Ti cha, from the plateaux 

West of Mekong. 

63 Tea, loose, 3rd quality, or Huang yeh, from the plat- 

eaux West of Mekong. 

64 Tea, in tablets, blended, 1st quality, or Hsiao-fang 

t'ung cha, prepared at Szemao from tea leaves 
from the S. W. plateaux. 

65 Tea, in tablets, blended, 2nd quality Ta fang t'ung cha. 

Prepared at Szemao from tea leaves from the S. 
W. plateaux. 



370 Catalogue of the Szemao Collection 

Exhibit 
Number. 

66 Tea, in cakes, blended, 1st quality, or Yuan t'ing cha, 

prepared at Szemao from tea leaves from the S. 
W. plateaux. 

67 Tea, in cakes, blended, 2nd quality, or Yuan t'ing cha, 

prepared at Szemao from tea leaves from the S. 
W. plateaux. 

68 Tea, in cakes, blended, 3rd quality, or Chung cha or 

Ku tsung cha, prepared at Szemao from tea 
leaves from the S. W. plateaux. 

69 Tea, in cakes, blended, good quality; Meng hai ching 

t'uan. 

70 Tea, in fancy cakes for offerings, Joss tea. 

71 Tea, extract, large cakes, prepared in the Szemao Pre- 

fects Yamen for the Court. 

72 Tea extract, small cakes, prepared in the Szemao Pre- 

fects Yamen for the Court. 

The "Pu-Erh tea" which is renowned all over 
China, comes from the I-bang and I-wu dis- 
tricts south of Szemao and from the Meng-hai, 
Meng-wang and other plateaux S. W. of Szemao 
on the other side of the Mekong. The planta- 
tions are extending yearly; at present the annual 
•production is estimated at some 40,000 to 50,000 
piculs. The I-bang and I-wu tea is locally 
pressed into cakes and leaves mostly directly for 
Yunnansen and Mengtsz from where it finds its 
way to all the provinces. The tea from the 
Southwestern plateaux, for the greatest part 
comes to Szemao in the loose state, where it is 
blended and pressed into cakes of various forms, 
to be forwarded later on to the provincial capi- 
tal, Tali, Mengtsz and other markets. The 
inferior blend called "Ku tsung" tea mostly finds 
its way to Thibet by Ateng-tse carried by large 
Thibetan caravans that come during the winter 
months to purchase it at Szemao. "Pu-Erh" 
tea is exported also to Tonking and Hongkong 
by the way of Mengtsz, to Laos by the way of 
I-wu, and also to Siam and Burma. 

"Pu-Erh" tea has a peculiar flavor of its own, 
but, so far, has not satisfied the foreign taste. 

&ROUP 116. 

MINERALS AND STONES, AND THEIR UTILIZATION. 

47 Rock salt from the Mohei mines and refined salt. 

Rock salt is extracted in the small plain of 
Mohei, some 4,500 feet above sea level and salt 



to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 371 



Exhibit 
Number. 

water from the "Shih-kao ch'ing" wells in the 
"Ning-Erh" prefecture. 
47a Copper ore from the "Wang Pao Chang" Mines. 

GROUP 128. 

ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Lay Figures Showing Costumes of: — 

L Pu-mang woman, weaving: Trans-Mekong trihes. 

2 Shui Pa-i man ; Tai race, Shan tribes ; Chinese, French 

and British Shan states. (Complete traveling 
dress showing tattoo marks.) 

3 Shui Pa-i woman ; Tai race, Shan tribes ; Chinese, 

French and British Shan states. (Complete 
dress, carrying Xew Year's game-plaving 
balls.) 

4 Han Pa-i woman ; Shan tribes, districts west and N. 

W. of Szemao. 

5 Ta Lo-hei woman ; Lohei tribes, trans-Mekong 

districts. 

6 Han Lo-hei woman ; Lo-hei tribes, trans-Mekong 

districts. 

7 Wo-ni woman ; Wo-ni tribes, Talang district. Met in 

southwest Yunnan in scattered settlements 
from the Red River to the Mekong. 

8 Ma-he girl, water carrier; Talang-and Szemao districts. 

9 Ma-he woman ; Talang and Szemao districts. The 

married woman dress has in addition a plated 
kind of apron, but worn behind. The hair is 
divided in two tresses when the woman be- 
comes mother. 

10 She-teh woman: district of Talang. 

11 Pu-tu woman : Talang and Szemao districts. 

12 Ping-t'ou A'Ka woman ; Trans-Mekong district. 

13 Lo-lo girl; (ordinary costume.) Lo-lo tribes, mount- 

ains near Szemao. 

14 Lo-lo young woman ; (full costume embroidered.) 

Lo-lo tribes, mountains near Szemao. 

15 Hua-Yao Pa-i woman; (full dress, silk.) Yuen Chiang 

districts. 

T4 Costume of wild Kawa woman : (with bamboo neck- 

lace, ankle and waist bamboo bands.) Districts 
West of Mekong near Burma frontier. 

K; Model of Shan house. 1 :50, as built by the Shans in- 

habiting the plains. The Shans houses are 
well raised from the ground, constructed on 
wooden pillars, are completed with bamboo 



372 Catalogue of the Szemao Collection 



Exhibit 

Number. 

frames and covered with wild grass. The 
ground floor is used as a stable and for storing 
agricultural instruments. The first floor is oc- 
cupied by the family, partitions made of split 
bamboo and of mats divide the different parts 
of the house. 

17 Shan Manuscript Books. The Shans have a written 

language which is allied to the Siamese and 
Burmese, but no printing is carried on by them 

18 Pens for writing on paper, made of a kind of swamp 

grass. 

19 Palm Leaf Booklets. Specially used in temples as 

books of prayers. Sticks, pieces or splits of 
bamboo, on which the writing is done by a style, 
are used as passports, etc. 

20 Shan style for writing on palm leaves or on bamboo. 

21 Shan flageolets. 

22 Lo-lo Ancestral Tablet. The name of the deceased is 

written on the middle tablet of the upper set. 
•23 Sheng. Drone pipes used by the Lo-hei, theA-ka, the 

Shan-tan. 

24 Small loom for making tape. Used by various tribes. 

The end of the warp is attached to the belt and 
by placing the piece of bamboo on which it is 
rolled between the toes and stretching the leg 
the warp is kept tight and ready for the intro- 
duction of the weft. 

25 Pangolin Skin. A specialty of the Shan states ; its 

scales are supposed to have some medicinal 
properties and are much used in the making of 
back scratchers. 

26 Lo-lo Manuscript Books. The Lo-lo have a special 

written ideographic language of their own 
which comprises some 3,000 characters. The 
various tribes of Lo-lo are scattered over three- 
quarters of theYunnan province. 



W 53 



HI-MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 



No. 1. 




, 2.- 




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, 8. 


> 


, 9. 


v > 


, 10. 


> 


, 11. 


> 


, 12, 


i 


, 13, 


, 


, 14, 




, 15, 


' 


, 16. 




, 17, 


, 


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, 23, 


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The Tariff Tables: First Issue Published 

-Ten Years Statistics 

-Vienna Exhibition Catalogue 

-Philadelphia Exhibition Catalogue 

Paris Exhibition, 1878, Catalogue 

-List of Chinese Lighthouses, etc.: Thirty -second Issue 

(First Issue, 1872) 

-List of Chinese Lighthouses, etc. : Chinese Version of 

the Thirty-first Issue (First Issue, 1877) 

-General Tariff List 

-Berlin Fishery Exhibition Catalogue 

-Names of Places on the China Coast and the Yangtze 

River : Second Issue 

-London Fisheries Exhibition Catalogue 

-Rules regarding Notarial Acts to be performed by 

Commissioners of Customs, and Forms of Protest: 

Second Issue (First Issue, 1882 : Circular No. 187) 

-London Health Exhibition Catalogue 

-New Orleans Exposition Catalogue 

-English-Chinese Glossary of Technical (" Lights," etc.) 

Expressions : First Issue 

-Catalogue of Customs Publications, with Prices : 

First Issue ' 

List of Chinese Medicines 

The Tariff Tables, 1885: Second Issue 

-Treaties, Regulations, etc., between Korea and other 

Po w ers, 1 876-89 

-Typhoon Anchorages 

-Chart of Amoy Inner Harbour 

- Woosung Inner Bar 

-Chinese Lighthouse Chart 

-Paris Exhibition, 1900, Catalogue 

-Regulations: General and Local, Customs, Harbour, 

etc., 1859-99 

-Hanoi Exhib i tion Catalogue 

-Alphabetical Index of Imperial Post Offices 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition Catalogue 



1868. 
1873. 
i873- 
1876. 
1878. 

1904. 

1903. 
1879. 
1880. 

1904. 
1883. 



1883. 
1884. 
1884. 

1885. 

1887. 
1889. 



1891. 

1893. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1900. 

1901. 
1903. 
1904. 
1904. 



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